Disaster management

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Disaster management

  1. 1. Disaster Management Shubhranshu Upadhyay Architect Urban Planner
  2. 2. Key Words Hazard Disaster Vulnerability Risk Disaster Management Response & Relief Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Mitigation Preparedness
  3. 3. Hazard Dangerous event induced naturally or by human intervention that could cause injury, loss of life, or damage to property or livelihoods. Nature of hazard Examples Natural Earthquake, tsunami Natural & Human Drought, flooding Human Accidents, War, terrorist attacks Think about your native areas and identify the different hazards that your area is prone to and list them as per above mentioned categories of hazard.
  4. 4. Disaster Disaster whether natural or human induced is an event which results in widespread human loss. It is accompanied by loss of livelihood and property causing suffering and loss in a definite area. Disruption of normal life Large scale loss Big blow to country’s economy
  5. 5. Disaster Types Slow onset disaster Prevails for many days, months or even years. Eg. Draught, pest infection, famine, environmental degradation. Rapid onset disaster Triggered by instantaneous shock. Impact may be short lived or long term E.g.. Earthquake, cyclone, flash flood, volcanic eruptions. Speed
  6. 6. Disaster Types Natural disaster Caused by natural hazard Leads to human, material, economic and environmental losses. Examples 20004 Indian ocean Tsunami, 2008 earthquake in China 2007 cyclone in Myanmar Human Induced disaster Caused by human induced activities Leads to human, material, economic and environmental losses. Examples 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy, 1997 Uphaar cinema fire in N Delhi 2008 Jaipur serial blasts Cause/ Origin
  7. 7. When does a Hazard lead to a Disaster A Disaster occurs when the impact of a hazard on a section of society is such that the people are unable to cope with the event, causing loss of life, property and livelihoods. If an earthquake strikes a desert it would not be termed as disaster. However if the similar earthquake or even lesser in magnitude strikes a densely populated area, it definitely be counted as disaster.
  8. 8. Vulnerability It is a condition determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, which increases the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards. Vulnerable Groups Socially under privileged Poor & indigent People living in low lying areas People living in slums and core areas Fisherman living in costal areas
  9. 9. Risk Probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses comprising Deaths Loss of property Loss of livelihood Disruption of economic activity Environmental degradation After 2004 Tsunami, Village Samiyarpettai in Tamilnadu reported fewer deaths in comparison to neighboring districts . Community members were trained in search and rescue, evacuation and first aid. This helped them to respond effectively during disaster thereby saving a large number of precious lives.
  10. 10. Disaster Management Disaster management covers the range of activities designed to maintain control over disasters/ emergency situations and to provide a framework for helping people to avoid, reduce the effects, or recover from impact of a disaster. Relief & Recovery Preparedness Mitigation Emergency Response
  11. 11. Disaster Management Relief & Recovery Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Mitigation Preparedness Disaster Strikes Emergency Response & Relief
  12. 12. Response & Relief Immediate measures taken up before, during and after a disaster. Rehabilitation & Reconstruction Operations and decisions taken after with a view to restore affected community to its former living conditions. Mitigation Any action taken to minimize extent of disaster. Actions could take place before, during and after the event. However the term is used in context of potential disasters. Preparedness Measures taken before hazard event to ensure effective response. Disaster Management
  13. 13. Specific Hazards & Mitigation Awareness & Preparedness go a long way in minimizing the impact of a hazard. Different hazards have different mitigation strategies. This presentation outlines different types of hazards and mitigation strategies adopted in each hazard. Disaster Management Mitigation refers to “ Any measure taken to minimize the impact of a disaster or potential disaster. Mitigation can take place before, during or after a disaster. However the term is used most often to refer to actions taken against potential disasters.
