ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Nothing is possible without the contribution of others. It is very important forme to thank everybody wh...
RESUME    Une étude sylvo-pastorale a été menée dans la communauté Mbororo de larégion de Bamenda dans la province du Nord...
KEYWORDS   Cameroon – North West – Community – Mbororo – Fulani – Transhumance –Silvopastoralism – Nomadism          LIST ...
TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                          IRÉSUMÉ                        ...
2.11.     LIVESTOCK INFRASTRUCTURES                      192.12.     MAIN CATTLE MARKETS IN THE NORTH WEST REGION   202.13...
CHAPTER FOUR. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF THE RESULTS   484.1.   VIRTUAL PLANT COLLECTION                        484.2.   T...
Chapter One. INTRODUCTION1.1. B ACKGROUND  The past years witnessed a number of measures in Africa as well as a numberof v...
Kano area in present-day Nigeria. In the course of the nineteenth century theyadopted diverging migration trajectories and...
their animals to the continuation of some traditions. They are often described as acommunity with strict customs, but they...
4. To determine the problems involved in pasture improvement and prefer    solutions.1.4. S IGNIFICAN C E     OF THE   S T...
Chapter Two. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1. T HEORETICAL F RAMEWORK  The main objective of this study is to understand the socio-ec...
The socio-economic and agro-environmental context of the Mbororocommunity (MC) is function of: technical aspects (T), inst...
Traditionally, Jaafuns rear the Red Fulani and Akus, the White Fulani. But itdoesnt prohibit co-existences in breeds of bo...
457.838 heads of cattle counted in the North West region, only 72.070 (31.48%)animals were vaccinated against regional end...
Attempting to resolve conflicts between grazers and farmers by managingtranshumance could improve life standards of both p...
Silvopastoralism: “In the case of dry tropical tree formations, silvo-pastoralism is defined as the utilization by transhu...
horned cattle to be a prized possession and have dedicated their lives to caringfor their herds. Owning cattle is a symbol...
2.4. C ONF LICTS B ETWEEN G RAZ ERS                  ANS   F ARMERS   Competition between husbandry and farming is common ...
Agriculture and Forestry. All these bring pressure on the natural resources andcreate problems both for urban and rural po...
forms of group membership, in particular ethnicity, village affiliation and/or    residency.  Generally in Cameroon, land ...
distinctively individual act and requires a fair amount of economic and socialcapital. The majority of farmers and herders...
POSSIBLE AREAS OF INTERVENTION:− Train and educate traditional leaders and parents on gender issues− Carryout workshop at ...
(Nkambe), Sabongari (Nwa), Moons (Mbven), Batibo Sub Division, Njikwa SubDivision, Menchum Valley and Wada Valley (Menchum...
remain a problem. Labour is essentially provided by family members of farminggroups and hired labour for special activitie...
markets for these products in Bamenda, Bafoussam, Douala and other parts ofthe country is also an important factor contrib...
infrastructure such as slaughterhouses, modern vaccination and weightingcrutches. 53% of slaughterhouses and 60% of vaccin...
More than 80% of these cattle markets are not homologated and lack basicmarket infrastructure. Over 90% of cattle bought i...
2.15.          S YLVO - P ASTORAL S S YSTEMS   2.15.1.             S UB - SYSTEMS                        Silvopastoralism ...
dry tropical zone pastoralists in order to increase fodder availability at the end ofthe dry season. The woody vegetation ...
− The effect of pollarding varies according to the species and the season;  − Pollarding extends the fruit gathering perio...
Characteristics of forage species:− Palatability: some plants or parts of plants seem more palatable to cattle than  other...
If the term “pasture” refers to a particular geographic space, it also has abotanical meaning: a group of associated or ri...
Pluriannual development of pastures  The constant presence of cattle on pasture changes its floral composition.Development...
woody, to develop there. Fire and erosion reinforce pasture development  against invasion by rhizome species. These tuft-f...
Figure: Evolution of the floristic composition resulting from different treatments on theAbokouamékro Ranch in Côte d’Ivoi...
should be remembered that the organic matter supplied to the soil comesessentially from the underground system, which in h...
later than pastoralists, in the late dry season, to clear natural vegetation forcultivation and to clean the fields. (BAYE...
the seed on the slope on which legumes, hardy grasses and fodder shrubs canbe sown. Another variation is to make this ditc...
season. Existence of a wooded forage producing stratum in fields during the       dry season is beneficial as it enables t...
Consequently, in most climates (excepting temperate regions), in the periodwhere fresh feed is lacking, feed must be provi...
Chapter Three. METHODOLOGY3.1. R ESEARCH D ESIGN  This is a non-randomised survey research to understand the silvopastoral...
For this study, 7 ArDos were visited with a total of 87 participants. I choose tosample around 30% of the population of ea...
country has a whole surface area of 475,440 km² (involving 6000 km² of waterand 469,440 km² of land). The highest point of...
The North West region lies between latitudes 5° 43” and 7°                                                           9”N a...
This topography can be classified into three main zones: the lower altitude (<900m a.s.l.), the mid altitude (900 – 1500m ...
Source: MINTRANS (2009)                                  Rainfall Data - Bamenda Station                 700              ...
Temperature Data - Bamenda Station                30.0           C)        T (°                28.0                26.0   ...
− Savanna: “vegetation type that grows under hot, seasonally dry climatic             conditions and is characterized by a...
3.4. C O LLECTION      OF   D ATA  Collected data are from two types: primary data and secondary data. Primarydata were co...
studying a socio-economic system and a silvopastoral system, it makes use ofsome of the tools of the RRA method.   3.5.1. ...
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon
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This document is my master disertation made in Cameroon in 2009

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Mercier - Study of silvopastoralism in the mbororo community in the north west region of cameroon

  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Nothing is possible without the contribution of others. It is very important forme to thank everybody who participated in the elaboration of my dissertation. I am most grateful to:− Mr Nganteh from ANAFOR for his sound advice.− Dr. Mbanya and all the staff of IRAD Bambui for their scientific support and advice. Thanks to them to let me enter their research centre.− Dr. Bayemi (Ing. Agr.), my external supervisor, who helped me to design my project and all the background of my study. He provided me the necessary documentation needed in the realisation of my dissertation. Thanks to his wisdom.− Mr Sali and all the staff of Mboscuda for their friendship, their advice and all the help they gave to me.− All Mbororo-en from the North West region who let me enter their house, their families and who shared with me a part of their life, a part of their knowledge and a part of their wisdom.− My friends Bubakar Ali Shiddiki, Ousman Haman and Neba Derik for their field assistance and all their extraordinary knowledge about forestry and the Mbororo community.− Mr Robrecht, Mr Bamps and all the staff of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium who gave me the opportunity to verify my herbarium and to use their scan material.− Mr Marche and Mr Warnant, the supervisors of my dissertation whom were always available during all the realisation of this work. Also for the hints, the help and the time they have dedicated to me.− All the professors and staff of the ISIa who contributed to my training. I am deeply thankful to my parents, Mr. Mercier Luc and Mrs. Yolande Georgesfor their love and the emotional and financial supports they provided to me. Special thanks to Ángeles Luciana González Alcaraz, my beloved friend, for herencouragements. Thanks to every person that in one way or another contributed to theelaboration of this work. i
  2. 2. RESUME Une étude sylvo-pastorale a été menée dans la communauté Mbororo de larégion de Bamenda dans la province du Nord-Ouest au Cameroun. Le but decette étude était de comprendre la situation agro-socio-économique actuelle dupeuple Mbororo. Pour cela il fallait rechercher et comprendre les causes de latranshumance et ce qu’elle implique dans la vie des éleveurs de bétail. Il a fallu,également, faire un compte-rendu de la situation sociale, géographique etagronomique de la communauté Mbororo dans la région de Bamenda. L’étudesouligne les problèmes rencontrés entre les éleveurs de bétail et les cultivateurs,surtout durant la saison sèche quand les ressources alimentaires et en eaupotable pour le bétail sont beaucoup plus limitées. Le système pastoral de lacommunauté Mbororo a ensuite été étudié. Des problèmes de gestion des terres,notamment, ont été mis en lumière, tels que : le surpâturage, l’érosion, l’invasiondes pâtures par des fougères. La conclusion du travail consistait à dégager, àtravers des solutions agro-sylvo-pastorales préalablement étudiées, des pistes detravail ultérieur dont l’objectif global est la sauvegarde du mode de vie et de laculture du peuple Mbororo. Pour atteindre ces objectifs, des entretiens structuréset semi-structurés, à l’aide notamment d’un questionnaire, ont été menés auprèsdes éleveurs de bétail Mbororo dans la région de Bamenda. Une collection deplantes, centrée sur les arbres, fut réalisée pour identifier les espèces les plusutiles aux éleveurs. Afin d’en faciliter la consultation, cette collection a éténumérisée et présentée sur DVD-ROM. Une liste de plantes traditionnellementemployées en médecine ethno-vétérinaire a été réalisée. Et un transect permetde comprendre la réalité agronomique et culturelle des deux protagonistes, lesvillageois (dit autochtones) et les Mbororo-en. ABSTRACT A silvopastoral study was carried out in the Mbororo community in the NorthWestern province the region of Bamenda, Cameroon. The purpose of this studywas to better understand the Mbororo agro-socio-economic situation. In order todo this we had to investigate and understand the causes of transhumance and itsimplications on the lives of cattle breeders. A report was drawn up to consider thesocial, geographical and agronomic situation in the Mbororo community, in theBamenda region. The study highlighted the problems arising between grazers(cattle breeders) and farmers (villagers), especially during the dry season whenfood resources and water supplies for livestock are more limited. The report alsostudied the Mbororo pastoral system. Problems of land management includingovergrazing, erosion and fern invasion of pastures were considered. Theconclusion of this work was, using previously studied agro-silvo-pastoralsolutions, to find leads for future works, the overall objective of which is theprotection of Mbororo culture and lifestyle. To reach the objectives of this study,structured and semi-structured interviews were carried out, notably with the useof a questionnaire completed with Mbororo cattle breeders in the Bamendaregion. A plant collection (focused on trees) was realized to identify which speciesare most useful to cattle grazers. The plant collection was scanned and presentedin HTML format in order to facilitate access to it. A list of plants traditionally usedin ethno-veterinary medicine was also made. Finally, a transect helped come tothe understanding of the agronomic and cultural realities between the twoprotagonists; the villagers (autochthones) and the Mbororo-en. ii
