Q1. Explain the provisions of the factory act 1948 relating welfare and safety workers.
The following sections 21 to 41 deal with the safety provisions for factory workers.
State of Gujarat vs. Jethalal 1964 SC - (Sec 21 – Fencing of machinery. ) That someone without the
approval or knowledge of the occupier has removed a safety mechanism, is no defense.
Finch vs Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co - (Sec 35 - Protection to eyes) - Only hanging of
goggles is not enough but the workers must be informed of their whereabout.
The following sections 42 to 50 deal with the welfare provisions for factory workers.
Sec 42 Washing Facilities
Sec 43 Facility for drying and storage of clothes
Sec 44 Facility for sitting
Sec 45 First Aid Appliances
Sec 46 Canteen
Bengal Water Proof Workers vs State of West Bengal 1970 - Held that the liability of a company is only
to set up a canteen so that workers can take advantage of it. The terms and conditions of service of the
staff of the canteen do not come under that liability.
Sec 47 Shelter, rest rooms, and lunch rooms
Sec 48 Creche
Sec 49 Welfare Officer
Sec 50 Power to make rules to supplement this chapter: This includes requiring any factory or class of
factories to involve workers representatives in the management of welfare activities for the workers. It
also allows the state to exempt certain factories from welfare provisions, provided that alternative
arrangements are made.
Health and Safety In Mines - Mines Act 1952
Sec. 19 - Drinking Water
Sec. 20 - Conservancy (Latrines and Urinals)
Sec. 21 - Medical Appliances
Notice, Prevention, and investigation of Accidents and Diseases.
Health and Welfare In Plantations - Plantations Labor Act 1951
HeathDrinking water, conservancy, medical facilities, Annual leave with wages, sickness and maternity
Canteens for 150+ workers, creches, recreational, educational, and housing facilities.
Provisions for welfare of Women
Given in Factory Act :
Sec. 19 - Toilets and Urinals,
Sec. 27 - Prohibition of employing women and children near cotton openers.
Sec. 48 - Creches
Sec. 66 - Further restrictions on employment of women - no flex on working hrs, no change of shifts
except after holiday.
Maternity Benefit Act 1961
Equal Remuneration Act 1976
Q2. Discuss the role of ethical codes in economic discipline in organizations. Suggest various ways of
handling grievances also
The ethics that leaders in an organization use to manage employees may have an effect on the morale
and loyalty of workers. The code of ethics leaders use determines discipline procedures and the
acceptable behavior for all workers in an organization. When leaders have high ethical standards, it
encourages workers in the organization to meet that same level. Ethical leadership also enhances the
company’s reputation in the financial market and community. A solid reputation for ethics and integrity
in the community may improve the company’s business.
Ethical behavior among workers in an organization ensures that employees complete work with honesty
and integrity. Employees who use ethics to guide their behavior adhere to employee policies and rules
while striving to meet the goals of the organization. Ethical employees also meet standards for quality in
their work, which can enhance the company’s reputation for quality products and service.
Ethical Organizational Culture
Leaders and employees adhering to a code of ethics create an ethical organizational culture. The leaders
of a business may create an ethical culture by exhibiting the type of behavior they'd like to see in
employees. The organization can reinforce ethical behavior by rewarding employees who exhibit the
values and integrity that coincides with the company code of ethics and disciplining those who make the
Benefits to the Organization
A positive and healthy corporate culture improves the morale among workers in the organization, which
may increase productivity and employee retention; this, in turn, has financial benefits for the
organization. Higher levels of productivity improve the efficiency in the company, while increasing
employee retention reduces the cost of replacing employees
Grievance may be any genuine or imaginary feeling of dissatisfaction or injustice which an employee experiences about
his job and it’s nature, about the management policies and procedures. It must be expressed by the employee and
brought to the notice of the management and the organization. Grievances take the form of collective disputes when
they are not resolved. Also they will then lower the morale and efficiency of the employees. Unattended grievances
result in frustration, dissatisfaction, low productivity, lack of interest in work, absenteeism, etc. In short, grievance arises
when employees’ expectations are not fulfilled from the organization as a result of which a feeling of discontentment
and dissatisfaction arises. This dissatisfaction must crop up from employment issues and not from personal issues.
Grievance may result from the following factorsa. Improper working conditions such as strict production standards, unsafe workplace, bad relation with managers,
b. Irrational management policies such as overtime, transfers, demotions, inappropriate salary structure, etc.
c. Violation of organizational rules and practices
The manager should immediately identify all grievances and must take appropriate steps to eliminate
the causes of such grievances so that the employees remain loyal and committed to their work. Effective
grievance management is an essential part of personnel management. The managers should adopt the
following approach to manage grievance effectively1. Quick action- As soon as the grievance arises, it should be identified and resolved. Training must
be given to the managers to effectively and timely manage a grievance. This will lower the
detrimental effects of grievance on the employees and their performance.
