In this lesson you will find out:
•About genes and DNA
•How scientists use DNA
•About the main stages of genetic
engineering of human insulin.
THE FIREFLY – a weapon
Fireflies are tiny insects
that light up to attract a
Scientists have taken the
GENE that causes the
light and inserted it into
cancer cells. The cancer
cells then light up. The
light triggers a reaction
that KILLS the cancer.
Healthy cells are
unharmed because they
have no internal light
THE GENETIC CODE
• The NUCLEUS of a body contains
• These chromosomes are made of
• The DNA is a code called the
• Everyone has their own genetic code.
• Scientists have found a way to change
the genetic code
• They call it GENETIC ENGINEERING
To change the genetic code, scientists
:• Choose a section of the code called a
• Take the chosen gene out of the
organism and put it into another
1. Describe how the genetic code of an
organism can be changed.
2. Copy and complete the
Changing the genetic code is called
• Genetic engineering changes the
GENETIC CODE of an organism.
Scientists can alter the genes of sheep
so that they produce milk that
contains a special protein called AAT.
People who suffer from a lung disease
called EMPHYSEMA need ATT.
• Identify the gene for the protein AAT in
• Remove the gene from human DNA
• Cut open the DNA in a bacterium
• Add the human DNA to the bacterium’s DNA
• Put the bacterium’s DNA into fertilized egg
cell of a sheep
• Place the fertilized egg into a female sheep
so it can develop into a lamb.
When the lamb becomes an adult, it produces
milk called AAT.
A genetically modified organism(GMO) or genetically
organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been
altered using genetic engineering techniques.
1. An embryo is created using in vitrio fertilization
2. DNA gene for drug plus mammary directing
injected into the fertilized alginal
3 . Embryo implanted into adult sheep
4. Transgenic offspring produces drug in milk
1. What is meant by a ‘transgenic
2. Which organism is used to carry the
human gene into the fertilized sheep
DID YOU KNOW?
Just 2000 transgenic sheep
could provide enough ATT
protein for every hospital
1. Explain the difference between a
ligase enzyme and a restriction
2. Suggest ONE reason why scientists
need to know the DNA has stuck
before they clone the bacteria.
3. Explain what effect an antibiotic has
on bacteria without any resistance.
GENETIC ENGINEERING TO
PRODUCE HUMAN INSULIN