  3. 3. KEYWORDS Cameroon – North West – Community – Mbororo – Fulani – Transhumance –Silvopastoralism – Nomadism LIST OF ACRONYMS− ANAFOR = Agence Nationale d’Appui au Développement Forestier− a.s.l. = Above Sea Level− CIRAD = Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement− HPI = Heifer Project International− IRAD = Institut de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement Rural− MBOSCUDA = Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association− MINADER = Ministère de l’Agriculture et du Développement Rural− MINEF= Ministère de l’Environnement et des Forêts− MINEPIA = Ministère de l’élevage, de la Pêche, et des Industries Animales− MINTRANS = Ministère des transports− PRA/RRA = Participatory (Rapid) Rural Appraisal− SNV = Stichting Nederlandse Vrijwilligers (Foundation of Netherlands Volunteers)− TLU = Tropical Livestock Unit iii
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IRÉSUMÉ IIABSTRACT IIKEYWORDS IIILIST OF ACRONYMS IIITABLE OF CONTENTS IVCHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION 11.1. BACKGROUND 11.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 31.3. OBJECTIVES 31.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 41.5. SCOPE 41.6. DURATION 4CHAPTER TWO. LITERATURE REVIEW 52.1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 52.1.1. TECHNICAL ASPECTS 62.1.2. INSTITUTIONAL RELATED ASPECTS 82.1.3. SOCIAL ASPECTS 82.1.4. ECONOMIC ASPECTS 92.1.5. SOME KEY CONCEPTS 92.2. MBORORO COMMUNITY IN CAMEROON 102.3. PROBLEMS FACED BY MINORITIES IN CAMEROON 112.4. CONFLICTS BETWEEN GRAZERS ANS FARMERS 122.5. POPULATION GROWTH AND INFLUENCE ON CONFLICTS OF INTEREST BETWEENFARMERS AND GRAZERS 122.6. LAND TENURE 132.7. ACCESS AND CONTROL OVER LAND 152.8. IMPLICATIONS OF TRANSHUMANCE 162.8.1. TRANSHUMANCE PASTORALISTS 162.8.2. TRANSHUMANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE NORTH WEST REGION 162.9. FARMING SYSTEMS IN THE NORTH WEST REGION 172.10. CATTLE PRODUCTION FOR THE NORTH WEST REGION 18 iv
  5. 5. 2.11. LIVESTOCK INFRASTRUCTURES 192.12. MAIN CATTLE MARKETS IN THE NORTH WEST REGION 202.13. LABOUR AND GENDER 212.14. CATTLE DISEASE 212.15. SYLVO-PASTORALS SYSTEMS 222.15.1. SUB-SYSTEMS 222.15.2. PRUNING OF TREES : POLLARDING AND LOPPING 222.15.3. NOTION OF FORAGE SPECIES 242.15.4. PASTURES EVOLUTION FACTORS 252.15.5. OVERGRAZING 282.15.6. BUSH FIRES (PASTORALISTS’ POINT OF VIEW) 292.15.7. PASTURE IMPROVEMENT 312.16. IMPROVEMENT BY HAYMAKING 33CHAPTER THREE. METHODOLOGY 353.1. RESEARCH DESIGN 353.2. POPULATION OF THE STUDY 353.3. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA OF STUDY 363.3.1. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION 363.3.2. TOPOGRAPHY 383.3.3. CLIMATE 393.3.4. VEGETATION 413.3.5. SOIL TYPE 423.4. COLLECTION OF DATA 433.5. PRIMARY DATA 433.5.1. QUESTIONNAIRE DEVELOPMENT 443.5.2. INTERNAL VALIDITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 443.5.3. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS 453.5.4. TRANSECTS 453.5.5. CHART OF TRADITIONALLY USED PLANTS 453.5.6. VIRTUAL PLANT COLLECTION 463.6. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 463.7. ANALYZING DATA 47 v
  6. 6. CHAPTER FOUR. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF THE RESULTS 484.1. VIRTUAL PLANT COLLECTION 484.2. TABLES OF TRADITIONALLY USED PLANTS 484.3. TABLES OF RESULTS 534.4. BRACKEN FERN INVASION 594.5. TRANSECT 60CHAPTER FIVE. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 64CHAPTER SIX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 67ANNEX 1 69ANNEX 2 74 vi
  7. 7. Chapter One. INTRODUCTION1.1. B ACKGROUND The past years witnessed a number of measures in Africa as well as a numberof violations of human and indigenous rights. It also witnesses a clear rise in thestruggle of the minority movement, particular in Algeria, Niger, Mali and Nigeria. The struggle for land and resources rights remained the mayor concern ofindigenous peoples throughout 2002 – 2003. A number of legal victories wererecorded such as the adoption by the Nicaraguan parliament of law on indigenouscommunal lands and two landmark ruling on indigenous land rights. In other partof the world, like Cameroon, Cambodia and Namibia, the indigenous peoplefeared the impact of cross-border development (e.g. Pipe-lines, hydroelectric damand commercial agriculture) (IWGIA 2003). One of the indigenous groups in Cameroon is the Mbororo of the North Westregion. The North West region, known as the Western Grassfields, covers anarea of about eighteen thousand kilometres. The majority of the population in thearea is subsistence farmers who belong to linguistically distinct communities butshare common features of socio-political organization. (Dafinger & Pelican, 2006:132) The Mbororo-en constitute a minority in the Westen Grassfields, accounting for5 to 10% of the region’s total population. The majority are Grassfielders which arelargely subsistence farmers and are organized in centralized chiefdoms andconfederations. They consider themselves “natives” and “guardians of the land”.(Pelican, 2008: 3) The spatial pattern of farmer-grazer relation, in North West Cameroon,separates herders’ and farmers’ settlements. Farmers concentrate in the valleysand riverside areas, grazers dwell on the highland pastures. (Dafinger & Pelican,2006: 132). The Mbororo community is internally diversified, comprising members of twomain sub-groups, namely Jaafun and Aku. Originally, both groups dwelled in the 1
  8. 8. Kano area in present-day Nigeria. In the course of the nineteenth century theyadopted diverging migration trajectories and developed distinct sub-ethnicidentities. Driven by a continuous search for new pastures, The Jaafun startedentering the western Grassfields in the early twentieth century. They came mainlyfrom the Adamaoua Plateau. The Aku followed later, from the 1940s onwards,attracted by favourable grazing conditions and administrative policies. (Pelican,2008: 3-4) Now Mbororo-en are well settled in the highlands of the region of Bamendaand territories are clearly defined in their mind. They have occupied placesneglected by villagers, sometimes far away from cities. But with the colonisations,the arrival of commercial crops and plantations (such as tea) and the increase ofpopulation, farmers have seen in the highlands a new source of incomes byexploiting plots of lands, especially closed to stream banks, that they didn’t careabout before because too far from their houses. Because of poverty or hard lifestyle, some Mbororo-en attempt to change theirconditions of live by moving into cities. Inside towns, where they don’t find anyworks because of lack of education or discriminations, some of them turn towardIslamic fundamentalism. Away from their cultural fashion of life, religion staystheir ultimate identity. Growing up separately from the majority of their livestock, young Mbororo-enno longer develop an interest in their cattle. An idle lifestyle results, and they selltheir animals with little concern for their pastoral future. Over the long term, thissedentary way of life lends itself to the development of dangerous behaviours.(Boutrais, 1996: 967). During the dry season, feed and water is lacking in the highlands. Cattlebreeders have to move down from the highlands to find better conditions in thelowlands. This is transhumance which is experienced by Mbororo-en as much asa suffering as a part of their culture. During transhumance, they know they willlose animals, the dairy productivity will be reduced and they will have to fightagainst villagers to reach pastures, to reach drinkable water or to defendthemselves and their cattle. It’s also the good period to contract diseases due tothe change of climate. Faced with the reality, Mbororo-en prefer the welfare of 2
  9. 9. their animals to the continuation of some traditions. They are often described as acommunity with strict customs, but they may be more ready than expected tochange if changes respect their deep nature. Some governmental organizations like ANAFOR are sensible to the conflictsbetween Mbororo-en and farmers. For ANAFOR, an important part of theproblems faced by the Mbororo community could be resolved with transhumancestopping. In facts, ANAFOR for which the role is to provide trees and developagroforestry systems is ready to work hard to integrate Mbororo ethno-veterinaryknow-how in a silvopastoral system for Mbororo-en use. Around watercatchments, they would develop kind of parks where Mbororo-en will find waterand all necessary plants to feed and cure their cattle. Final objective of thisprocess would be the settlement of Mbororo-en in defined places to ease theireducation and provide healthcare to a community usually broken up and isolated.1.2. S TATEMENT OF P ROBLEM The Mbororo-en as an indigenous group has been faced with severalproblems. Some of them are transhumance due the lack of animal feed, waterand land. Urbanization, as a result of population growth, and agriculturaldevelopment activities help in reducing the available pastoral land on thelowlands and the highlands at large. In consequences, tensions and conflictshave appeared between farmers/grazers and between grazers themselves. Whatdirectly contributes to the conflicts is also the lack of technical knowledge onmodern farming.1.3. O BJ ECTIVES The global objective of this survey is the preservation of a fashion of life.Through agronomic skills, the specific objectives of this survey will try to bringsome elements of response to the Mbororo’s problems. These specific objectivesare: 1. To identify the socio-economic activities of Mbororo-en. 2. To examine the silvopastoral systems in the Mbororo’s communities. 3. To identify trees, grass and shrubs species integrated in the system. 3
