PRESENTATION ON GENDER
• SUPMITIED BY :
What Is Gender?
• Gender describes the role ,rights and
that society consider s
appropriate for men and women .
• It refers to social ,economic and cultural
attributes and opportunities associates with
being a male or female.
• Gender roles ,responsibilities inequalities and
differences are not the same in various
Gender inequality refers to disparity
between individuals due to gender.
Gender is constructed both socially
through social interactions as well as
biologically through chromosomes,
brain structure, and hormonal
Gender inequality has been prevalent in all societies
for centuries and continues to exist even today .
An example of gender prejudice is female foeticide
. The widespread practice of aborting female
foeticide happens every day: the reality of gender
inequality in India, origin of gender inequality and
how to deactivate it.
One of the most evil forms of discrimination faced
by a girl after marriage is the practice of dowry .
Some of the factors responsible for
• Illiteracy : Itinerancy is one of the factors responsible for gender
inequality. According to 2001 census of India., the literacy level
in India is 65.38% in which the male literacy level is 75.85% and
female literacy level is only 54.16%.
• Child Marriage : Children specially the girls are married at a very
young age. This proves fatal for their overall development and
have a negative impact on their health, too.
• Social evils : Social evils like dowry system, sati system, are also
responsible for the low status of women.
• Discrimination against the girl child : The girl child is not treated
properly in the family. People still prefer the birth of a boy rather
than a girl. The girl child is basically trained for household work
only. Even today, female infanticide is a common social evil.
Types Of Gender Inequalities
There are many kinds of gender inequality
gender disparity which are as
• Inequality in Family
• Natality inequality
• Professional or Employment
• Ownership inequality
• Household inequality
• Special opportunity inequality
Inequality in Family
Gender roles in parenting and marriage
Sigmund Freud suggested that biology determines gender identity
through identification with either the mother or father. While some
people agree with Freud, others argue that the development of the
gendered self is not completely determined by biology based around
one's relationship to the penis, but rather the interactions that one has
with the primary caregiver(s).
According to the non-Freudian view, gender roles develop through
internalization and identification during childhood. From birth, parents
interact differently with children depending on their sex, and through
this interaction parents can instill different values or traits in their
children on the basis of what is normative for their sex. This
internalization of gender norms can be seen through the example of
which types of toys parents typically give to their children (“feminine”
toys often reinforce interaction, nurturing, and closeness, “masculine”
toys often reinforce independence and competitiveness). Education
also plays an integral role in the creation of gender norms.
Gender roles permeate throughout life and help to structure parenting
and marriage, especially in relation to work in and outside the home.
Inequality in Family
Polygamy is legal for Muslims and it also exists to some extent among
Hindus, particularly in cases where the first wife has not given birth to any
Repudiation is also legal for Muslims. For persons of other religious
beliefs, the divorce proceedings have been equal for men and women
since 1976. Divorce by mutual consent is legal but in reality, any woman
who initiates a divorce is condemned by the public opinion. For that
reason, divorces are very rare.
The father alone detains parental authority in Hindu and Muslim families.
His authority is partially limited only in educated and urban families. In
the event of divorce, the law assures some equality with regards to child
custody, but any advantages granted to the mother in this aspect are
rarely exercised as divorces are not common practice.
The old Hindu traditions favored men in matters of inheritance: only sons
– not daughters - could inherit their parents. After independence,
however, these traditions were abolished by law. But in the North,
nothing has really changed and women are still deprived of inheritance.
Inequality in Family
Progress in making gender roles more equal
• Despite the increase in women in the labor force since the mid1900s, women are still responsible for the majority of the domestic
chores and childcare. While women are splitting their time between
work and care of the home, men are pressured into being the
primary economic supporter of the home. Despite the fact that
different households may divide chores more evenly, there is
evidence that supports that women have retained the primary
caregiver role within familial life despite contributions economically.
This evidence suggest that women who work outside the home
often put an extra 18 hours a week doing household or childcare
related chores as opposed to men who average 12 minutes a day in
childcare activities. In addition to a lack of interest in the home
on the part of some men, some women may bar men from equal
participation in the home which may contribute to this disparity.
Sex ratio (for making gender roles more equal)
• Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in
a population. The primary sex ratio is the ratio
at the time of conception, secondary sex ratio
is the ratio at time of birth, and tertiary sex
ratio is the ratio of mature organisms.
