Water protection act

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  • 1. SHUBHAM GUPTA, SHIVAM BAJPAI, “VIT UNIVERSITY”WATER (Prevention andControl of Pollution) ACT
  • 2.  The Water Act was enacted by Parliament Act, 1974 purpose to provide for the prevention of control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water. As on day, it is applicable in all the states of India. In this act, unless the context, otherwise requires (i) Occupier (ii) Outlet (iii) Pollution (iv) Trade effluentIntroduction
  • 3.  An Act to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water, for the establishment, with a view to carrying out the purposes aforesaid, of Boards for the prevention and control of water pollution, for conferring on and assigning to such Boards powers and functions relating thereto and for matters connected therewith.What is it for???????
  • 4.  It provides for maintenance and restoration of quality of all types of surface and ground water. It provides for the establishment of central and state boards of pollution control. It confers them with powers and functions to control pollution. It has provision for funds, budgets, accounts and audit of the central and state pollution control boards. It also makes provision for various penalties for the defaulters and procedure for the same. Features of Act 5
  • 5.  It applies in the first instance to the whole of the States of Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal and the Union Territories.Application and Commencement
  • 6.  It is the main governmental organization at central level for prevention and control of water pollution.Central Pollution Control Board
  • 7.  It advises the central government in matters related to prevention and control of water pollution. All the state pollution control boards (SPCBs) are guided and technically assisted by CPCB. It organizes training programs for prevention and control of pollution at various places (seminars).CPCB’s Objectives
  • 8.  It also organizes comprehensive programs on pollution related issues through mass media. It collects, compiles and publishes technical and statistical data related to pollution. It prepares manuals for treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents. Lays down standards for water quality parameters.CPCB’s Objectives
  • 9.  It plans nation-wide programs for prevention, control or abatement of pollution. It establishes and recognizes laboratories for analysis of water, sewage or trade effluent samples.CPCB’s Objectives
  • 10.  The state pollution control boards (SPCBs) also have similar functions to be executed at state level and are governed by the directions of CPCB.STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD
  • 11.  The board advices the state government with respect to the locations of any industry that might pollute a stream, well or any water body. It lays down standard for effluents and is empowered to take samples from any stream, well or trade effluent or sewage passing through an industry.SPCB’s objectives
  • 12.  The state board is empowered to take legal samples of trade effluent in accordance with the procedure laid down in the act. The sample taken in the presence of the occupier or his agent is divided into 2 parts, sealed, signed by both parties and sent for analysis to some recognized labs. If the samples do not conform to the prescribed water quality standards (crossing maximum permissible limits), then „consent‟ is refused to the unit.SPCB’s objectives
  • 13.  Every industry has to obtain consent from the Board (granted for a fixed duration) by applying on a prescribed Proforma providing all technical details, along with a prescribed fee following which analysis of the effluent is carried out. l The Board suggests efficient methods for utilization, treatment and disposal of trade effluents.Spcb’s objectives
  • 14.  CPCB identified 10 polluted stretches for prioritising pollution control efforts in 1988-89. The Number of Stretches increased to 37 during 1992-93. The list is now revised to include 86 stretches. The concerned State Pollution Control Boards were asked to take adequate measures to restore the desired level.Identification of PollutedWater Bodies
  • 15. • CPCB identified polluted water bodies, which leads to formulation of action plan for restoration of the water body.• Based on CPCB‟s Recommendations, Ganga Action Plan was launched in 1986 to restore the WQ of the Ganga by interception, diversion and treatment of wastewater from 27 cities/towns located along the river.• Based on the experience gained during implementation of the Ganga Action Plan, Govt of India extends river cleaning programme to other rivers and lakes.River action plan
  • 16.  Urban sources – National River Action Plan Industrial Sources – through consent ( SPCB) Special Drives: 17 categories of industries Industries discharging into rivers and lakes 24 Problem areas action plan Environmental auditing Common effluent treatment plants for cluster of SSI units (124) Promotion of low-waste and no-waste technologyWATER POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY
  • 17.  Department of Environment, in december 1984, prepared an action plan for immediate reduction of pollution load on the river Ganga. The Cabinet approved the GAP (Ganga Action Plan)in April 1985 as a 100 per cent centrally sponsored scheme.
