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computer memory

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  • Transparent light effect(Basic)To reproduce one of the shapes on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout and then click Blank. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Basic Shapes click Oval (first row, second option from the left). Press and hold SHIFT to constrain the shape to a circle, and then drag to draw a circle on the slide. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and then select No line in the Line Color pane. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (thirdoption from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 60%(third row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 80%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 70%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fourth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shape Effects, point to Soft Edges, and then click 10 Point. To reproduce the other shapeson this slide, do the following:Select the circle on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. Repeat this process to create a total of 10 circles. On the slide, drag the circles to position them at random intervals. For each circle, press and hold SHIFT and then drag the adjustment handles to resize as needed.To reproduce the different color and transparency effects in each of the shapes, do the following:Select the shape. On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher.In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, and then select Gradient fill in the Fill pane. Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list, and then do the following:For the first and third (small circle below larger circle) circles from the left:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 60%(third row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 90%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 85%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fourth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.For the second circle from the left, do not change the Gradient stops settings in the Format Shape dialog box. For the fourth circle from the left (large circle above third circle):Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 60%(third row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 80%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 70%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 60% (third row, fourth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.For the fifth circle from the left:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 88%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 71%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fourth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.For the sixth circle from the left:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 227, Green: 209, Blue: 143.In the Transparency box, enter 84%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 223, Green: 205, Blue: 75.In the Transparency box, enter 85%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 214, Green: 195, Blue: 84.In the Transparency box, enter 100%.For the seventh circle from the left:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 60%(third row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 60%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 60%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fourth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.For the eighth circle from the left, do not change the Gradient stops settings in the Format Shape dialog box. For the ninth circle from the left (small brown circle below larger blue circle):Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 227, Green: 209, Blue: 143.In the Transparency box, enter 70%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 223, Green: 205, Blue: 75.In the Transparency box, enter 85%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 214, Green: 195, Blue: 84.In the Transparency box, enter 100%.For the tenth circle from the left (large blue circle above ninth circle):Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 60%(third row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 80%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 50%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40%(fourth row, fourth option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 74%.Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Dark Blue, Text 2, Lighter 40% (fourth row, fourth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 100%.To reproduce the background on this slide, do the following: Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (third option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 65, Green: 68, Blue: 97.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 99%.Click the button next to Color, and then click Black, Text 1(first row, second option from the left).
  • For reproduction steps for this slide, refer to the PowerPoint template titled “Static text effects for PowerPoint slides” (STATIC_TEXT.potx), slide number 17.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The working place in computer where all data is stored is called memory. There are small cells called bit. In these cell data is stored in the form of 0 & 1. Its unit is bytes. A memory cell may be defined as a device which can store a symbol selected from a set of symbols A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instruction. Computer memory is the storage space in computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. The memory is divided into large number of small parts. Each part is called cell. Each location or cell has a unique address which varies from zero to memory size minus one. For example if computer has 64k words, then this memory unit has 64 * 1024=65536 memory location. The address of these locations varies from 0 to 65535.
    • 2. Memory Units
    • 3. There are two types of memory units •Primary Memory/Main Memory •Secondary Memory
    • 4. Primary Memory (Main Memory) • Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which computer is currently working. It has limited capacity and data get lost when power is switched off. • It is generally made up of semiconductor device. These memories are not as fast as registers. The data and instruction required to be processed earlier reside in main memory. It is divided into two subcategories RAM and ROM. • Primary Memory consists of RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read only memory). In this type of primary memory data is not stored permanently,
    • 5. Primary Memory (Main Memory)
    • 6. Characteristic of Primary Memory •These are semiconductor memories. •It known as main memory. •Usually volatile memory. •Data is lost in case power is switch off. •It is working memory of the computer. •Faster than secondary memories. •A computer cannot run without primary memory.
    • 7. Secondary Memory • This type of memory is also known as external memory or nonvolatile. It is slower than main memory. These are used for storing Data/Information permanently. • CPU directly does not access these memories instead they are accessed via input-output routines. Contents of secondary memories are first transferred to main memory, and then CPU can access it. For example: disk, CD-ROM,DVD etc. • Secondary memory (or secondary storage) is the slowest and cheapest form of memory. It cannot be processed directly by the CPU. It must first be copied into primary storage (also known as RAM ). Secondary memory devices include magnetic disks like hard drives and floppy disks; optical disks such as CDs and CD ROMs; and magnetic tapes, which were the first forms of secondary memory.
    • 8. Characteristic of Secondary Memory • • • • These are magnetic and optical memories. It is known as backup memory. It is non-volatile memory. Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off. • It is used for storage of the data in the computer. • Computer may run without secondary memory. • Slower than primary memories.
    • 9. Secondary Memory OPTICAL DISKS MEGNETIC DISK