  10. 10. 4. To determine the problems involved in pasture improvement and prefer solutions.1.4. S IGNIFICAN C E OF THE S TUDY The Mbororo people have long faced problems of integration. Today, theirculture is threatened by a policy that does not take them into consideration, andindeed exploits them. The issues raised here relate to preserving a fashion of life,and preserving cultural diversity that enriches the world. We should not neglectthat with the loss of Mbororo culture, we run the risk of losing unique Africanethno-medicinal know-how. Through this research, we hope to collect sufficient data on silvopastoralsystems and on present Mbororo society to find solutions to problems faced bycattle breeders including transhumance, grazer-farmer conflicts, animal diseases,pasture improvement and a lack of technical knowledge.1.5. S COPE The study will identify the socio-economic activities and the silvopastoralsystem of Mbororo people.1.6. D URATION The study was carried out from May until July 2009. This included one monthof field research undertaken to conduct interviews with members of the Mbororocommunity of Santa subdivision and to collect, from the regions of Santa, Sabgaand Ndop, the plant samples needed for the establishment of the plant collection. 4
  11. 11. Chapter Two. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1. T HEORETICAL F RAMEWORK The main objective of this study is to understand the socio-economic context inrelation with grazing activities for the development of a sylvo-pastoral system forthe improvement of the Mbororo community in the North West region ofCameroon. This study will use the concept of project elaboration that wasdescribed by GITTINGER in 1985. Technical aspects: Soil and water resources Animal breeds used Animal feeding Fight against diseases and pests Transhumance Plants species utilization Pastures Management Institutional related aspects: Organization and management Land tenure Use of local institutions Management capacity of exploiters Government policies and policies of concerned structures Social aspects: Customs and cultures of grazers Conflicts between grazers and farmers Regional development Role of women Economic aspects: Farm size Revenue Production costsSource: Based on Ndambi, 2005 5
  12. 12. The socio-economic and agro-environmental context of the Mbororocommunity (MC) is function of: technical aspects (T), institutional related aspects(I), social aspects (S), economic aspect (E). MC = f(T,I,S,E) 2.1.1. T ECHNIC AL A SPECTS a) SOIL AND WATER RESOURCES The availability and the type of land and water used in pasturing are important.The obtaining of a good pasturage depends on the quality of soil. Unfortunately,in continuation to advanced erosion the quality of soils is poor. Moreover,culturally, Mbororo don’t maintain soils voluntarily. They let animal droppingsthere but they dont exercise an organized manure of pastures. Animal health can greatly be influenced by impurities of soil and resources inwaters. In Cameroon, bovine local productions depend on water streams as onlydrinkable water by animals. An elevated biologic load or pollution closed to farmscan affect the health of animals and endangered their production. b) ANIMAL BREEDS USED Some races in the world are known for their dairy performances (HolsteinFrisian, Jersey, Boran) or their performances for meat production (Blue Belgian,Aberdeen Angus, Charolaise, Blond of Aquitaine…). Such performance is gottenunder some conditions as a high-quality food, technical knowledge bound to therace, adequate infrastructures, a regular veterinary follow-up… the introduction ofhigh performance races in regions of the world where conditions of rearing forthese animals are not the same than in the original countries, cannot provide anoptimal yield of production. In Cameroon local races, that we can meet, are theGudalis, Red Fulani and White Fulani. Until now, the most present imported racein aim to improve the Cameroonian cattle is the Holstein. Recently, other raceslike Jersey, Simmental or Montbéliarde have been introduced to ends ofresearch. 6
  13. 13. Traditionally, Jaafuns rear the Red Fulani and Akus, the White Fulani. But itdoesnt prohibit co-existences in breeds of both communities. The mixed breedbetween Red Fulani and White Fulani is called Gudali. c) ANIMALS FEEDING Nutrition is a key element in the metabolism of the cow and within all product ofthe metabolism. It imports therefore in dairy production, as in growth of the animalor even in reproduction maturity. Malnutrition is the first cause of delay in sexualmaturity tropical zebu. Diminution in yield production occurs during the dryseason, when available food stocks, mainly in the highlands, decrease. In fact,culturally, Mbororo-en don’t make crops. Another fact is feed conservation as hayor silage which could totally or partially stall the lack met during the lean season. d) PASTURE MANAGEMENT Pastures are the main food resource for the livestock of the North West cattlebreeder. Cattle is the most important good in Mbororo culture and peoplededicate their lives to rearing their animals with care. Mbororo-en deliberatelyavoid fertilization of the land that receives only animal droppings during grazingtime and is insufficient to counter soil depletion. Better pasture and manuremanagement could provide a better quality feed over a longer period. It would beinteresting to find out if Mbororo-en would be prepared to maintain pastures in theHighlands and practice effective pasture rotation to enable vegetationregeneration. e) FIGHT AGAINST DISEASES AND PESTS The control of and the fight against cattle diseases are both essential. Not onlydo diseases affect cattle productions (milk, growth…) but some, includingtuberculosis can be transmitted to humans in milk. Prophylactic treatmentprograms should be organized in the aim to control such losses all the whileensuring that veterinary services are sufficiently wide to cover all cattle breeders.This coverage is, in general, very difficult to develop. In Cameroon, in 2003, of the 7
  14. 14. 457.838 heads of cattle counted in the North West region, only 72.070 (31.48%)animals were vaccinated against regional endemic diseases. (Ndambi, 2005) f) TRANSHUMANCE Transhumance is practiced in Cameroon as a method of survival. Not providingenough feed and drinkable water for the cattle during the dry season, cattlebreeders of the highlands must go down to the lowlands, in proximity to streamsand where feed remains plentiful. During this period, a herder burns land when hereaches it in order to encourage grass regrowth. This technique has the terribledrawback of killing the soil’s biosphere. This could affect the fertility of the landover the long term. It is also during this period that conflicts worsen betweenhighlands cattle grazers and lowlands farmers. g) PLANTS SPECIES, UTILIZATION AND IMPROVEMENT Mbororo-en have their own veterinary medicine based on the use of naturalresources and plants in particular. This knowledge could be preserved byintegrating these into an agro-forestry system to which cattle breeders haveaccess. Before this occurs however, it is necessary to identify the entirety of thevegetal species used by the Mbororo community. 2.1.2. I NSTITUTIONA L R ELATED A SPECTS These are very vital aspects since they determine the degree to which otheraspects could be influential. They include organization and management ofstructures involved, land tenure systems, farm sizes, use of local institutions,management capacity of exploiters government policies and policies ofconcerned structures, customs and cultures of cattle breeder and the degree ofacceptance of innovation. (Ndambi, 2005: 7) 2.1.3. S OCIAL A SPECTS Social organisation brings out patterns of social relationship and institutionalarrangements within production set-ups. It includes roles, rules, authority systemsas well as their enforcement mechanisms. (Ndambi, 2005). 8
  15. 15. Attempting to resolve conflicts between grazers and farmers by managingtranshumance could improve life standards of both protagonists. Indeed, farmerswouldn’t suffer propriety trespassing and, in the other hand, grazers wouldn’t beattacked, insulted or stolen; they wouldn’t have to take as many risks andmarginalize them-selves to rear their cattle. 2.1.4. E CONOMIC A SPECTS These include the farm size, the revenue of farmers and production costs forcattle rearing. Transhumance and conflicts generate situation where grazers maylose their animals, because of diseases, thieves and attacks. These facts couldlead to a reduction of their incomes. Cattle improvement is a possibility to get analike production with less heads of cattle. Breeders could focalize on qualityrather than quantity. 2.1.5. S OME K EY C ONC EPTS Though they all refer to livestock farming, terms like nomadism, pastoralism,silvopastoralism or transhumance can sometimes remain confused in their use.Therefore, for a better understanding of the survey of cattle rearing systems in theconcerned region, it would be interesting to present a definition of these terms. Pastoral nomadism: “Pastoral nomads, who depend on domesticatedlivestock, migrate in an established territory to find pasturage for their animals.Most groups have focal sites that they occupy for considerable periods of theyear. Pastoralists may depend entirely on their herds or may also hunt or gather,practice some agriculture, or trade with agricultural peoples for grain and othergoods.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica online) Pastoralism: “Herding societies are in many respects the direct opposite offorest horticulturalists. They are usually the most nomadic of primitive societies,they occupy arid grasslands rather than rainforests, they have a nearly totalcommitment to their animals, and their sociopolitical system is nearly always thatof a true hierarchical chiefdom rather than of egalitarian villages and tribalsegments.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica online) 9
  16. 16. Silvopastoralism: “In the case of dry tropical tree formations, silvo-pastoralism is defined as the utilization by transhumant and agro-pastoral herds,of natural environments that may be occasionally, but not permanently farmed orcultivated.” (Bellefontaine, 2000) “… silvopastoral systems will be considered as those wheretrees are grown in grazed pasture in a regular or varied pattern.” (InternationalCongress on Silvopastoralism and Sustainable Land Management, 2004) Transhumance: “form of pastoralism or nomadism organized around themigration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm seasons and loweraltitudes the rest of the year. The seasonal migration may also occur betweenlower and upper latitudes. Most peoples who practice transhumance also engagein some form of crop cultivation, and there is usually some kind of permanentsettlement.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica online)2.2. M BORORO C OMMUNITY IN C AMEROON The Mbororo-en in Cameroon make up one of the largest single ethnic groupwho speak the same language: Fulani (or Fulfulde), in the North West province. The Mbororo-Fulani arrived in Cameroon in the early eighteen century,entering through the Adamaoua and Northen Provinces. They later migrated andsettled in eight of Cameroon’s ten provinces to the exception of the South andLitoral Provinces which are not suitable for cattle rearing. (Mboscuda.org, 2010) The Mbororo-Fulani can be divided into three major ethnic groups identified bythe colour of their cattle, style of decoration of their bowls, and migratorymovements. These are the “Aku-en” (-en is the plural form), Bodaabe and the“Jaafun-en”. In Cameroon Mbororo-en (singular: Mbororo) are found all over thenational territory under four Lamidats (the paramount traditional institution) underwhom are found community leaders called ArDos. The four Lamidats are found inFuigil in the North Province, Lompta in the Adamaoua Province, Sabga in theNorth West Province and Didango in the West Province. (Mboscuda.org, 2010) The Mbororo-Fulani follow the traditions of their ancestors, and are consideredthe purist of all Fulani groups. These nomadic herdsmen consider the long- 10
