Atherosclerosis        Shrooti Shah    M.Sc.Nursing 1st year.       CON, BPKIHS.1                            6/1/2012 9:49...
2   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Normal Artery   Disease artery3                            6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Definition of arteriosclerosis     Arteriosclerosis is the most common disease of the      arteries; the term means “hard...
Definition of atherosclerosis     Atherosclerosis is a different process, affecting the      intima of the large and medi...
6   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Atherosclerosis     The major targets are the aorta, the coronary and      cerebral arteries.     Begins in infants and ...
Atherosclerosis affecting coronary8                 artery.          6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Atherosclerosis affecting coronary9                 artery.         6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Atherosclerosis affecting cerebral10                  artery         6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Risk factors:     Modifiable risk factors      Nicotine use (i.e., Tobacco smoking, chewing)      Diet (contributing to ...
Pathophysiology12                     6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Pathophysiology13                     6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Clinical manifestations      The  clinical signs and symptoms resulting from      atherosclerosis depend on the organ or ...
15   Commonly affecting sites   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
16     Myocardial infarction   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
17     Stroke   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Aneurysm18              6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Diagnostic investigations:     1.   Blood test: Lipid profile     2.   ECG.     3.   Chest X-ray.     4.   Echocardiogram....
Medical management:  Anti-cholesterol medications: Example: Statins. (Atorvastatin,     fluvastatin, Lovastatin).Tab Ator...
Surgical management:                             Angioplasty:        A catheter is inserted into the blocked or narrowed ...
Endarterectomy:      In some cases, fatty deposits must be surgically removed       from the walls of a narrowed artery. ...
23   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
24   Carotid endarterectomy                         6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Bypass surgery     A graft bypass using a vessel from another part of     your body or a tube made of synthetic fabric. Th...
26   Bypass surgery   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
Nursing management      Nurses need to assess patient’s learning needs.      One way of motivating patients is to modify...
Nursing management cont…      Nurses should educate patients about the effect of       smoking on the arterial system.   ...
Prevention     • Get regular medical checkups.     • Control blood pressure.     • Check cholesterol.     • Don’t smoke.  ...
Prognosis      If arteriosclerosis is left untreated it can be fatal by leading       to a stroke or heart attack (where ...
References     1.   Smeltzer SC, Bare B. Textbook of medical-surgical nursing.          10th edition. Philadelphia; Lippin...
32   6/1/2012 9:49 AM
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Atherosclerosis

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Arteriosclerosis is the most common disease of the arteries; the term means “hardening of the arteries”.
It is the diffuse process whereby the muscle fibers and the endothelial lining of the walls of small arteries and arterioles become thickened.

