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History

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THE PROJECT …

THE PROJECT

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  • 1. No one knows when or where cricket began butthere is a body of evidence, that stronglysuggests the game was devised during Saxon orNorman times by children living in the Weald, anarea of dense woodlands and clearings in south-east England that lies across Kent and Sussex. Inmedieval times, the Weald was populated bysmall farming and metal-working communities. Itis generally believed that cricket survived as achildrens game for many centuries before it wasincreasingly taken up by adults around thebeginning of the 17th century.
  • 2. The first definite reference to the game is found in a 1598 court case concerning disputeover a schools ownership of a plot of land. A 59-year old coroner, John Derrick, testifiedthat he and his school friends had played creckett on the site fifty years earlier. Theschool was the Royal Grammar school Guildford, and Mr. Derricks account provesbeyond reasonable doubt that the game was being played in Surrey c.1550
  • 3. Cricket was introduced toNorth America via the Englishcolonies in the 17th century,probably before it had evenreached the north of England.In the 18th century it arrivedin other parts of the globe. Itwas introduced to the WestIndies by colonists and toIndia by British East IndiaCompany mariners in the firsthalf of the century. It arrivedin Australia almost as soon ascolonization began in 1788.New Zealand and SouthAfrica followed in the earlyyears of the 19th century.
  • 4. The basic rules of cricket such as bat and ball,the wicket, pitch dimensions, overs, how out,etc. have existed since time immemorial. In1728, the Duke of Richmond and Alan Brodickdrew up "Articles of Agreement" to determinethe code of practice in a particular game andthis became a common feature, especiallyaround payment of stake money anddistributing the winnings given the importanceof gambling.
  • 5. The game continued to spread throughoutEngland and, in 1751, Yorkshire is firstmentioned as a venue. The original form ofbowling (i.e., rolling the ball along theground as in bowls) was supersededsometime after 1760 when bowlers began topitch the ball and study variations inline, length and pace. Scorecards began to bekept on a regular basis from 1772 and sincethen an increasingly clear picture hasemerged of the sports development
  • 6. Cricket faced its first real crisis during the18th century when major matches virtuallyceased during the Seven Years war. This waslargely due to shortage of players and lack ofinvestment. But the game survived and the"Hambledon Era" proper began in the mid-1760s.Cricket faced another major crisis at thebeginning of the 19th century when acessation of major matches occurred duringthe culminating period of the Napoleonicwars. Again, the causes were shortage ofplayers and lack of investment. But, as in the1760s, the game survived and a slowrecovery began in 1815.
  • 7. The game also underwent a fundamental change of organisation with the formation for thefirst time of county clubs. All the modern county clubs, starting with Sussex in 1839, werefounded during the 19th century.No sooner had the first county clubs established themselves than they faced what amountedto "player action" as William Clarke created the travelling All-England Eleven in 1846.Though a commercial venture, this team did much to popularise the game in districts whichhad never previously been visited by high-class cricketers. Other similar teams were createdand this vogue lasted for about thirty years
  • 8. Between May and The First ever International cricket game was between theOctober 1868, a team USA and Canada in 1844. The match was played at theof Australian grounds of the St George’s Cricket club in New YorkAborigines touredEngland in what wasthe first Australian Image of thecricket team to travel 1878overseas. Australian cricket team from the State Library of NSW In 1859, a team of leading English professionals set off to North America on the first-ever overseas tour and, in 1862, the first English team toured Australia.
  • 9. A major watershed occurred in 1890 when the officialCounty Championships was constituted in England. Thisorganisational initiative has been repeated in othercountries. Australia established the Sheffield Shield in1892–93. Other national competitions to be establishedwere the Currie Cup in South Africa, the Plunkett Shield inNew Zealand and the Ranji Trophy in India. W . The period from 1890 to the outbreak of the First G World War has become an object of nostalgia, . ostensibly because the teams played cricket G according to "the spirit of the game", but more R realistically because it was a peacetime period A that was shattered by the First World War. The C era has been called The Golden Age of cricket E and it featured numerous great names such as Grace, Wilfred Rhodes, C B Fry, K S RanjitsinhiiK and victor Trumper.