  17. 17. horned cattle to be a prized possession and have dedicated their lives to caringfor their herds. Owning cattle is a symbol of health and well-being among allFulani. In fact, the level of a mans respect is based on the number of cattle heowns and how much he knows about herding. The cattle have their own namesand are treated with affection by the Mbororo-en. Milk is the staple food of theMbororo-en. Their daily diet usually includes milk, butter, and cheese. They feelvery strongly about morality, and constantly strive to be generous, honest, andrespectful. They are very reserved people, who are shy and modest in public.Family relationships are therefore restrained. Even mothers are not permitted tobe with their infant sons, since the Mbororo feel that it is inappropriate foraffection to be shown in public. (Joshua Project, 2010)2.3. P RO BLEM S FACED BY M INORITIES IN C AMEROON The Mbororo in the Western Grassfields experienced themselves as apolitically marginalised and economically exploited minority. The British colonialadministration had classified them as “strangers” and had denied themautonomous political representation. Local Grassfielders’ (“autochthones’”)attempts to integrate them into their socio-political community constituted aconstant source of dependency and exploitation. (Pelican, 2007: 7) A draft law on Marginal Populations in Cameroon is being prepared by theMinistry of Social Affairs. The process started in 2007 and focuses on thepromotion and protection of marginal populations. The Ministry of Social Affairs isthe main actor. Though not officially consulted, in 2008 the indigenouscommunities made their contributions through the United Nations Sub-regionalCentre for Human Rights and Democracy. The draft law has not yet beenvalidated. Groups to be protected by this law includes the Mbororo-en, thePygmies, the mountain dwellers (the Kirdi people), and the people of the creeks(people of the small islands). The present draft law is favourable to indigenouspopulations, as it deals with delicate questions of land ownership, culture andsocial rights. With this law, indigenous people will have a legal base on which tomake claims whenever such rights are violated. (IWGIA 2009: 536) 11
  18. 18. 2.4. C ONF LICTS B ETWEEN G RAZ ERS ANS F ARMERS Competition between husbandry and farming is common in tropical Africa. Ifboth activities are sometimes complementary, confrontational relations almostalways result. However, since farmers began to rear cattle, the problem is nolonger so simple. The success of new cattle rearing programs shows that thisactivity is within reach of farmers themselves. Considered another way, conflictsneed not be reduced to a confrontation between those that own cattle and others.Mbororo-en become aware of being directly blamed, to a greater extent than thecattle, and as such, begin to consider themselves as being excluded as“strangers”. A spatial dispute can thus deteriorate into ethnic and culturalopposition. To explain the nature of these conflicts, BOUTRAIS (1996) attempts a livestockreasoning approach. According to him, the antagonism arising from the use ofplateaus opposes livestock on the one hand and women farmers on the other.The importance of this pastoral case can be explained by the notion of ‘livestockdensity’1. Female farmers, for their part, represent the main farming actors,supported by the village population. According to the same author, the relativepopulation-livestock densities would appear to indicate the most plausibletensions areas.2.5. P OPULATION G ROWTH AND I NFLUENCE ON C O NFLICTS OF I NTEREST B ETW EEN F ARMERS AND G RAZERS Conflicts of interest between grazers and farmers due to population increaseand pressure on natural resources are discussed here. The sporadic or ribboning growth of towns brings pressures on such naturalresources as land, vegetation, streams and air. All uncontrolled development assuch causes loss of economic land, deforestation, air and water pollutions.Deforestation itself reduces the water levels and moisture quantity in the air andcauses droughts. Grazers are pushed farther away resulting in conflicts between 1 Boutrais (1996) defines the livestock density as the average density of animals per km² andper year. 12
  19. 19. Agriculture and Forestry. All these bring pressure on the natural resources andcreate problems both for urban and rural populations. The towns are growing fast and uncontrolled in such a way that Bamenda townfor example is likely to link up with Bali, Mbengwi, Bafut, Bambili if things areallowed to grow the way they go. In this connection the town would consume theagricultural, grazing and forestry land between urban communities. This reductionof land by city development and extension and increase of population using suchland will create a problem since each user will be struggling to get a sufficientshare of the land for its development. (MINEF, 1994: 11)2.6. L AND T ENURE Access to land and land tenure security are the heart of all rural societies andagricultural economies. Land tenure comprises the rules and norms governinghow, when and where people access land and other natural resources. Theserules and norms can be administered by statutory (formal) and customary(informal) systems. The two systems will be described briefly to highlight existinglinkages with livestock-related activities. (IFAD, 2009: 2) − Statutory laws refer to legislation and/or other legal instruments promulgated by official authorities. The term is used to denote law as made by the State, in contrast to customary law, which derive from the customary institutions specific to particular contexts and circumstances. In statutory systems, access to and use of natural resources are governed formally by the State and any dispute deriving from conflicting interests by various categories of stakeholders (pastoralists, farmers, tenants) is also regulated by national laws. − Customary systems are context-specific and diverse. They tend to balance individual and group rights and generally have a collective element to resource management, including group decision-making for determining access and use and management of resources in common areas. In such contexts, group identity plays a significant role in managing access to land and resources. Indeed, the right to access common property is based on 13
  20. 20. forms of group membership, in particular ethnicity, village affiliation and/or residency. Generally in Cameroon, land is state property. However, national land in theNorth West region is owned and controlled by traditional authorities throughcustomary tenure. To acquire a piece of land one has to pass through thesetraditional authorities. In 2006, a majority of people indicated land is mostlyacquired through inheritance within their communities, while others indicated thatfamilies and individuals buy land. The landlords sometimes lease portions of theirland to individuals or groups for agricultural activities. A negligible portion of theland is given out as gifts. In most grazing communities, land which is not private property (has no landtitle) is communally owned and grazed. Hence, there is usually a scramble overresource use without adequate management leading to overexploitation anddepleting of rangeland resources. The value of the land is determined by the nature of the terrain, its fertilitystatus, location and therefore the type of activity to be carried out on the piece ofland. There is no discrimination on the sale of land to non-indigenes. However, insome rural areas where land is in abundance and the value is low, land is notbought but acquired from the traditional rulers. (MINADER, Nov 2006, p. 42) According to DAFINGER & PELICAN (2006), in Cameroon, colonial and post-colonial governments grappled with the question of how to coalesce customaryand modern land tenure, that is, how to combine land ownership and propertyrights. Approaches to nationalize and privatize land were already introduced bythe German and British colonial regimes and implemented after Cameroonianindependence. Through control over land, the government attempted to exercisecontrol and political power over people and their economic production. In theearly 1940s, the British administration, confronted with the problem of recurrentcrop damages, decided to intervene into farmer-herder relations and take controlover the allocation of land. They split the land into farming and grazing areas,assigning these to farmers and herders, respectively. With the officialnationalization of all lands in 1974, farmers and herders were only given theusufructs rights in the respective zones. Yet acquiring a land certificate is a 14
  21. 21. distinctively individual act and requires a fair amount of economic and socialcapital. The majority of farmers and herders have not been able to do so andtherefore remain “landless”. The shift control over land from the local to thenational level had serious impacts on the power balance between farmers andgrazers. Both farmers and the herder lost large parts of the power as theywithdrew from active negotiation over land rights. The state, meanwhile, becamemore powerful.2.7. A CCESS AND C O NTRO L OVER L AND A survey of 2006 shows men mostly control land while 92% indicated thatwomen have access over land. It is worth noting that most traditional norms andcustoms of the province prohibit the girl child from inheriting land. Most women do not have the economic power to buy land and decisions onhouseholds income is largely determined by men thus limiting women to buy andown land. However, women who have money can buy and own land but thesituation is difficult. Applying for land grants by individual women or womengroups to carry out permanent development initiatives is an alternative option toencourage. (MINADER, Nov 2006: 41) PROBLEMS RELATED TO LAND TENURE SYSTEM:− Unequal distribution of farmland (some people have excess while others have little or no farmland)− Conditions to acquire land from the traditional councils are rigid and take long− Individual women do not have the right to acquire land from the traditional council− Family dispute on family land− Poor demarcation of land leading to boundary and farmer/grazer conflicts− Poor implementation of the land tenure law at grassroots e.g. administrative and traditional bottlenecks at village and Sub Divisional levels hinders land acquisition and resolution of land disputes. 15
