Motivation & job performance


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It is a brief presentation which will make you easily understand about what actually motivation is and what job performance is?
And also it will make you clear that what is difference between motivation and job performance, as both words in general reflects same meaning but they are different but also interlinked with each other in some or the other way,

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Motivation & job performance

  1. 1. Topic: Motivation & Job Performance Created By:Shubham Agarwal
  2. 2. MOTIVATION the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.  it is condition that is initiated by a physiological or psychological deficiency or need in an individual, which causes the individual to behave in a certain manner in order to achieve a particular goal or incentive.
  3. 3. Elements of Motivation these elements are interactive and interdependent Physiological/ Psychological deficiency (NEED) Individual behaves in a certain manner (DRIVE) Achieves a particular goal (INCENTIVE)
  4. 4. Need : physiological or psychological deficiency or imbalance in an individual will result in a need. For e.g. hunger thirst But psychological need may sometimes arise without any deficiency or imbalance. e.g. strong need for progress. Drive: physiological drive is a condition which causes a person to work in a particular direction.  Incentive : anything that mitigate the drive and decrease the intensity of the drive
  5. 5. Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory  within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs. (1) physiological (2) safety (3) social (4) esteem (5) self-actualization
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Abraham Maslow Challenging projects, Opportunities for innovation and creativity, training) ( Self actualization needs Esteem needs (Important projects, Recognition, prestigious office location) Social needs (Good coworkers, peers, superiors, customer s) Safety or Security Needs (Job security; benefits like life insurance; safety regulations) Physiological needs (Basic pay, Workspace, heat, water company cafeteria) Chapter-7
  7. 7. Two-Factor Theory     Herzberg’s classification of needs as hygiene factors and motivators. He conducted a study to find out the job satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors Job satisfiers were associated with job content and job dissatisfiers were related to job context ( circumstances/ situation) satisfiers were called motivators and dissatisfiers were called hygiene factors
  8. 8. Hygiene Factors (Needs): they are preventive in nature they are responsible for preventing dissatisfaction. They are similar to lower level needs in Maslow’s hierarchy  Presence of able supervisors administrative policies of the org. Fair pay Good interpersonal relations Conducive working conditions Once hygiene factors have been addressed, organization can make use of motivators to make people feel motivated and satisfied
  9. 9. • McClelland’s Theory of Needs - focuses on three needs: (1) Need for achievement (nAch) (2) Need for power (nPow) (3) Need for affiliation (nAff) - has had the best research support, but has less practical effect than others.
  10. 10. Alderfer’s ERG Theory:  Clayton Alderfer : proposed a continuum of needs rather than a hierarchy  Existence needs – These are associated with the survival and physiological wellbeing of an individual.  Relatedness needs – These needs emphasize the significance of social and interpersonal relationship.  Growth needs – These needs are related to a person’s inner desire for personal growth and development.
  11. 11. Self-actualization and fulfillment Motivation factors The Relationship between Maslow,s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Needs Esteem and status Work itself Achievement Possibility of growth Responsibility Advancement Recognition Status Relations with supervisors Peer relations Relations with subordinates Quality of supervisions Safety and security Physiological needs Hygiene factors Belongings and social needs Growth Company policy and administration Job security Working conditions Pay Relatedness Existence
  12. 12. Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory of Motivation       The theory is based on three variables – valence, instrumentality and expectancy – and is therefore commonly termed VIE theory. An individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Valence (V) denotes the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. valence is value or expected utility Valence is +ve if person prefer to attain a particular outcome valence is –ve if person is not interested in the outcome
  13. 13. Motivation of Performance Through Job Design and Goal Setting  “Job design” can be defined as the process of structuring tasks and responsibilities into a job in an attempt to make the job more meaningful, significant and satisfying.  The theory of goal setting as propounded by Locke, Wood and Mento is based on the principle that difficult goals stimulate performance and commitment.
  14. 14. • Reinforcement Theory - reinforcement conditions behavior. - people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don’t want. - behaviorism: people learn to associate stimulus and response, but their conscious awareness of this association is irrelevant.
  15. 15.  - social-learning theory: behavior is a function of consequences.  (1) attentional processes  (2) retention processes  (3) motor reproduction processes  (4) reinforcement processes
  16. 16. Equity Theory/Organizational Justice  - individuals compare their job inputs and outputs with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.  - four referent comparisons: self-inside/ outside, other inside/outside.
  17. 17. JOB PERFORMANCE Job performance is a commonly used, yet poorly defined concept in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. It's also part of Human Resources Management. It most commonly refers to whether a person performs their job well. Despite the confusion over how it should be exactly defined, performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success. Among the most commonly accepted theories of job performance comes from the work of John P. Campbell and colleagues. Coming from a psychological perspective, Campbell describes job performance as an individual level variable. That is, performance is something a single person does. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance which are higher level variables.
  18. 18. Features of job performance
  19. 19. Different types of performance
  20. 20. Thank You…!!