Define & Describe The constructivist theory or constructivism simply put is to say that we learn by doing or by application. New knowledge is built or constructed as we move through cognitive stages. Learners adapt to and assimilate new knowledge As they receive new information and experience new things they accommodate them into their lives and use them to increase their knowledge and understand their environment. Learners use their understanding to make decisions and analyze problems.
Define & Describe (con’t) Zone of proximal development – “the difference between what learners can do with help and what they can do without help Collaborative learning – Group Activities (learning from others) Scaffolding and Anchored Instruction- Building and constructing off of what we already know and what we learn. Progressive Education – focuses on educating the child physically, mentally, and socially…not just facts & info.
Constructivist Theorists Jean Piaget (1896-1980) –Psychologist Jerome Bruner (1915 - ) – Psychologist & Educator Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) – Educational Psychologist John Dewey (1859-1952) – Educational Psychologist, Philosopher, and Political activist.
Jean Piaget (1896- 1980) Developed Cognitive Learning Theory Influenced Constructivist Movement Defined (4) Cognitive Development Stages Sensorimotor (birth – 2 yrs.) - senses /motor actions Preoperational (Ages 2-7) - symbols & images Concrete Operational (Ages 7-11) - logical thinking Formal Operational (Ages 11-16) - hypothesizing/ cause & effect Chief consultant at conferences addressing relationship of cognitive studies & curriculum development 1979 Balzan Prize Recipient for Social & Political Sciences
Jean Piaget (1896- 1980) Piaget was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland. He had an interest in biology and zoology at an early age and had published articles on mollusks by the age of 15. He was educated at the University of Neuchatel & the University of Zunich and also nurtured an interest in psychoanalysis. After graduating, Piaget moved to Paris, France and taught at a school for boys where he began his study on the education of children and in 1921, just before returning to Switzerland; he proposed his theory on cognitive developmental stages. In 1923, Piaget married Valentine Chatenay with whom he fathered (3) children and studied them from infancy. From 1929-1968, Piaget served as Director of the International Bureau of Education.
Classroom Implications What does the TEACHER do? Observe & survey students to determine comprehension level Translate materials to be learned to a format appropriate for individual learners’ comprehension Encourage student exploration and discovery of concepts Create opportunities for discussion Facilitate and provide curriculum resource pages Create activities that are practical for life application Incorporate new technology (i.e., online learning games / activities) Provide anchored instruction Educate the whole child (physically, mentally, & emotionally
Classroom Implications (con’t) What does the STUDENT do? Actively participate: collaborate and negotiate with others Utilize critical-thinking skills Scaffolding: Build on what is known to create new knowledge base Adapt to, assimilate, & accommodate new information Use new information to make decisions & solve problems Relate learning activities to real-life scenarios Use various multimedia and perform multiple activities while investigating one topic Explore new technology via hands on applications
What Do I Think Constructivism In I think it is true that For every lesson plantoday’s digital students objective, there will be learn better by being opportunity foractively engaged in the hands on application learning process and exploration At least (1) group I think I will support project related tocollaborative learning each lesson plan I think I will Use of Interactive incorporate computer games technology-based and class wikis learning
What Do I Think (con’t) A touch of In Behavorism Positive feedback on I think there are some class work andmore traditional theories coupon rewards for that still work honor roll & most improved students A touch of Get Attention Cognitivism Inform Recall Incorporate Gagne’s I think providing some Present “Nine Events of structure in the learning Guidance Instruction” in process gives younger Performance presenting lessonstudents a foundation for Feedback plans independent learning Assess Retention