  22. 22. POSSIBLE AREAS OF INTERVENTION:− Train and educate traditional leaders and parents on gender issues− Carryout workshop at grassroots on the land tenure law in Cameroon− Carryout proper demarcation and recognition of village boundaries− Set up transparent local commissions to resolve land conflicts− Lobby and advocate for simplification of the procedure to acquire land certificates− Exploit possibilities of enhancing farmers/grazers integrated activities− Carryout workshop for farmers, herders, traditional authorities and administration on conflict resolution and form farmer/grazer mixed conflict resolution commissions in the communities (MINADER, Nov 2006: 41)2.8. I M PLICATIO NS OF T RANSHUMANC E 2.8.1. T RANSHUMANC E P ASTORALISTS Transhumance pastoralists follow a cyclical pattern of migrations that usuallytake them to cool highland valleys in the summer and warmer lowland valleys inthe winter. This is seasonal migration between the same two locations in whichthey have regular encampments or stable villages often with permanent houses.Transhumance pastoralists usually depend somewhat less on their animals forfood than do nomadic ones. They often do small scale vegetable farming at theirsummer encampments. They also are more likely to trade their animals in townmarkets for grain and other things that they do not produce themselves. (0’Neil,2007) 2.8.2. T RANSHUMANC E A CTIVITIES IN THE N ORTH W EST R EGION In the dry season, grazers in search of green pasture and water, move theircattle down the plains and valleys. Prominent transhumance areas in theProvince include the Ndop plains (Ngoketunjia), Ako Sub Division, Mayo Binka 16
  23. 23. (Nkambe), Sabongari (Nwa), Moons (Mbven), Batibo Sub Division, Njikwa SubDivision, Menchum Valley and Wada Valley (Menchum), Ber and Wasi (Jaliri).During transhumance, some negative consequences are witnessed whichinclude:− High death rate of calves due to hunger, pests, diseases and stress− High transmission rate animals pests and diseases− Farmer/grazer conflicts− Children drop out of school to become herds men− Increased bush fires by grazers− Cross border infections of humans and animals− High rate of cattle theft (MINADER, Nov 2006: 56)2.9. F ARMING S YSTEMS IN THE N ORTH W EST R EGION In general, farming in the North West region is extensive and dominated byfour main agricultural domains: crops, livestock, aquaculture and non-conventional activities (mosly bee-farming). There is the practice of cropassociations like plantain/maize/beans/cocoyams, maize/beans/yams,maize/beans/solanum potato, maize/soyabeans/beans, etc, involving, at least twoto four crops planted on the same piece of land followed by five months to fiveyears fallow to restore the soil fertility. Crops rotation like maize-bean/groundnuts/soyabeans or solanum potato-maize/beans, etc are alsocommon. Perennial crops like coffee/cocoa, oil palm are cultivated either pure orin association with fruit trees, plantain/banana and food crops. Contour ridging iscommon and is formed from crop residues and grasses. The use of improved seed variety is common despite their inadequateavailability. The intensification of use of improved seeds will increase production,reduce diseases and increase the income of the farmer. Chemical fertilizers andpesticides used on food crops are low while their low availability and high prices 17
  24. 24. remain a problem. Labour is essentially provided by family members of farminggroups and hired labour for special activities. Concerning animal production, there are the extensive and semi intensivetypes, which involve large ruminants, small ruminants, pigs, poultry and cattle. Alot of the extensive livestock production is praticed in Donga Mantung andMenchum Divisions. Crop – livestock farmers’ conflict are predominant due to thefree ranging of livestock and the encroachment of crop farmers into grazing lands.Conflicts usually occur during transhumance when animals stray into crop farms. The concept of crops livestock integrations is still to be improved upon. Theagricultural pressure is more pronounced on lowlands and urban area than on thehighland due to easier cultivation possibilities and high population densityrespectively. The production of market oriented gardening crops like carrots, tomato,cabbages is common in the high land zone involving an intensive use of inputsand labour. Concerning forest exploitation, there is mainly the fetching of wood for homeconsumption and medicinal plants for traditional healing. However, some illegalsmall-scale timber exploitation is carried out by individuals. Some forests need tobe conserved for bio-diversity and environmental conservation (Oku forest,Bamenda Highland forest). There are also private forests made up of mainly theeucalyptus trees (used for fuel and construction work), raffia palms and othernatural plants mostly used for craftwork and tapping of wine. (MINADER, Nov2006: 8)2.10. C ATTLE P RODUCTION FOR THE N O RTH W EST R EGIO N Cattle rearing is a common practice in the Province due to its physicallandscape, climate and grasslands with spotted forest patches making it easy forfree range grazing. The Province has a high potential for livestock production with the presence ofMbororo-en that carry out the activity as their major livelihood. The availability of 18
  25. 25. markets for these products in Bamenda, Bafoussam, Douala and other parts ofthe country is also an important factor contributing to livestock production. Table: Cattle production in the North West region Grazing land Grazing land Number of Number of Number of (ha) (ha) invaded grazers 2005 cattle in cattle in Divisions by bracken 2005 2006 fernBoyo 30,230 24,773 582 43,661 69,250Bui 66,500 45,100 1,143 56,010 55,382Donga 115,963 51,980 1,717 129,754 129,654MantungMenchum 144,120 39,345 784 62,920 70,500Mezam 37,431 478 2,988 26,937 62,920Momo 105,610 44,179 515 14,745 28,934Ngoketunjia 932 300 274 6,649 8,422TOTAL 500,786 206,155 8,003 340,676 425,062 Source: Divisional Delegation of MINEPIA 2006 According to MINEPIA, about 90% of the cattle in the North West region ownsto the Mbororo community. Bracken fern occupies approximately 41% of total grazing land in the Province. Little or no measures are taken to eliminate bracken fern, which is a majorthreat to livestock production in the Province. The ministry of Livestock, AnimalIndustry and Fisheries (MINEPIA) encourages the establishment of improvedpastures in the Province. Guatemala, Brachiaria, Desmodium plots exist in someparts of the Province, though quantity planted and area covered is insignificantand not regularly managed. There is need to organise mass sensitizationcampaigns against bush burning and embark on sustainable rangelandmanagement by supporting herders to carry out improved pasture development.(MINADER, Nov 2006: 55)2.11. L IVESTOCK I NFRASTRUCTURES Generally, little efforts have been made to develop livestock infrastructurethrough out the Province. Most Sub Division do not have major livestock 19
  26. 26. infrastructure such as slaughterhouses, modern vaccination and weightingcrutches. 53% of slaughterhouses and 60% of vaccination crutches in theProvince have temporal structures. Quarantine areas for cattle under custody donot exist especially for areas vulnerable to cattle diseases and pests. The absence of drinking points escalates conflicts especially during the dryseason when cattle stray into farms in search of water. Furthermore, in manyplaces both animals and humans tend to drink from the same water source, atypical example being the Nkambe watershed, Lip, Mbonso, and other places.(MINADER, Nov 2006)2.12. M AIN C ATTLE M ARKETS IN THE N ORTH W EST R EGIO N Livestock marketing is an important economic activity that providesemployment and generates revenue to most councils in the Province. Apart fromcattle markets, which are organised to an extent, small livestock are sold atrandom. Table: Bovine sold in cattle markets and cattle prices in 2006 Animals sold in Cattle prices (in CFA) Division cattle markets Minimum Maximum Bui 9,542 50,000 350,000 Boyo 2,432 120,000 376,000 Donga Mantung 2,520 40,000 430,000 Menchum 1,999 65,000 300,000 Mezam 23,395 110,000 450,000 Momo 2,432 250,000 500,000 Ngoketunjia 16 60,000 250,000 TOTAL 42,336 The prices of cattle show great variation from one division to another. Thisvariation can be accounted for by economic factors (market dynamics) as youmove from one location to another. (MINEPIA, 2006) 20
  27. 27. More than 80% of these cattle markets are not homologated and lack basicmarket infrastructure. Over 90% of cattle bought in rural markets are taken toBamenda, Bafoussam and Douala for consumption.2.13. L ABOUR AND G ENDER Generally, the whole family is involved in cattle caring. In the more pastoralistcommunities, adult men take cattle for grazing while women and children do themilking, processing and milk marketing. School children milk cows before going toschool in the morning. The peak period for labour demand is the dry season(January to March) when the farming season starts. At this time, labour is hired totake cattle for transhumance at a cost of 15,000 FCFA per month. Labour is paidfor farm preparation at 10,000 to 20,000 FCFA for a one eighth hectare farm or600 FCFA per man day. When men are married to many wives, at least one ofthem is in charge of farming and gardening. In the Mbororo pastoralistcommunities, men own cattle but the milk belongs to the women. In Mukweh,some labour is paid with liquid milk. In Sabga peak labour demand in the rainyseason is for training of first-calf cows for milking. (Bayemi & Al., 2005: 16)2.14. C ATTLE D ISEASE Major dairy cattle diseases in the Western highland are in order of importanceticks and tick born diseases: babesiosis, anaplasmosis, dermatophilosis,cowdriosis; mastitis in milking cows; diarrhea; foot and mouth disease (FMD);black quarter; ephemeral fever and ear infection. Veterinary services are providedby non governmental organizations or private veterinarians. Vaccination is doneyearly against black quarter, haemorrhagic septicaemia, and contagious bovinepleuropneumonia. Only few farmers spray their dairy animals. Hand de-ticking ismore common. It is the fear of ticks that prevents some farmers from sendingcrossbred cattle in low and hot lands on transhumance during the dry season.Many traditional farmers make use of ethno- veterinary medicine (Sabga, Jakiri,and Bamdzeng). (Bayemi & Al., 2005: 17) 21
  28. 28. 2.15. S YLVO - P ASTORAL S S YSTEMS 2.15.1. S UB - SYSTEMS Silvopastoralism Trees Animals Association Direct Indirect Entomoforestry Pruning of trees used as forage (Forage bank) Silvoapiculture Silvosericulture Aquaforestry Silvopisciculture Pisciculture in mangroves Mammals Forestry pastoralism Animal production under tree cover Based on Neba (2009) Ameliorated pasture 2.15.2. P RUNING OF T REES : P OLLARDING AND L O PPING Pollarding consists in pruning branches level with the main stem, trimming-outend parts of branches or apical shoots of the crown. It is very widely used by the 22