  • 18.  To oversee the implementation of the GAP and to lay down policies and programmes, Government of India constituted the CGA (Central Ganga Authority)in February 1985, renamed as the NRCA (National River Conservation Authority)in September 1995, under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. The Government also established the GPD (Ganga Project Directorate)in June 1985 as a wing of Department of Environment, to execute the projects under the guidance and supervision of the CGA. The Government renamed the GPD as the NRCD (National River Conservation Directorate)in June 1994.
  • 19.  The GAP-I envisaged to intercept, divert and treat 882 mld (Million litres per day) out of 1340 mld of wastewater, generated in 25 class- I towns in 3 States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The NRCD had scheduled the GAP-I for completion by March 1990, but extended it progressively up to March 2000. While the GAP-I was still in progress, the CGA decided in February 1991 to take up the GAP-II, covering the following pollution abatement works:(a) On the tributaries of river Ganga, viz. Yamuna, Damodar and Gomati. (b) In 25 class-I towns left out in Phase-I. (c) In the other polluting towns along the river.GAP I
  • 20.  The CCEA (Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs) approved the GAP-II in various stages during April 1993 to October 1996 . The States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Delhi and Haryana were to implement the GAP-II by treating 1912 mld of sewage. GAP-II is scheduled for completion by December 2001.GAP II
  • 21.  Approved outlays for the GAP-I and the GAP-II were Rs 462.04 crore and Rs 1276.25 crore respectively. The Central Government was to bear the entire expenditure on schemes under the GAP- I, and to share it equally with the States in the GAP- II. The Government of India decided in November 1998 to bear the entire expenditure on schemes from April 1997, as the States found it difficult to provide their matching share.Financial profile
  • 22. The table below shows the numbers of selected towns in the States. No of towns TotalRiver UP Bihar WB Haryana DelhiGAP-IGanga 6 4 15 25GAP-IIGanga 16 10 23 *49Yamuna 8 12 1 **21Gomati 3 3Damodar 8 4 12Total 33 22 42 12 1 110Selection of towns
  • 23.  Sewage collection system partial or non- existence Interception and diversion of drains - monsoon runoff Operation and maintenance of STPs Power supply Skilled manpowerExperience from Ganga Action Plan 24
  • 24.  High organic load - distilleries High TDS - pharmaceuticals, pesticides, rayon, dye and dye intermediates Small scale industries - location (residential areas), inadequate resources, skill etc. Problem with CETPsExperience from industries
  • 25. Comparision of pollution load generation from domestic and industrial sources25000 22900 Industrial Domestic2000015000 1346810000 9478 45805000 3510 1776 0 Wastewater gen (mld) BOD Generation (t/d) BOD Discharge (t/d)
  • 26. •This case study research has been conducted in BritishColumbia‟s Okanagan Valley. Situated in the southerninterior of the province, the kanagan Valley hasexperienced rapid expansion in agriculture and otherresource activities as well as significant populationgrowth since the mid-1900s. In response to newprovincial drinking water regulations, local wateroperators in the Okanagan Valley have attempted todirect greater attention to drinking water sourceprotection, the first barrier in the multi-barrier approachto clean drinking water.Water Protection in BritishColumbia, Canada
  • 27.  This paper examines constraints to source water protection from the perspective of nonmetropolitan drinking water operators. The results of this research indicate that many factors operate beyond the jurisdiction of local water operators in the Okanagan to constrain their ability to undertake effective source water protection. These results are not geographically unique to the Okanagan region but are representative of other nonmetropolitan areas throughout British Columbia.Water Protection in BritishColumbia, Canada
  • 28. Thank you