Early Indian Film History• First cinema show was on July 7, 1896 in Bombay• Early films were British and American imports• In early 1930’s, Indian production companies grew and were mainly centered in Bombay• Musical and dance numbers were popular in India films, reflecting the importance of dance in Hindu culture.
Early India Film History• Dhundiraj Govind (Dadasaheb) Phalke (1870– 1944) is known as the father of Indian Cinema. His films depicted Hindu Gods and promoted Indian independence from Britain.• Swadeshi (indigenous) movement sought independence through boycott of British goods. – This led to rapid growth A scene from Raja Harishchandra (1913), the most influential film in of Indian film industry early Indian Cinema
Indian Film After Independence• India gained independence from Britain in 1947. Jawaharlal Nehru was India’s first Prime Minister.• Movies from 1947 – 1950’s reflected Nehru’s optimism in nation building and socialist based economy.• Movies tended to blend musicals with social commentary. Jawaharlal Nehru
Indian Film Industry Today• India is a large heterogeneous country of many languages. Because of this, film production is fragmented into regional industries: – Tamil film industry. Based in Chennia, it is second in popularity to Hindi films. Popular in many southeast Asian countries. The famous actors like Rajnikant, Chiranjeevi have gained popularity through this Industry. – Bengali film industry. Based around Calcutta, its films are very popular and dominate the National Awards (India’s equivalent of Academy Awards). Prominent among these are Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Ritwik Ghatak
Contd.– Marathi Film industry. This is the oldest film industry in India. The First national award for the best film was awarded to “Shyamchi Aai” in the year 1954.– Kannada film industry. Based in Karnataka, it has become popular in recent years with blockbuster movies.
Hindi Film Industry (Bollywood)• The Hindi film industry is currently the largest and dominates Indian films.• Based in Bombay it is the center of Indian film industry.• Known popularly as “Bollywood” – A blending of Bombay and Hollywood
Bollywood Film Stars Bollywood has its own celebrities among young people. Some of them have also gained international fame and exposure like Aishwarya Rai- Bacchhan, MallikaAishwarya Rai Bipasha Basu Amisha Patel Sherawat, Amitabh Bacchhan. Pictured on left are some of Bollywood’s leading starsShah Rukh Khan Hrithik Roshan Aamir Khan
The Kannada film industry (Sandalwood)• The Kannada film industry, based in Karnataka, is sometimes called Sandalwood, as Karnataka is known for its abundant sandalwood forests;• The first big success in Kannada cinema adapted a Gubbi Company stage play written by G. V. Iyer to introduce the mythological adventure movie into that language.". Kannada films has become very popular after the recent hits like Jogi (2005) & Mungaru Male (2007).
The Malayalam film industry• The Malayalam film industry is based in Kerala.• Malayalam movies are known for their artistic nature and they frequently figure in the national film awards. It is also currently known for being the most conservative out of the different film industries in India, despite the fact that it went through a liberal phase in the 80s.• Notable personalities include the filmmakers Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Bharathan, K. G. George, G. Aravindan, Padmarajan, Shaji N.Karun and John Abraham
The Marathi film industry• Marathi Film Industry, one of the oldest film industries in India, originated in Nasik, and developed in Kolhapur and Pune.• Dadasaheb Phalke, recognized as the father of Indian cinema, was a pioneer of movies in Marathi. He produced the first Indian silent movie, and later some Marathi talkies. In his honor, a much coveted "Dadasaheb Phalke Award" is given annually for exceptional contribution to Indian cinema.• As an offshoot of Prabhat, V. Shantaram founded "Rajkamal Studios" in Pune, and produced some excellent Marathi movies in the late 1950s and early 60s.• Shwaas earned an official Indian entry for an Oscar award in 2004), "Pak Pak Pakaak" (won Swarovski Trophy in AFFF, Singapore, in 2005),"Sane Guruji", "Uttarayan", "Aga Bai, Arecchaa“ etc are the other prominent films.• Modern Marathi actors include Dilip Prabhavalkar, Bharat Jadhav, Sonali Kulkarni, Sadashiv Amrapurkar, Ashwini Bhave, Amruta Subhash, Atul Kulkarni and Sanjay Narvekar.
The Tamil film industry(Kollywood)• The Tamil film industry (Kollywood) is based in the Kodambakkam area of Chennai.• Several technicians have crossed industries to encapture National fame such as Bharathiraja, Selvaraghavan, Maniratnam, A. R. Rahman, Shankar, Ravi K. Chandran and Jeeva.• several Bollywood actresses made their débuts in Kollywood, with Aishwarya Rai appearing in Iruvar, Priyanka Chopra in Thamizhan, Lara Dutta in Arasatchi and Sushmita Sen in Ratchagan.• The Tamil film industry accounts for approximately 1% of the gross domestic product of the state of Tamil Nadu.
The Telugu film industry (Tollywood)• The Telugu film industry is based in Andhra Pradeshs capital city, Hyderabad.• Raghupathi Venkaiah hailed as father of Telugu cinema is the first exhibitor in the South. He bought crono-megaphone, the first projector equipped to reproduce `sound by disk system and exhibited short reels way back in 1910.• The Telugu film industry produces the largest number of films every year in India, with about 245 films produced in 2006.• The state also has what is claimed to be the largest film studio in the world, Ramoji Film City.• Successful Telugu films are also remade and dubbed in other languages like Tamil, Malayalam and Kannada and are released in respective states.
Globalization of Indian cinema• Today, Indian cinema is becoming increasingly westernised. This trend is most strongly apparent in Bollywood.• Bollywood also produced box-office hits like the films Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and Kal Ho Naa Ho, both of which dealt with the overseas Indians experiences.• Indian cinema is also influencing the English and American musical; Baz Luhrmanns Moulin Rouge! (2001) incorporates a Bollywood-style dance sequence.
Indian Film Facts Indian Film Industry (2007)• Average Ticket Price- Rs 24.• Attendance- 4,23,13,71,141• Revenue- Rs.100,53,49,01,491• Number of cinemas in the year 2007- 13,000• India is the world leader in film production• India has the most ticket sales per capita in the world
Awards• the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards (which first began in 1954), awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF).• The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the oldest and most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India  and is sometimes referred to as the "Bollywood Oscars.
Central Board of Film Certification• For a film to be released publicly it must receive approval from the board• It’s guidelines state: – The Cinematograph Act lays down that a film has to be certified keeping the interests of sovereignty, integrity and security of India, friendly relations with foreign states ,public order, morality etc. in mind.
Rating SystemHow do the rating systems of India and US compare?India CBFC Ratings Unrestricted Public Exhibition Unrestricted – but with parental supervision Restricted to adults Restricted to special class of persons Sanction of any of the above category subject to Excisions and Modifications Refusal for exhibition
References• Rajadhayaksha, A. (Ed.) (2001). Encyclopedia of India cinema.• Culturopedia.com. Cinema in India. http://cinema.culturopedia.com/cinemaintro.html http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Cinema/cinema.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_India http://www.cbfcindia.tn.nic.in/