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# Qbasic

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### Qbasic

1. 1. PESENSENTATION ON QBASIC By-SHUBHAM GUPTA CLASS-6th A ROOL NO. -27
2. 2. You've probably used computers to play games, and to write reports for school. It's a lot more fun to create your own games to play on the computer. This book will help you get started by using QBASIC. QBASIC is a programming language. With a programming language you can tell the computer what you want it to do. It's a lot like giving someone directions to your house. The computer follows each step and does exactly what you tell it. By programming the computer you can solve math problems, create art or music, and even make new games. It's all up to you. The best way to start with this book is to type in some of the small programs you'll find in each of the chapters. You might need to work through Chapter 1 first. An adult can help you get up to speed quickly. Then change the programs to do what you want them to do. Before long, you'll be writing your own programs.
3. 3. BASIC is a programming language used for beginners. It is very easy ad simple to understand . BASIC stands for Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. it was developed in Dartmouth college, New Hampshire, USA by professor John G . Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz in may 1964.
4. 4. The main components of the given qbasic program are:- COMMENTS: Any text written after REN is treated as a comments as you wish. PROGRAM BODY: It contains the programming statements which cause the action to be taken.
5. 5. •Let us write our first and very simple QBASIC program. •Double click on the QBASIC icon on the Desktop to start QBASIC. •The QBASIC window will appear with Welcome dialog box. •Press the Esc key to hide the Welcome dialog box. •The first window of QBASIC appears. •Type the program, as shown in the above picture. •QBASIC executes the program line-by-line. If it finds any error, it displays the error message and stops execution.
6. 6. 1. Click on FILE menu and select SAVE AS option . 2. Give a meaningful name to your program in the file name: text box and press ENTER key. 3. Your file will be saved with the name given by you and with extension .BAS will be added to automatically . 4. The file name should not exceed more then 8 characters.
7. 7. RUN A PROGRAM There are many ways to run a program in QBASIC:- •By pressing F5 key. •By selecting RUN menu and then click on start option . •By typing RUN in the immediate mode and pressing ENTER key.
8. 8. A character set is a set of symbols that can be used in programming language . BASIC uses the followings symbols as its character set :- 1. ALPHABET-> A,B,C,D…………………Z a,b,c,d………………….z 2. NUMBERS-> 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0 3. SPESIAL CRAACTER-> !,@,#,\$,%,^,&,*,(,),_,+,},{, etc.
9. 9. CONSTANTS- The value which do not change during the execution of program is called constant . Constants are of two types: 1. NUMRIC CONSTANTS – Any numeric value ,an integer or real numbers ,positive or negative numbers is called a numeric constant .For Example 224,+12,-85 etc. 2. ALPHANUMRIC CONSTANTS- A set of characters is called a STRING. An alphanumeric or string constant consists of a sequence of characters ,A-Z, a-z,0-9 and certain special symbols like %^&*( );:” ‘/.For example “RAGHAV” ,”SUM =Rs84’,”94”.
10. 10. A variable is a location in a memory to which any value can be assigned . 1. NUMERIC VARIABLE: It can contain only numeric values .It represented by an alphabet or an alphabetfollowed by an another aialphabet or a digit. It should not contain any space or symbols like ^,?,,/, @ etc. Underscore can be used whenever a space is required. For example A, C, A2, ABC etc. represent numeric variables. 2. ALPHANUMERIC OR STRING VARIABLE : A string variable is represented by an alphabet followed by dollar (\$) singn. For example A1\$, RKL\$ etc.
11. 11. 1. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS : OPRETOR EXPLANATION EXAMPLE RESULT(SP OSE A= 8, B=4) + To add 2 or more numbers Sum = a+ b 12 - To subtract two or more numbers Sub = a - b 4 * To multiply two or more numbers Mul = a*b 32 / To divide two or more numbers Div = a / b 2 ^ To calculate Exponentiation value Exp = a ^ b 512
12. 12. 2. RELATIONAL OEPRATORS: OPRETORS MEANING EXAMPLE RESULT(SP OSE A=10,B=8) = A = B FALSE <> A<>B TRUE > A>B TRUE < A<B FALSE >= A>=B TRUE <= A<=B FALSE
13. 13. 3. LOGICAL OPERATORS : Logical operators are used to perform logical opertion on numerical values. Logical operators are used to combine two or more relational expressions and return a single value as TRUE or FALSE in a decision. The common logical operations are : AND, OR, NOT. •Hierarchy defines the order in which the operators are executed in any Basic expression. The full form of BEDMAS is:-
14. 14. B BRACETS () E Exponentiation ^ D DIVISION / M MULTIPLICATION * A ADDITION + S SUBTRACTION - The assignment statement or Let statement, is used to assign a value to a variable. In QBASIC, using Let statement and line numbers are optional. CLS THIS COMMAD IS USED TO CLER SCREEN
15. 15. PRINT COMMAND •The print command is used to display any message or value. • The print command is used to display any message or value. • The print command is used with different variations to print the output in different forms. • Print using semicolon is used to print the values one after another, without any space in between. • This allows the printing of values one after another with plenty of spaces in between. Only five values can be printed in one line. In case of more than five values, the remaining values will be printed on the next line. • The TAB function is used to move the print position to the column indicated in its argument. This statement is quite suitable for printing tabular type of results. PRINT TAB statement can be used in controlling column location. • If you want to leave blank line in between while printing an output, use PRINT statement in the following way.
16. 16. INPUT STATEMENT The INPUT statement in QBASIC, accepts the data item from the user. This statement asks the user to make data entry while the program is being executed. While using INPUT statement, the computer does the following things: • It stops further processing of the program • It prints a question mark on the screen. • It waits for the user to key in its response and press Enter key. •It stores or assigns the same data item in to the corresponding variable mentioned in the INPUT statement.
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