Wild Flooding d ood g Water is applied by spreading on land. No preparation in the form of levees or borders or ditches. Water can be directly applied from natural stream or river during flood. natural stream or river during flood Suitable for smooth and flat land. Wastage of water .
Free Flooding ee ood gAlso known as irrigation by plots.Water is spread on the land with proper methods to control depth of application.All methods of controlled flooding requires preparation of land .requires preparation of land Land is divided in to small strips by p ylevees.
Contour lateralsCo tou ate a s pp p Applicable for steeper terrain. Field is divided in to small contour laterals. laterals Spacing of contour laterals depend upon p g p p1. the prominent grade of the field between two adjacent ditches or laterals, between two adjacent ditches or laterals 2. the uniformity of slope and y p3. the soil type
Border strip method o de st p et od Farm is divided into series of strips Width= 10 to 20 m Length = 100 to 300 m L th t Strips are separated by levees For applying water through supply channel earth or concrete channel is provided
Check floodingC ec ood g Large stream discharges water into relatively level plot surrounded by levees or checks Width of levees at the base = 2 to 3 m Height = not more than 25 to 30 cm high Method is most suitable for permeable p soil as large amount of water is applied.
Basin Flooding as ood g Special form of check flooding applied to orchards. Basins are formed for each tree. f df h Water is supplied through a W t i li d th h supply ditch. supply ditch No. of basins can be interconnected
Zig Zag method g ag et od Special method of flooding Water takes circuitous path before reaching dead end of plot. reaching dead end of plot Area is divided in to square or q rectangular plots. Suitable for relatively level plot S it bl f l ti l l l l t Unsuitable for modern farming with machinery.
Furrow method u o et od Used for row crops like maize, jawar, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, ground nuts, potatoes etc. cotton tobacco ground nuts potatoes etc ½ to 1/5 of surface is wetted therefore evaporation losses are reduced. l d d Length of furrow varies from 3 m or less – for gardens As much as 500 m for fields crops. 5 p Common length = 100 to 200 m. No wastage of land Less labour required
Contour farmingCo tou a g y p Practiced in hilly areas with steep slopes. Field operations are done across ld d the slope instead of uphill or downhill. Strips are also known as terrace or benches. b h
C) Subsurface methods )1) Natural sub surface irrigation
* Water reaches below the land surface from natural resources f f l such as streams, lakes, ponds etc. such as streams lakes ponds etc* Water seeping may raise the Water seeping may raise the water table and water may be available for plants in the root zone. zone
Channels are spaced 15 to 100 m apart.apartDepth of channel varies from 0.25 pto 0.50 m.Water table is maintained near the W t t bl i i t i d th root zone of the crop.
3) Drip or trickle irrigation To be covered in next class along with sprinkler irrigation. along with sprinkler irrigation
University questionsU e s ty quest o s What is meant by surface and sub surface irrigation? What yp y are their types? Discuss briefly the various techniques used q for distributing water in the farm. (Nov 2009, 7 marks) What is meant by ‘border flooding’? How does it differ from ‘check flooding’ and ‘free flooding’? Draw suitable sketches to explain these methods. to explain these methods (Nov 2007 8 marks) Discuss in brief various methods of surface irrigation. (May 2007, 8 marks) Write short not on ‘Furrow irrigation’ g (Nov 2006, 4 marks)