Current Sex Ratio of India 2012
940 females for every 1,000 males
Total Male Population in India 2012
628,800,000 (628.8 million)
Total Female Population in India 2012
591,400,000 (591.4 million)
Currently, there are about 51 births in India
in 1 minute.
• In this type of inequality a preference is given for
boys over girls that many male-dominated societies
have, gender inequality can manifest itself in the
form of the parents wanting the newborn to be a boy
rather than a girl. There was a time when this could
be no more than a wish (a daydream or a nightmare,
depending on one's perspective), but with the
availability of modern techniques to determine the
gender of the foetus, sex-selective abortion has
become common in many countries. It is particularly
prevalent in East Asia, in China and South Korea in
particular, but also in Singapore and Taiwan, and it is
beginning to emerge as a statistically significant
phenomenon in India and South Asia as well.
Professional or Employment inequality
• In terms of employment as well as promotion in
work and occupation, women often face greater
handicap than men. A country like Japan and
India may be quite egalitarian in matters of
demography or basic facilities, and even, to a
great extent, in higher education, and yet
progress to elevated levels of employment and
occupation seems to be much more problematic
for women than for men. The example of
employment inequality can be explained by
saying that men get priority in seeking job than
• In many societies the ownership of property can also be
very unequal. Even basic assets such as homes and land
may be very asymmetrically shared. The absence of claims
to property can not only reduce the voice of women, but
also make it harder for women to enter and flourish in
commercial, economic and even some social activities. This
type of inequality has existed in most parts of the world,
though there are also local variations. For example, even
though traditional property rights have favored men in the
bulk of India.
• There are often enough, basic inequalities in gender relations
within the family or the household, which can take many different
forms. Even in cases in which there are no overt signs of anti-female
bias in, say, survival or son-preference or education, or even in
promotion to higher executive positions, the family arrangements
can be quite unequal in terms of sharing the burden of housework
and child care. It is, for example, quite common in many societies
to take it for granted that while men will naturally work outside the
home, women could do it if and only if they could combine it with
various inescapable and unequally shared household duties. This is
sometimes called "division of labour," though women could be
forgiven for seeing it as "accumulation of labour." The reach of this
inequality includes not only unequal relations within the family, but
also derivative inequalities in employment and recognition in the
outside world. Also, the established fixity of this type of "division"
or "accumulation" of labour can also have far-reaching effects on
the knowledge and understanding of different types of work in
• Even when there is relatively little difference in basic
facilities including schooling, the opportunities of higher
education may be far fewer for young women than for
young men. Indeed, gender bias in higher education and
professional training can be observed even in some of the
richest countries in the world, in India too. Sometimes this
type of division has been based on the superficially
innocuous idea that the respective "provinces" of men and
women are just different.
Steps taken by Government :
•Support for Training and
•Rashtriya Mahila kosh
•Protection from Domestic
Violence Bill, 2002
•Participation in local bodies
Equal Rights :
Before independence, women were not given
any political rights but at present all women
who are of the age of 18 years or above have
been given the right to vote like those of
men. The Government of India has passed
the Hindu Code Bill and Kamla Act to give
equal share to the women in the property of
Women education :
• Illiteracy among the women is the basic cause
of gender inequality. So the Government of
India is emphasizing on women education. For
this, many new schools and colleges have
been opened exclusively for women. To
promote education among women two most
important schemes i.e. Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan” and “Mhila Samkhya” have been
Support for Training and Employment
Programme (STEP) :
• Under the programme of Supoort for Training
and Employment government is providing
training especially to woment in new
technologies in agriculture, dairying,
horticulture, fisheries, handicrafts etc.
Protection from Domestic Violence
Bill, 2002 :
• The incidents of domestic violence are higher
among the low Socio- Economic Classes
(SECs). There are various instances of an
inebriated husband beating up the wife often
leading to severe injuries. Domestic violence is
also seen in the form of physical abuse. The
Protection of Women from Domestic Violence
Act, 2005 came into force on
October, 26, 2006.
Participation in local bodies :
• By the 73rd and 74 th. Constitutional
Amendments, one-third of seats have been
reserved for women in local bodies. There is
also a proposal to provide one-third sealts
reservation for women in the House of People
and state Legislative Assemblies has been
passed by the Parliament. This is indeed a
great step towards the upliftment of women