  29. 29. dry tropical zone pastoralists in order to increase fodder availability at the end ofthe dry season. The woody vegetation provides about 50 percent of the proteinsin the lean period between the dry and the rainy season. (Bellefontaine and Al.,2000: 157) According to De BOER and KESSLER (1994), a study carried out on theMbororo livestock husbandry system in Burkina Faso, shows that it has very littleharmful effect on the environment, except on the trees which are pollarded. Different types of pollarding and leaf stripping (extraction of leaves and twigs)operations have been carried out in Mali (Cissé, in Le Houérou, 1980) on threespecies (Combretum aculeatum, Cadaba farinosa and Feretia apodanthera): totalleaf stripping every 15 and 50 days respectively, partial leaf stripping the totalremoval of the leaves every 15 days, the total removal of leaves every 30 days,partial leaf removal and a control treatment. The results have shown that there isa direct influence on leaf production of both the periodicity and the period oflopping: − The leaf biomass is larger after the rainy season; − A partial pruning of the branches and stripping of the leaves is more productive than a total extraction; − When comparing the two leaf stripping operations at 15 and 30 days, production is higher in the case of the 30-day leaf stripping; − Leaf stripping can have both a depressive effect on leaf production (Cadaba and Combretum) and a stimulating effect (Feretia); − The protein content is inversely proportional to the frequency of pruning. Few surveys and studies have been conducted into the response capacity ofdifferent species to pollarding, lopping and stumping. Those that have shown that: − If overdone, these practices threaten the survival of the species; − The trees are more subject to termites attack; − In the event of a fire, the whole tree is affected, especially umbrella trees whose partially sectioned branches hang to the ground, protecting grass from grazing (hence constituting a stock of flammable straw); 23
  30. 30. − The effect of pollarding varies according to the species and the season; − Pollarding extends the fruit gathering period into the second half of the dry season for some species. CISSÉ (1992) has shown that lopping tends to spread out the period duringwhich trees bear leaves, if it does not kill it. Defoliation is delayed to the point thatthe sprouts, which remain in the vegetative state, can keep their leaves in the off-season. This is one of the practical advantages of the lopping technique. Figure: Pruning of trees Source: von Carlowitz, 1991 2.15.3. N OTION OF F ORAGE S PECIES According to BELLEFONTAINE (2000), the term ‘Forage’ refers to all specieswhose organs serve to feed livestock animals, whereas “fodder” refers more tothe function of a species than any specific characteristic. In fact, almost all plantsmay be used as fodder when conditions are preferable to, or require their use. Qualitatively however, not all species are equivalent. Some are considered tobe good forage, others only average or poor. Reaching a qualitative measure alsodepends on the type of animal that appreciates a plant species to a greater orlesser extent. A further consideration is the state of the plant organs to beconsumed. 24
  31. 31. Characteristics of forage species:− Palatability: some plants or parts of plants seem more palatable to cattle than others. Cattle are first attracted to these plants, neglecting less palatable species.− Nutritive value: as is the case for human food, nutritive values differ between fodder types.− Digestibility: a species can provide forage of high nutritive value for one animal, yet pose digestive difficulties for others.− Absence of toxicity: toxicity can occur in one animal and not in another. It is possible that the organs of certain plants are toxic while others are not.− Grazing resistance: it is essential that plants stay alive after grazing, otherwise the species would disappear.− Fodder productivity: the amount of forage produced by each plant is important. Discrete species, the fodder organs of which do not grow back easily will be eliminated during successive cattle movements.− Exploitability: facility with which we can establish the species on a land and exploit it. All criteria listed above apply in a progressive manner. A given leaf isparticularly appetizing and digestible for cattle while it is young. Another type ofleaf, an irritant, is refused as long as it is living, but constitutes excellent forageonce wilted. 2.15.4. P ASTURES E VOLUTIO N F AC TORS According to BELLEFONTAINE (2000), pasture is the land where herbivores –domestic or wild – come to feed. This differs from fields on which crops arecultivated. A pasture can be ‘natural’ if seedling occurs naturally and withouthuman intervention, or artificial when species developing there are in the greaterpart, sowed by humans. Pasture vegetation is, generally, composed of manyseasonal, pluriseasonal or perennial species. They are either herbaceous orwoody. 25
  32. 32. If the term “pasture” refers to a particular geographic space, it also has abotanical meaning: a group of associated or rival vegetables, constantly evolvingwith changes in climate, soil fertility, the level of intensive cattle exploitation,vegetative cycles and reproductive patterns of each species present. Exploitation techniques for pastures also lead to different evolutions. If a landis permanently grazed by cattle, its vegetation evolves differently than if this landis in rotation. Likewise, land evolves differently depending on whether it ismowed, pastured or burnt. We must also distinguish forage fields – or forage orchards – from pastures.Forage fields are plots of land cultivated to produce fodder that will be harvestedand stored before serving as cattle feed. In relation to types of fodder, we mustdistinguish between two types of development, one annual and the otherpluriannual. Seasonal development of pastures Over the course of a year, plants succeed each other in occupying the land.The most significant biomass activity occurs at the beginning of the rainy season.There are both early species whose development proceeds in a few weeks andmore belated species, whose cycle only ends after the rainy season, or evenduring the dry season. Seasonal pasture development also depends on the reproductive patterns ofdifferent species. Those that reproduce exclusively by seed can develop onlyafter the first rains and this development will be either hastened or sloweddepending on the conditions. Those that reproduce by rhizomes, by tillers, bulbsor tubers have accumulated resources available that enable them to begin theircycle earlier, sometimes even before the rains start. Some develop vegetationduring the dry season using stored water in their organs or water reserves storedin soil layers deep in the earth. It is in this progressive seasonal context that animals feed on natural pastures.The interest hereby arises in species diversity of the pastureland as it enables theproduction of edible matter for animals to be spread over time. 26
  33. 33. Pluriannual development of pastures The constant presence of cattle on pasture changes its floral composition.Developmental factors linked to the presence of cattle are the following:− Selectivity: When cattle remain on the same land, the most palatable plant species are first eaten by animals and are overexploited. They are subsequently unable to complete their vegetative cycle and reproduce. The dissemination of seed-reproducing seasonal or perennial species is thus compromised and their density on the pastureland decreases. If the species concerned is a tree sought after by cattle, young plants are not able to establish themselves. On the other hand, less appreciated species will develop and, eventually, invade the land.− Proliferation of species less palatable to, or rejected by cattle. These have time to complete their vegetative cycle and disseminate their seeds. Furthermore, extinction of the most sought after species encourages this proliferation, because rejected species meet less root competition. Only grazing management that limits cattle density, encouraging the spread of best forage species through adequate rotation of pasture and reaping periods, and diversifying forage stratum enables unwanted proliferation of poor quality species to be avoided. Fallow periods must be planned every year and over different periods in order to periodically allow all species the occasion to produce their seed and allow them to become established.− Reaping does not have the same effects as cattle grazing, because all grasses are cut, good and bad fodder alike. The least prized species do not have the opportunity to proliferate by seed as is the case with grazing. It is necessary to cut poor forage species rejected by cattle wherever they have a tendency to proliferate.− Stalling is another factor of impoverishment and reorganisation of forage vegetation. Young plants of seed-reproducing seasonal species are either totally destroyed by stalling, or damaged: their growth is disturbed and they are badly developed when they reach maturity. Where pasture is constantly exploited, stalling encourages tuft species. Soil between tufts is so compressed and constricted that it is impossible for young plants, whether herbaceous or 27
  34. 34. woody, to develop there. Fire and erosion reinforce pasture development against invasion by rhizome species. These tuft-forming species resist well against fire whereas other species are more sensitive. Erosion occurs between tufts, digging into the soil.− Cultivation of lands is an additional factor regarding the reduction of natural forage production. Successive ploughing and hoeing prevents natural forage from developing and results in the collapse of the herbaceous forage species seed stock. 2.15.5. O VERGRAZING Overgrazing may be defined as action by livestock which modifies the potentialof a range land. The first manifestation of overgrazing is the modification of thefloristic composition. The sought-after palatable disappear giving way to non-palatable species which are not sought after which have been given the chanceto multiply. This disappearance of sought-after species may be due to thedepletion of the root system, as will be seen later. But in physiognomic terms, thisdevelopment is not particularly visible. The other visible manifestation ofovergrazing is better known, because it brings erosion, and sometimes to aspectacular degree. The gradual disappearance of the grass cover, and even itstotal disappearance, and trampling encourage water erosion. This is particularlyacute in hilly areas, such as in the Adamawa in Cameroon. (Bellefontaine & Al.,2000: 154) Continuous grazing, which often leads to overgrazing, reduces the productionof regrowth. The grasses are unable to reconstitute their underground reserves,with the result that the root system is depleted by losing mass. This reducesproduction the following year. However, by introducing a rest period, since the soilis not depleted, the grazing potential is restored. Old fallows and savannas whichseem to be fairly hardy and have sufficient biomass need to be managed withgreat care. Range management in savanna areas must in fact operate tomaintain the pasture potentialities, while avoiding bush encroachment.(Bellefontaine & Al., 2000: 162) 28