  14. 14. Significance of Mitigation Mitigation efforts help people by creating safer communities and reducing loss of life and property. Some measures are as follows. Enforcement of building codes, flood proofing requirements, seismic design standards and wind bracing requirements for new construction Construction of houses away from hazardous areas. Retro fitting public buildings to withstand strong winds. Building community shelters to help protect people in areas prone to various hazards. Disaster Management
  15. 15. Mitigation’s Value to Society Disaster Management It lessens the financial impact of disasters on government and communities. Enables individuals and communities to recover more rapidly from disasters. Mitigation creates safer communities by reducing losses of life and property.
  16. 16. Mitigation efforts can be categorized as structural and non structural Disaster Management Non Structural Training in Disaster Management, Public Education Regulating Land use Structural Construction of river embankments, Strengthening existing buildings
  17. 17. Disaster Management Mitigation measures vary with each hazard. While there are several common components in forming basic mitigation strategy for various disasters, there is need to know about the area and its cultural, social, physical and economic requirements
  18. 18. Disaster Management Floods Temporary inundation of large regions as a result of increase in reservoir, or of rivers flooding their banks because of heavy rains, high winds, cyclones, storm surge along coastal areas, tsunami, melting of snow or dam burst. In India more than 12% land area is prone to Floods Various agencies involved in tracking, monitoring and issuing warning are: i. Central water commission ii. Irrigation and flood control department iii. Water resources department Except for flash floods there is a reasonable warning period. Occurs gradually or suddenly due to breach of water control structures
  19. 19. Disaster Management Floods Structural Mitigation Water shed management, making reservoirs, Building on elevated areas Natural water retention basins implementing flood control measures, dam burst. Non structural Mitigation Mapping of flood plains Land use control Flood forecasting and warning
  20. 20. Disaster Management Cyclone Violent storms often of vast extent, characterized by high winds rotating about a calm center of low atmospheric pressure. This center moves onwards, often with velocity of 50 km an hour. E.g.. Cyclone hit coastal Orissa on 29th October 1999 Various agencies involved in tracking, monitoring and issuing warning are: i. Department of relief and rehabilitation ii. Indian meteorological department Usually a warning period of 8 to 24 Hrs. Occurs suddenly leaving very little time to evacuate
  21. 21. Disaster Management Cyclone Structural Mitigation Multipurpose Cyclone structures Engineered structures Protection against winds Coastal belt plantation Construction of roads Non structural Mitigation Hazard Mapping Land use control Forecasting and warning
  22. 22. Disaster Management Earthquakes Sudden release of energy accumulated in deformed rocks causing the ground to tremble or shake. E.g.. 26th January 2001 Bhuj District of Gujarat Various agencies involved in tracking, monitoring and issuing warning are: i. Department of Housing & Urban Development ii. Department of Environment & Forest. No Warning Occurs suddenly
  23. 23. Disaster Management Earthquake Structural Mitigation Preparing Engineered structures Retrofitting of existing buildings Non structural Mitigation i. Enforcing Building codes ii. Public awareness iii. Reduce possible damage by secondary effects like fire, floods.
  24. 24. Disaster Management Land Slides Slippery masses of rock earth or debris which move by force of their own weight down mountain slopes or river banks E.g. Uttarakhand 2013 Normally happen gradually however sudden failure without warning may happen
  25. 25. Disaster Management Landslide Structural Mitigation i. Drainage corrections ii. Engineered structures Non structural Mitigation i. Hazard mapping ii. land use regulations iii. awareness.
  26. 26. Disaster Management Slow onset disaster and it is difficult to demarcate time of its onset and end. Overall rain deficiency more than 10% of long period average and more than 20 % area of country is draught effected. Drought A climatic anomaly characterized by deficient supply of moisture resulting either from sub normal rainfall, erratic rainfall distribution, higher water need or a combination of all the factors.
  27. 27. Disaster Management Non Structural Mitigation i. Drought monitoring ii. Awareness iii. Livelihood planning Collection of non timber products from community forests iv. Land use planning v. Crop insurance Drought Structural Mitigation Rainwater harvesting
  28. 28. T h a n k Y o u

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