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Atherosclerosis

  1. 1. Atherosclerosis Shrooti Shah M.Sc.Nursing 1st year. CON, BPKIHS.1 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  2. 2. 2 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  3. 3. Normal Artery Disease artery3 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  4. 4. Definition of arteriosclerosis  Arteriosclerosis is the most common disease of the arteries; the term means “hardening of the arteries”.  It is the diffuse process whereby the muscle fibers and the endothelial lining of the walls of small arteries and arterioles become thickened.4 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  5. 5. Definition of atherosclerosis  Atherosclerosis is a different process, affecting the intima of the large and medium sized arteries.  These changes consist of accumulation of lipids, calcium, blood components, carbohydrates and fibrous tissue on the intimal layer of the artery.  These accumulation are referred to as atheromas or plaques.5 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  6. 6. 6 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  7. 7. Atherosclerosis  The major targets are the aorta, the coronary and cerebral arteries.  Begins in infants and childhood and progresses slowly over the decades.  Often produces critical ischemia of the intestines and lower extremities, a major cause of abdominal aortic aneurysms.7 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  8. 8. Atherosclerosis affecting coronary8 artery. 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  9. 9. Atherosclerosis affecting coronary9 artery. 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  10. 10. Atherosclerosis affecting cerebral10 artery 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  11. 11. Risk factors: Modifiable risk factors  Nicotine use (i.e., Tobacco smoking, chewing)  Diet (contributing to hyperlipidimia)  Hypertension  Diabetes  Stress  Sedentary life style. Non modifiable risk factors  Age  Gender  Family history11 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  12. 12. Pathophysiology12 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  13. 13. Pathophysiology13 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  14. 14. Clinical manifestations  The clinical signs and symptoms resulting from atherosclerosis depend on the organ or tissue affected. The consequences of atherosclerosis are:  Myocardial infarction  Ischemic heart disease(IHD)  Cardiovascular accident ( Transient ischemic attack or stroke).  Subarachnoid hemorrhage may result.  Peripheral arterial diseases.  Aneurysms.14 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  15. 15. 15 Commonly affecting sites 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  16. 16. 16 Myocardial infarction 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  17. 17. 17 Stroke 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  18. 18. Aneurysm18 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  19. 19. Diagnostic investigations: 1. Blood test: Lipid profile 2. ECG. 3. Chest X-ray. 4. Echocardiogram. 5. Ankle/brachial Index. 6. Angiography. 7. Stress testing.19 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  20. 20. Medical management:  Anti-cholesterol medications: Example: Statins. (Atorvastatin, fluvastatin, Lovastatin).Tab Atorvastatin10mg PO OD.  Anti-platelet medications:Tab. Aspirin 75mg PO OD., Tab. Clopidogrel 75mg PO OD.  Thrombolytic therapy: Inj. Streptokinase .  Beta blockers: E.g. Metaprolol, Atenolol, propanolol. Tab. Metaprolol 12.5 mg PO OD.  Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: E.g. enalapril. Tab. Enalapril 2.5mg or 5mg. depending on the blood pressure.  Calcium channel blockers: E.g. Tab. Amlodipine 2.5mg, 5mg or 10 mg dose can be adjusted according to the blood pressure.  Diuretics:E.g. Tab. Frusemide 20mg20 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  21. 21. Surgical management: Angioplasty:  A catheter is inserted into the blocked or narrowed part of artery .  A second catheter with a deflated balloon on its tip is then passed through the catheter to the narrowed area.  The balloon is then inflated, compressing the deposits against artery walls.  A mesh tube (stent) is usually left in the artery to help keep the artery open.21 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  22. 22. Endarterectomy:  In some cases, fatty deposits must be surgically removed from the walls of a narrowed artery.  When the procedure is done on arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries), its known as carotid endarterectomy.22 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  23. 23. 23 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  24. 24. 24 Carotid endarterectomy 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  25. 25. Bypass surgery A graft bypass using a vessel from another part of your body or a tube made of synthetic fabric. This allows blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery25 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  26. 26. 26 Bypass surgery 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  27. 27. Nursing management  Nurses need to assess patient’s learning needs.  One way of motivating patients is to modify their behavior is to help them understand the nature of atherosclerosis, its prognosis and ways to control disease progression.  Nurses need to explain the risk factors related to atherosclerosis and focus on life style changes.27 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  28. 28. Nursing management cont…  Nurses should educate patients about the effect of smoking on the arterial system.  Encourage adherence of cholesterol lowering medications and other medications.  Recommend follow up of patients on statins to monitor required lowering cholesterol.  Accompany any prescription of medication with dietary control.28 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  29. 29. Prevention • Get regular medical checkups. • Control blood pressure. • Check cholesterol. • Don’t smoke. • Exercise regularly. • Maintain a healthy weight. • Eat a heart-healthy diet. • Manage stress.29 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  30. 30. Prognosis  If arteriosclerosis is left untreated it can be fatal by leading to a stroke or heart attack (where the coronary arteries are affected.)  Especial caution is needed if a patient is also diabetic because the disease can progress very rapidly in diabetic patients.30 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  31. 31. References 1. Smeltzer SC, Bare B. Textbook of medical-surgical nursing. 10th edition. Philadelphia; Lippincott willimas & wilkins: 2004. 2. http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/1950759- overview. Retrieved on 1st April.2012. 3. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/arteriosclerosisatheroscler osis/DS00525/DSECTION=symptoms.Retrieved on 1st April.2012. 4. http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atherosclerosis. Retrieved on 1st April.2012. 5. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hardening_of_the_arteries/ page12_em.html. Retrieved on 1st April.31 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
  32. 32. 32 6/1/2012 9:49 AM
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