  35. 35. Figure: Evolution of the floristic composition resulting from different treatments on theAbokouamékro Ranch in Côte d’Ivoire. Source: Bellefontaine & Al, 2000: 163 2.15.6. B USH F IRES ( PASTORALISTS ’ POINT OF VIEW ) When discussing bush fires two questions arise: their causes and theirusefulness. CIRAD has addressed the question of bush fires in the paper Fichestechniques d’élevage tropical (Ministry of Cooperation and Development, 1990),and what follows is largely taken from this paper. Apart from rare cases in which they are due to lightning, the main cause isman. Fire is deliberate (fires ignited by hunters and herdsmen, or of malevolentorigin) or accidental (travelers’ fires not properly extinguished, agriculturalclearing fires which get out of control, etc.).The impact of fire on the chemical contents of the soil is small. Virtually all themineral elements return to the soil after burning, except for nitrogen. However, it 29
  36. 36. should be remembered that the organic matter supplied to the soil comesessentially from the underground system, which in humid regions, has a greaterbiomass than the aerial complex. The rate of root renewal in tropical soils isextremely fast. Considering the aspects of natural resource management throughuse of early brushwood burnings and the problem of livestock production, theauthor of this report concludes as far as the Sudano-Guinean area is concernedthat fire should not be viewed as a factor of transformation but as a factor ofsavanna conservation. It is necessary in order to maintain the floristic variety ofthe savanna, and particularly the grass cover which is indispensable to livestock. To keep a neutral vision of bush fires, here’s a table showing the advantagesand disadvantages of using fire on pasture lands. Table: Pros and cons of using fire to manage natural pastureAdvantages Disadvantages− Stimulates vegetative regrowth, not − Loss of plant biomass and thus short- only of grasses but also of many term decrease in available forage. shrubs and trees during the dry season.− Increases plant biomass production in − Increased danger of erosion. the following wet season, at least in some cases.− Rapidly mineralizes dead biomass, thus − Destruction of micro-organisms near making the minerals which were fixed in the soil surface because of increased it available for plant growth. soil temperature.− Controls bush encroachment, thus − Loss of nutrients. favouring growth of the herbaceous layer, which is important for the nutrition of cattle, buffaloes and sheep.− Favours desired species (depending on − Suppresses desired species plant community). (depending on plant community).− Decreases the risk of uncontrolled fires. Source: BAYER (1998) The usefulness of fire depends, among other things, on the interests of thepeople who use it. Pastoralists set fire to grassland mainly to stimulate plantregrowth during the dry season. Mature plants are under considerable moisturestress. The removal of much of the leaf and stem material greatly reduces theplant surface from which evaporation can occur. Pastoral fires are often set earlyin the dry season in upland areas and in the middle of the season in low-lyingareas, where regrowth is stronger than on the uplands. Crop farmers tend to burn 30
  37. 37. later than pastoralists, in the late dry season, to clear natural vegetation forcultivation and to clean the fields. (BAYER and WATERS-BAYER, 1998: 85) 2.15.7. P ASTURE I MPRO VEMENT This activity which demands a great deal of manpower often at a time when itis not available is becoming evermore costly. It can therefore only be undertakenon limited areas, which will facilitate guarding, because once they are restored,grazing lands are often used by herds coming from elsewhere. (Bellefontaine &Al., 2000: 165) The most simple improvement technique consists in soil preparation. As far aspossible, the soil is turned over or ploughed along the contour lines. The lines areabout 10 m apart. This light preparation is sufficient to retain water and the seedsof annual species. After the rains, the lines of grass become clearly visible, andare effective for several years, in helping restore the soil, until its surface cover istotally rehabilitated. This presupposes that for two to three years the area is underfull grazing exclusion. This technique can be improved by sowing fodder speciesalong the lines. At the beginning, the normal practice is to use seeds of naturalspecies collected during the previous dry season. The results are encouragingbut the village community that undertakes this work needs to exert perfect controland supervision over its land. Figure: Schematic profile of a sub-soiled and crescent-ridged compartment Source: Bellefontaine, 2000 (from Toutain, 1993) This technique can be improved by tracing the lines with a plough and atractor. The hollow and the cross fall form a small ditch which holds the water and 31
  38. 38. the seed on the slope on which legumes, hardy grasses and fodder shrubs canbe sown. Another variation is to make this ditch in a crescent shape in order tocollect the water from a micro-watershed. In this case the results are morespectacular, but the whole area must be put under strict grazing exclusion.Sometimes vegetation can develop between the small water-retention ditches,particularly spectacular woody plant regeneration. (Bellefontaine & Al., 2000: 165) According to DUPRIEZ & De LEENER (1993), there’s a lot of means in orderto avoid worsening in forages lands. − To keep watch over or to fence in plots of land allows the development of natural vegetation without cattle. Protected from herbivores, overgrazed lands repopulate at different speeds depending on the diversity of both herbaceous and woody local species. Keeping watch and erecting fences allows the enrichment of vegetation by sowing or planting useful and diverse forage species. This enrichment can be achieved at a maximum volume level: lower strata can be made accessible to cattle, whilst higher strata can be made inaccessible. This can be managed by the cattle breeder. − Development of forage associations. This involves trying to understand the most productive associations of woody and herbaceous species, in order to encourage the most valuable combinations. − Setting up a system of grazing rotation. Parcels of land are divided into several plots that will be used for grazing at different times and on a rotational basis. Rotation enables a more regular regrowth on non-grazed plots. It is important to plan a staggered rotation, so that any given plot will not be systematically grazed during the same period each year. Where possible, one of all the parcels of land should be left fallow. − Development of woody fodder strata. Fodder trees forming productive strata inaccessible to cattle constitute an important fodder potential for cattle breeders. However, it is necessary to take care not to compromise these fodder resources by damaging or overexploiting trees. In natural pastures, fodder trees are generally used as a contribution during the rainy season and as the main resource during the dry season. Fully exploited during the rainy season and stored after drying, tree fodder can be used as stock for the dry 32
  39. 39. season. Existence of a wooded forage producing stratum in fields during the dry season is beneficial as it enables the global yield of the land to increase. However it also allows attracts cattle onto temporarily uncultivated land. Woody fodder strata also allow field fertility to increase as animals leave their excrement whilst grazing at the foot of the trees. − Fodder catch crops have also been developed in the aim of improving forage production: millet, sorghum, beans, siratro2 etc are placed between lines of seasonal crops at the end of the rainy season. Young plants will die as the dry season progresses, but stocks of dry fodder are left to be either reaped, or eaten by the cattle that remain there until the following rainy season. Fodder trees and fodder catch crops allow the productive season to be prolonged by a few weeks or a few months after cereal crops. There are many ways to diversify fodder resources, as we attempt to organizethe productive strata on lands dedicated to either subsistence or commercialproductions. Associating fodder crops and erosion control is an intelligent practice. This canbe achieved by inserting grassy hedges on plots whose leaves can be cut andgiven to cattle. It is possible to associate fodder trees with these live hedges, anassociation that would greatly improve the forage productivity of anti-erosionbuffer strips.2.16. I M PROVEMENT BY H AY M AKING Hay is the oldest, and still the most important retained forage, despite itsdependence on a favourable climate during the harvesting period. This can beproduced with simple equipment, manual or mechanised, and many smallfarmers make hay to feed livestock through the lean season. The livestock needsfeed throughout the year. Plant growth is determined by the weather, but freshalimentation is only available during certain periods of the year, and the shorterthe period of plant growth, the greater the irregularity of the feed supply. 2 Macroptilium atropurpureum is a perennial twining legume, combined with tall grasses.Siratro grows well in moist, subtropical and tropical climates with 800 – 1,500 mm rainfall and on awide range of reasonably drained soils (Partridge, 2003) 33
  40. 40. Consequently, in most climates (excepting temperate regions), in the periodwhere fresh feed is lacking, feed must be provided to substitute pasture and freshforage if losses in weight and production are to be avoided. Forage and cropconservation is a traditional method for reducing seasonal variations of theavailable feed. Haymaking involves the reduction of humidity of freshly cut pastoral grass from70-90% to 15-20% or less. This is simple in theory, but dependant on climacticconditions, on the farmer’s technical knowledge and on his sense of observation.Hay is classified as forage, that is, a feed with approximately 18% of raw celluloseand less than 20% of raw proteins in dry matter. In practice, most hay has anutritive value far below these levels. It is rarely a complete feed and must -beused as part of a global alimentary system. Crops residues, especially straws andstems, but not limited to cereals, are also important cattle feed during the leanseason, and are often used in association with hay. Natural drying of cut grass by the sun and wind is always the most commonmethod of forage conservation, natural grasses and crop residues. Artificial dryingis sometimes used in some highly mechanized systems. Hay is the bestconserved forage for small producers because in all but the most humid climatesit can be undertaken with little equipment and produced, excluding the costsrelated to the labour force, at low-cost. Hay can be made with simple equipmentand, once dried properly, is easy to transport and store, and can be distributedwith very little wastage. As an adequate conserved forage for small cattlebreeders with limited resources, hay should be encouraged wherever climatic andeconomic conditions are favourable. (Suttie, 2004) 34
