Shubham ppt on ospf and framerelay
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  • 3. Cisco Icons and Symbols 3
  • 4. Router
  • 5. Network Switches.. A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one Local Area Network(LAN). Technically switches operate at Data-link Layer. These are almost like HUBS. But unlike HUBS network switches are capable of inspecting data as it is recieved, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately.
  • 6. OSI Model  OSI model consists of seven layers and provides standards for computer communication  Physical layer is responsible for actual transmission of bits over the medium  Data Link layer is responsible for node to node delivery of frames  Network layer is responsible for end to end delivery of packets, and routing
  • 7. OSI Model  Transport layer is responsible for end to end delivery of the entire message  Session layer is responsible for establishing, managing and terminating sessions  Presentation layer is responsible for translation, encryption and data compression  Application layer is responsible for providing access to the network
  • 8. FRAMEisRELAY Frame relay a packet switched connection oriented WAN service .It operates at the Data link layer of OSI Model. Frame carry data between user devices called Data terminal equipment (DTE) and Data communication equipment ( DCE) at the edge of the WAN.
  • 9. Introducing Frame Relay
  • 10.  Frame relay is a Scalable WAN solution that is often used as an alternative to leased line when leased line prove to be cost prohibitive.  Frame relay is a non broadcast multi access ( NBMA) medium which means that broadcast traffic is not allowed to traverse Frame relay traffic.
  • 11. Frame Relay Components - I
  • 12. Frame Relay Components - II  The basic terms associated with the Frame Relay network are as follows:  Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)  Data Communications Equipment (DCE)  Access link  Local access rate  DLCI  LMI  Committed Information (CIR)
  • 13. DLCI(Data Link Connection identifier) & LMI (local management interface)…
  • 14. 15
  • 15. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)  OSPF is an open standards routing protocol  This works by using the Dijkstra algorithm  OSPF provides the following features:  Minimizes routing update traffic  Allows scalability (e.g. RIP is limited to 15 hops)  Has unlimited hop count  Supports VLSM/CIDR  Allows multi-vendor deployment (open standard) 16
  • 16. OSPF Terms Link Backbone area Router ID Internal routers Neighbours Area Border Router Adjacency OSPF Area (ABR) Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) 17
  • 17. Link A network or router interface assigned to a given network Link (interface) will have "state" information associated with it  Status (up or down)  IP Address  Network type (e.g. Fast Ethernet)  Bandwidth  Addresses of other routers attached to this interface 18
  • 18. OSPF Term: Link A link is a network or router interface assigned to any given network This link, or interface, will have state information associated with it (up or down) as well as one or more IP addresses 19
  • 19. OSPF Term: Link State Status of a link between two routers Information is shared between directly connected routers. This information propagates throughout the network unchanged and is also used to create a shortest path first (SPF) tree. 20
  • 20. Router ID  The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router  Cisco chooses the Router ID by using the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces  If no loopback interfaces are configured with addresses, OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all active physical interfaces.  You can manually assign the router ID.  The RID interface MUST always be up, therefore loopbacks are preferred 21
  • 21. Neighbours  Neighbours are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network  E.g. two routers connected on a serial link  E.g. several routers connected on a common Ethernet or Frame relay network  Communication takes place between / among neighbours  neighbours form "adjacencies" 22
  • 22. Adjacency  A relationship between two routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates  Not all neighbours will form adjacencies  This is done for reasons of efficiency – more later 23
  • 23. OSPF Design Each router connects to the backbone called area 0, or the backbone area. Routers that connect other areas to the backbone within an AS are called Area Border Routers (ABRs). One interface must be in area 0. OSPF runs inside an autonomous system, but can also connect multiple autonomous systems together. The router that connects these ASes together is called an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). 24
  • 25. OSPF Configuration  OSPF Process ID number is irrelevant. It can be the same on every      router on the network The arguments of the network command are the network number ( and the wildcard mask ( Wildcards - A 0 octet in the wildcard mask indicates that the corresponding octet in the network must match exactly A 255 indicates that you don’t care what the corresponding octet is in the network number A network and wildcard mask combination of would match only, and nothing else. The network and wildcard mask combination of would match anything in the range– 26
  • 26. OSPF Configuration -1 S0 R1 S0 S1 R2 S0 E0 E0 A B 27
  • 27. OSPF Configuration -1 S0 S1 R2 R1 S0 R3 S0 E0 A E0 B R1#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#network area 0 R1(config-router)#network area 0 R1(config-router)#^Z 28
  • 28. OSPF Configuration -2 S0 S1 R2 R1 R3 S0 S0 E0 E0 A B 29
  • 29. OSPF Configuration -2 S0 S1 R2 R1 S0 S0 R3 E0 E0 A B 30
  • 30. OSPF Configuration -2 S0 S1 R2 R1 S0 S0 R3 E0 E0 A R1#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#network area 0 R1(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 8 area 0 R1(config-router)#^Z B R3#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R3(config)#router ospf 1 R3(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 32 area 0 R3(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 12 area 0 R3(config-router)#^Z 31
  • 31. 10/22/2013 32