  • 10. In 1889 the immemorial four ball over wasreplaced by a five ball over and then this waschanged to the current six balls an over in 1900.Subsequently, some countries experimented witheight balls an over. In 1922, the number of ballsper over was changed from six to eight inAustralia only. In 1924 the eight ball over wasextended to New Zealand and in 1937 to SouthAfrica. In England, the eight ball over wasadopted experimentally for the 1939 season; theintention was to continue the experiment in1940, but first-class cricket was suspended for theSecond World War and when it resumed, Englishcricket reverted to the six ball over. The 1947Laws of Cricket allowed six or eight ballsdepending on the conditions of play. Since the1979/80 Australian and New Zealand seasons,the six ball over has been used worldwide andthe most recent version of the Laws in 2000 onlypermits six ball overs.
  • 11. Test cricket remained the sports highestlevel of standard throughout the 20thcentury but it had its problems, notably inthe infamous “Bodyline Series" of 1932–33when Douglas Jardine’s England used so-called "leg theory" to try and neutralise therun-scoring brilliance of Australias DonaldBradman. When the Imperial Cricket Conference (as it was originally called) was founded in 1909, only England, Australia and South Africa were members. India, West indies and New Zealand became Test nations before the Second World War and Pakistan soon afterwards. The international game grew with several "affiliate nations" getting involved and, in the closing years of the 20th century, three of those became Test nations also: Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe and Bangladesh.
  • 12. The greatest crisis to hit international cricket was brought about byapartheid, the South African policy of racial segregation. Thesituation began to crystallise after 1961 when South Africa left theCommonwealth of Nations and so, under the rules of the day, itscricket board had to leave the International Cricket Conference(ICC). Crickets opposition to apartheid intensified in 1968 with thecancellation of Englands tour to South Africa by the South Africanauthorities, due to the inclusion of "coloured" cricketer BasilD’Oliveira in the England team. In 1970, the ICC members voted tosuspend South Africa indefinitely from international cricketcompetition. Ironically, the South African team at that time was Basil D’Oliveiraprobably the strongest in the world.
  • 13. The money problems of top cricketers were also the rootcause of another cricketing crisis that arose in 1977 whenthe Australian media magnate Kerry Packer fell out with theAustralian Cricket Board over TV rights. Taking advantage ofthe low remuneration paid to players, Packer retaliated bysigning several of the best players in the world to a privatelyrun cricket league outside the structure of internationalcricket. World Series Cricket hired some of the bannedSouth African players and allowed them to show off theirskills in an international arena against other world-classplayers. The schism lasted only until 1979 and the "rebel"players were allowed back into established internationalcricket, though many found that their national teams hadmoved on without them. Long-term results of World SeriesCricket have included the introduction of significantly higherplayer salaries and innovations such as coloured kit andnight games.
  • 14. In the 1960s, English county teams beganplaying a version of cricket with games ofonly one innings each and a maximumnumber of overs per innings. Starting in 1963as a knockout competition only, limited oversgrew in popularity and in 1969 a nationalleague was created which consequentlycaused a reduction in the number of matchesin the County Championship. Although many "traditional" cricket fans objected to the shorter form of the game, limited overs cricket did have the advantage of delivering a result to spectators within a single day; it did improve crickets appeal to younger or busier people; and it did prove commercially successful.
  • 15. Limited overs cricket increased televisionratings for cricket coverage. Innovative In 1992, the use of a third umpire totechniques that were originally introduced for adjudicate run out appeals with televisioncoverage of LOI matches was soon adopted for replays was introduced in the Test seriesTest coverage. The innovations included between South Africa and India. The thirdpresentation of in-depth statistics and umpires duties have subsequently expandedgraphical analysis, placing miniature cameras to include decisions on other aspects of playin the stumps, multiple usage of cameras to such as stumpings, catches and boundaries.provide shots from several locations around As yet, the third umpire is not called upon tothe ground, high speed photography and adjudicate lbw appeals, although there is acomputer graphics technology enabling virtual reality tracking technology (i.e., Hawk-television viewers to study the course of a eye) that is approaching perfection indelivery and help them understand an predicting the course of a delivery.umpires decision.