  41. 41. Chapter Three. METHODOLOGY3.1. R ESEARCH D ESIGN This is a non-randomised survey research to understand the silvopastoralsystem in the Mbororo community of the North West region of Cameroon.3.2. P OPULATION OF THE S TUDY The sampling frame consisted of the Mbororo herders of the subdivision ofSanta in the Mezam division in the North West region of Cameroon. The subdivision of Santa involves 13 Ardorates whose 10 are Mbororo-en and3 are none Mbororo-en. Table of sampling distribution: Number of Mbororo ArDos Village Sampling Rate (%) householdersJulie Ndzong 30 9 30Musa Yaya Akum, Baba II, 115 41 35.7 Alatening, MbuhYaya Hamman Pinyin *Sikod (NM) Pinyin *Bouniidu Pinyin *Umarou Pinyin *Garga Buba Pinyin 40 15 37,5Wilfred Muluh *(NM)Nana Jaki Baligham 13 3 23Yaya Dewa Awing 18 7 39,9Jaligae Awing 20 7 35Bandiri Awing *Ndenkeh (NM) Awing 11 5 45.5Total and average rate 247 87 35,5 NM: None Mbororo, * No data 35
  42. 42. For this study, 7 ArDos were visited with a total of 87 participants. I choose tosample around 30% of the population of each ArDos. The sampling was entirely and deliberately selective. Reasons of that choicewere the lack of means of transport, the availability of my translators and fieldassistants; climatic conditions, etc. I had to choose people living in places where Icould have access. For a dependable study, I know I had to do a randomized sampling, forexample: putting the names of all Mbororo-en inhabitants of Santa subdivision ina bucket and taking names one by one until reaching 30% of the wholepopulation. But instead of following the standards of the sampling methodology, Ichoose the feasibility with the means in my possession.3.3. D ESCRIPTION OF THE A REA OF S TUDY 3.3.1. G EOGRAPHICAL L OCATION Source: World Factbook of Central Intelligence Agency of USA The study was done in the North West region of Cameroon. Cameroon islocated in Western Africa. It is bound by the Gulf of Guinea to the West, Nigeria tothe Northwest, Chad to the Northeast, Central African Republic to the East,Republic of the Congo to the Southeast, Gabon to the South and EquatorialGuinea to the Southwest. Its geographic coordinates are: 6° 00N and 12° 00E. The 36
  43. 43. country has a whole surface area of 475,440 km² (involving 6000 km² of waterand 469,440 km² of land). The highest point of Cameroon is on Mount Cameroonwith 4,095m. Land use is distributed in this ratio: 12.54% of arable land, 2.52% ofpermanent crop and 84.94% of other. (The World FactBook, CIA). Source: MINEF, 1994 37
  44. 44. The North West region lies between latitudes 5° 43” and 7° 9”N and longitudes9° 13” and 11° 13”E and covers an area of about 17,40 0 km². It is bordered in theNorth and West by the Republic of Nigeria, in the South by the Western andSouth Western Provinces of Cameroon, in the East by the Adamawa region. TheProvince is divided into seven Divisions: Boyo, Bui, Donga-Mantoung, Menchum,Mezam, Momo and Ngoketundjia with the following respective administrativeheadquarters – Fundung, kumbo, Nkambe, Wum, Bamenda, Mbengwi and Ndop. Santa Subdivision lies at latitudes 5.80° N and at longitudes 10.17° E. SantaSubdivision includes these following villages: Akum, Alatening, Awing, Baba II,Baligham, Mbei, Mbuh, Ndzong and Pinyin. Source: CAMGIS, 2003 3.3.2. T OPOGRAPHY The topography of the region is generally mountainous and undulating,characterised by abrupt escarpments, towering mountain peaks, deep valleys andbroad alluvial plains. The highest point in the province is Mont Oku (in the Buidivision) with an altitude of 3011m above sea level (a.s.l.) and the lowest beingMbembe plain with an altitude of 211 meters a.s.l. 38
  45. 45. This topography can be classified into three main zones: the lower altitude (<900m a.s.l.), the mid altitude (900 – 1500m a.s.l.) and the high altitude (> 1500ma.s.l.). The topography of the region explains the difficulties encountered in theattempts to reach a greater part of the province either by vehicle or even on foot.Some areas are still isolated and not accessible by road. (MINADER, Nov 2006) 3.3.3. C LIMATE The climate is greatly influenced by the topography. It is described as a tropicaltransitional climate in the central mountainous region of Cameroon from the rainy,humid and continuously warm climate in the south, to the extremely changeable(in terms of temperature and rainfall) but relatively dry and hot climate of thenorth. On the average the North West region has a mild climate which is veryconducive for hard work. The province is marked by two distinct seasons. The dryseason starts from mid October to mid March and the rainy season from midMarch to mid October. The dry season is characterised by harmattan3 and cold dry and biting windwhich blows from the Sahara desert. The evenings and morning are very chilly.The atmosphere is generally clumsy and the monthly average maximumtemperatures for the Province range between 15° (i n the high mountainous Careas) to 27° (in the low altitude zones). The ann ual rainfall varies from C1300mm in Ndop plains to over 3000mm at Mbande and Mount Oku. (MINADER,Nov 2006) 3 This is a hot, dry wind that blows from the northeast or east in the Western Sahara into theGulf of Guinea between the end of November and the middle of March. (“Harmattan”, Wikipedia2009) 39
  46. 46. Source: MINTRANS (2009) Rainfall Data - Bamenda Station 700 0 Height (mm) 600 10 500 20 400 30 300 40 200 50 100 60 0 70 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. DaysHeight (mm) 8.3 16.6 107.4 190.0 173.7 323.7 376.3 414.5 414.0 244.1 59.6 20.6Days 1 4 11 20 22 24 27 26 26 25 12 2 Source: MINTRANS (2009) 40
  47. 47. Temperature Data - Bamenda Station 30.0 C) T (° 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Maxima 26.6 27.2 26.7 25.2 25.1 23.7 22.4 22.2 22.9 24.6 25.2 25.9 Minima 13.4 14.4 15.3 15.3 14.8 14.3 13.8 13.8 14.0 14.4 14.1 13.3 Moyenne 20.0 20.8 21.0 20.2 20.0 19.0 18.1 18.0 18.4 19.5 19.7 19.6 Source: MINTRANS (2009) Both charts that I made above are an average of the monthly average data on10 years. Primary data comes from the ministry of transports. 3.3.4. V EGETATIO N The vegetation is as a result of the local climate, altitude, soil conditions, andhuman activities on the natural resources. In the lower transitional zone and lowlands, we have the savannah covered with woods, mostly among the rivers(Donga peneplain), shrubs and lower mountain forest (Batibo, Bambui, mountOku). In the highland zone, we have grassland vegetation that is derived frommountainous forests (Nkambe-Banso plateau, Santa and Oshie highlands). In themountain (and escapements) prevails a variable ecological condition with thesavannah-like vegetation in the escapements (Donga escapement, Jakiri andNjnikom) and the grassland vegetation on the mountains (mount Oku, mountLefo). (MINADER, Nov 2006) 41
  48. 48. − Savanna: “vegetation type that grows under hot, seasonally dry climatic conditions and is characterized by an open tree canopy (i.e., scattered trees) above a continuous tall grass understory.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica online) − Grassland: “area in which the vegetation is dominated by a nearly continuous cover of grasses. Grasslands occur in environments conducive to the growth of this plant cover but not to that of taller plants, particularly trees and shrubs.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica online) 3.3.5. S OIL T YPE The province is characterized by many soil types, which give, rise to thecultivation of a variety of crops. The soils are gradually being modified by somecircumstances like weathering, human activities (farming, construction andburning) Soil type of the North West Province:Altitude Topography/Relief Soil type Areas< 1000m Low altitude Valley bottom Alluvial/Colluvial Widikum Hilly slopes Clay-Loam Lowlands Lateritic Dumbo, Tingo1000 – 1500m Medium altitude Hilly slopes Clay-Loam Belo Plains Sandy-Loam Ndop and Mbaw plains, Binka-Lus> 1500m High altitude Hilly slopes Clay-Loam Santa, Takum (MINADER, Nov 2006) 42
  49. 49. 3.4. C O LLECTION OF D ATA Collected data are from two types: primary data and secondary data. Primarydata were collected trough interviews on the field with tools like a questionnaire, atransect, maps, direct observations which were administered in the selected areaof study. Secondary data were obtained from magazines, books, reports, journals,handbooks, etc… from the following organizations: − Regional Antenna of IRAD Bambui − Provincial Delegation of MINEPIA − Provincial Delegation of MINADER − ANAFOR for Humid Savannah Area − SNV documents and reports − MBOSCUDA archives in Bamenda − Websites on internet3.5. P RIMARY D ATA Collection of primary data was based on the RRA method (Rapid RuralAppraisal method). Which is a semi-structured activity carried out on the field by amulti-disciplinary approach and is designed to quickly acquire information on, andnew hypothesis about rural life. Typology of participation: Participation in information. People participate byanswering questions posed by extractive researchers giving questionnairesurveys or similar approaches. People do not have the opportunity to influenceproceedings, as the findings of research are neither shared nor checked foraccuracy. This methodology is relevant only to a multidisciplinary team. This study beingundertaken by but one relatively inexperienced person however, the choice wasmade to not apply the RRA method as a whole but to draw from it extensively inorder to make this study viable for a Master’s degree student. With the aim of 43
  50. 50. studying a socio-economic system and a silvopastoral system, it makes use ofsome of the tools of the RRA method. 3.5.1. Q UESTIO NNAIRE D EVELOPMENT A questionnaire was drawn up and used for data collection In order to obtainaccurate information for this study. The questionnaire was written in English andincluded both closed and open-ended questions. As the Mbororo cattle breedersdo not speak English, I was assisted by several translators, all of whom had alevel of education sufficient for the comprehension of questions included in thequestionnaire. A briefing was conducted before field interviews to be certain thatthe questions were understood. The questionnaire was divided in two sections: the first relates to theparticipative interview and the second considers the socio-economic data of theindividual. The first, group section has two sub-sections: Part A coveringquestions of transhumance and part B covering questions related tosilvopastoralism. 3.5.2. I NTERNAL V ALIDITY OF THE Q UESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire was tested on a Mbororo group in ArDo Jullie’s compound,in the Santa subdivision. The group included eighteen cattle breeders as well asArDo himself. This test highlighted the fact that it was easier and safer tointerview Mbororo-en in groups regarding agronomic questions rather thanindividually. According to the one of my Mbororo-en translators, this is becausethey feel more comfortable in groups than on their own. The sections of thequestionnaire relating to transhumance and silvopastoralism were lead in aparticipative way whereas for the socio-economic section, we passed from oneperson to another to collect data individually. The test made it clear that the interview, taking 2.5 hours, lasted too long. Itshould be taken into account however that this was the first interview, and timewas lost correcting some questions during the interview and agreeing on a goodtranslation in Pidgin English or in Fulfulde (language of the Mbororo-en). 44

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