2. Acknowledging grievance- The manager must acknowledge the grievance put forward by the
employee as manifestation of true and real feelings of the employees. Acknowledgement by the
manager implies that the manager is eager to look into the complaint impartially and without
any bias. This will create a conducive work environment with instances of grievance reduced.
3. Gathering facts- The managers should gather appropriate and sufficient facts exp explaining the
grievance’s nature. A record of such facts must be maintained so that these can be used in later
stage of grievance redressal.
4. Examining the causes of grievance- The actual cause of grievance should be identified.
Accordingly remedial actions should be taken to prevent repetition of the grievance.
5. Decisioning- After identifying the causes of grievance, alternative course of actions should be
thought of to manage the grievance. The effect of each course of action on the existing and
future management policies and procedure should be analyzed and accordingly decision should
be taken by the manager.
6. Execution and review- The manager should execute the decision quickly, ignoring the fact, that
it may or may not hurt the employees concerned. After implementing the decision, a follow-up
must be there to ensure that the grievance has been resolved completely and adequately.
7. An effective grievance procedure ensures an amiable work environment because it redresses
the grievance to mutual satisfaction of both the employees and the managers. It also helps the
management to frame policies and procedures acceptable to the employees. It becomes an
effective medium for the employees to express t feelings, discontent and dissatisfaction openly
Q3.Discuss briefly the functioning ILO in promotion of healthy industrial relations in emerging
To coordinate the preparation of a flagship Global Social Protection Floor Report, that will serve
as an advocacy tool and as general guidance on global and regional policies and strategies to
support the implementation of the social protection floor in developing countries and address
poverty issues in developed countries;
To provide input regarding the adaptation of the global concept of a social protection floor to
regional, national and local needs, priorities and constraints;
To encourage international dialogue among key actors and stakeholders on appropriate policy
To advise on policies and strategies to increase the fiscal space and ensure financial
sustainability and affordability of the social protection floor.
International Labour Organization (ILO), specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) dedicated to
improving labour conditions and living standards throughout the world. Established in 1919 by
the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations, the ILO became the first
affiliated specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946. In recognition of its activities, the ILO was
awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1969.
The functions of the ILO include the development and promotion of standards for national legislation to
protect and improve working conditions and standards of living. The ILO also provides technical
assistance in social policy and administration and in workforce training; fosters cooperative
organizations and rural industries; compiles labour statistics and conducts research on the social
problems of international competition, unemployment and underemployment, labour and industrial
relations, and technological change (including automation); and helps to protect the rights of
international migrants and organized labour. n its first decade the ILO was primarily concerned with
legislative and research efforts, with defining and promoting proper minimum standards of labour
legislation for adoption by member states, and with arranging for collaboration among workers,
employers, government delegates, and ILO professional staff. During the worldwide economic
depression of the 1930s the ILO sought ways to combat widespread unemployment. With the postwar
breakup of the European colonial empires and the expansion of ILO membership to include poorer and
less developed countries, the ILO addressed itself to new issues, including the social problems created
by the liberalization of international trade, the problem of child labour, and the relationship between
working conditions and the environment.
Among intergovernmental organizations the ILO is unique in that its approximately 175 member states
are represented not only by delegates of their governments but also by delegates of those states’
employers and workers, especially trade unions. National representatives meet annually at the
International Labour Conference. The ILO’s executive authority is vested in a 56-member Governing
Body, which is elected by the Conference. The International Labour Office in Geneva, Switzerland,
composed of the permanent Secretariat and professional staff, handles day-to-day operations under the
supervision of an appointed director general.
The ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work is an enduring commitment by
Governments, workers’ and employers’ organisations to the universal values on which the ILO was
founded. Its purpose is to stimulate efforts that ensure social progress goes hand in hand with economic
progress and development.
The Principles and Rights
Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining
Elimination of Forced and Compulsory Labour
Abolition of Child Labour
Elimination of Discrimination
Priorities of the Declaration:
Reconciling social justice with globalisation
Reducing inequalities within and between countries
Contributing to poverty reduction
Reducing unemployment and underemployment
Raising the quality of employment
Addressing rising insecurity and social polarisation
Objectives of the Declaration:
Re-assert fundamental social rights as universal values
Accelerate progress in poverty reduction
Recognise fundamental principles and rights as a tool for development
Offer Special Protection for vulnerable groups
Increase support from donors and other organisations for fundamental principles and rights
Role of the Social Partners
Engaging in social dialogue
Implementing fundamental principles and rights
Promoting and disseminating information on the fundamental principles and rights
Providing monitoring and feedback
Social Partners and Social Dialogue
Link between good labour relations and productivity
Minimises conflict and promotes stability
Enhances flexibility and adaptability
Promotes innovation and problem solving
Replaces adversarial approach with more constructive relations