  • 16. Cricket remains a major world sport in termsof participants, spectators and media Crickets newest innovation isinterest. Twenty20, essentially an eveningIn June 2001, the ICC introduced a entertainment. It has so far enjoyed"Test Championship Table" and, in enormous popularity and hasOctober 2002, a "One-day attracted large attendances atInternational Championship matches as well as good TV audienceTable". Australia has consistently ratings. The inaugural ICC Twenty 20topped both these tables in the World Cup tournament was held in2000s. 2007 with a follow-up event in 2009.The ICC has expanded its development program with The formation of Twenty20 leagues inthe goal of producing more national teams capable India – the unofficial Indian Cricketof competing at Test level. Development efforts are League, which started in 2007, andfocused on African and Asian nations; and on the the official Indian Premier League,United States. In 2004, the ICC Intercontinental Cup starting in 2008 – raised muchbrought first-class cricket to 12 nations, mostly for speculation in the cricketing pressthe first time about their effect on the future of cricket.
  • 17. India Jump to: navigation, search India cricket crestTest status granted 1932First Test match v England at Lords, London, 25–28 June 1932Captain M. S. DhoniCoach Duncan Fletcher 5th (Test)Official ICC Test, ODI and T20I ranking 3rd (ODI) 3rd (T20) [3]Test matches 468– This year 9Last Test match v England at Mumbai, 23–27 November 2012Wins/losses 115/149– This year 3/4 As of 26 November 2012
  • 18. "Men in blue" redirects here. Men in blue may also refer toPoliceThe Indian Cricket Team is thenational cricket team of India.Governed by the Board of Control forCricket in India (BCCI), it is a fullmember of the International CricketCouncil (ICC) with Test and One DayInternational (ODI) status.Although cricket was introduced toIndia by European merchant sailors inthe 18th-century and the first cricketclub in India was established inCalcutta in 1792, Indias nationalcricket team did not play their firstTest match until 25 June 1932 atLords.They became the sixth team tobe granted Test cricket status.
  • 19. In their first fifty years of internationalcricket, India proved weaker than Australiaand England, winning only 35 of the 196test matches.[3] The team, however,gained strength near the end of the 1970swith the emergence of players such asSunil Gavaskar, Kapil Dev and the Indianspin quartet — Erapalli Prasanna andSrinivas Venkataraghavan (both offspinners), Bhagwat Chandra sekhar (a legspinner), and Bishen Singh Bedi(a left-armspinner). Traditionally much stronger athome than abroad, the Indian team hasimproved its overseas form since the startof the 21st century.
  • 20. It won the Cricket World Cup in 1983 under KapilDev, was runner-up in 2003 under SouravGanguly, and won the World Cup a second time in2011 under Mahendra Singh Dhoni. It thus becameonly the third team after West Indies andAustralia to have won the World Cup more thanonce.[4] It is also the first cricket team to win theWorld Cup on home soil. India has also been therunner-up in 2000 ICC KnockOut Trophy and thejoint champion along with Sri Lanka in 2002 ICCChampions Trophy, led by Ganguly in both theinstances. India also won the inaugural WorldTwenty20 under the captaincy of Dhoni in 2007.
  • 21. The Indian cricket team is currently rankedfifth by the ICC in Tests,[5] third in ODIs andT20Is.[6] Currently, Mahendra Singh Dhoni isthe captain in all forms of the game whileDuncan Fletcher is the coach. Under theleadership of Dhoni, the Indian team has set anational record for most back-to-back ODIwins (nine straight wins)[7] and has emergedas one of the most formidable teams ininternational cricket.[8] The current teamcontains many of the worlds leading players,including Sachin Tendulkar and VirenderSehwag, who hold numerous cricketing worldrecords.[9]

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