1In Muslim Society, they used to hold respectable positions.They were especially suitable to guard sacred relics andgreat sanctuaries. The shirt of Mohammed in Cairo wasguarded by them as was the The Great Mosque in Mecca.Hajjis would kiss their hands on their way to see the Ka’ba.They soon rose to positions of power in Mameluke Egypt,Ottoman Turkey and most prominently in Mughal India.According to the Venetian traveller Niccolao Manucci,’Allpeople of quality have them in their service and all otherofficials, servants and slaves are bound to account to themfor all they do.‘ As officials and as singers, dancers andconjurors they continued to be prominent figures inSafdarjung’s Delhi. Who are ‘they?’
2• Eugène de X is a fictional character from La Comédie humaine series of novels by Honoré de Balzac. He appears as a main character in______ (1835) and his social advancement in the post-revolutionary French world depicted by Balzac can be followed through Xs various appearances in other books of the series.• X is initially portrayed as an ambitious young man of noble (albeit poor) extraction who is at times both envious of and naive about high society. Although he is ready to do anything to achieve his goals, he spurns the advice of Vautrin (the series dark criminal mastermind) and instead uses his own wits and charm (especially through relationships with women, such as his cousin madame de Beauséant) to arrive at his ends. His eventual social success in the fictional world of the Comédie humaine is frequently contrasted with the tragic failure of another young parvenu in the series: Lucien de Rubempré (who accepts the aid of Vautrin and ends his life by his own hands).• In French today, to refer to someone as a X is to call them an ambitious "arriviste" or social climber.
5• X is slang for a low-paying, low-prestige dead end job that requires few skills and offers very little chance of intracompany advancement. X was in use at least as early as 1986, according to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), which defines it as "An unstimulating, low-paid job with few prospects, esp. one created by the expansion of the service sector." Lack of job security is common. The term was coined by sociologist Amitai Etzioni, and appeared in the Washington Post on August 24, 1986 in the article "X are Bad for Kids". The term was popularized by Douglas Coupland’s 1991 novel Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, described therein as "a low-pay, low-prestige, low-dignity, low benefit, no-future job in the service sector. Frequently considered a satisfying career choice by people who have never held one.
7• Z is a variant of "that’s what she said.” Instead of referring to sexual connotations, it is used to refer to spending a lot of money, making a mess, or fucking up very badly.• X: Oh man, I really screwed the pooch on that one. Y: Z! X: Its going to take me all day to clean this mess up. Y: Z! X: Im paying tonight. The sky is the limit. Y: Z!
8• X is one of Lavoisier’s assistants, who was among the people who physically defended King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette from a mob during the French Revolution. After his father narrowly escaped the guillotine and the family house was burnt down, he escaped with his family to the United States. In his new home, he used the expertise he had gained under Lavoisier in nitrate extraction to set up a gunpowder manufacturing unit. What was his name (just the surname will do), under which he set up this company?
10X crime fiction is a literary style, most commonlyassociated with detective stories, distinguishedby the unsentimental portrayal of violence andsex. The style was pioneered by Carroll JohnDaly in the mid-1920s, popularized by DashiellHammett over the course of the decade, andrefined by Raymond Chandler beginning in thelate 1930s. X?
11For the role of X, Y advertised in newspaperslooking for boys of five to seven yearsage. Several boys turned up in response, butnone of them met the expectation of thedirector. Finally, Y’s wife spotted a boy in theirneighbourhood as a possible candidate. Thisboy, Subir Banerjee, was eventually cast as X.
12• The word was originally two Latin terms, "locum" meaning in place of, and "teneris" meaning holding, together the phrase applied to anyone "holding in place of" someone else. Over time the word ‘locum’ developed into what it is today. It is possible that when the English heard the French pronounce the compound word X, they perceived a slurring between the first and second syllables. Today, most English speaking nations except the United States pronounce X the way the English do.
13• The ancient name of the city refers to it as a "place of sacrifice", and is believed to be the spot where Brahma offered his first sacrifice after creating the world. For Hindus of India, Y was an important part of their territory. The area became a part of the Mauryan and Gupta empires of the east and the Kushan Empire of the west before becoming part of the Kannauj Empire. X became a part of the Mughal Empire after their invasion of India in 1526. The Mughal emperor Akbar built a magnificent fort in X. The city was the scene of Maratha incursions before colonial rule was imposed over India. In 1765, the British established a garrison at Fort X. The annual convention of the Indian National Congress was held on the extensive grounds of Darbhanga Castle, X in 1888 and 1892. Identify the city X.
14• X Stadium in Chofu, Tokyo, Japan is the home of the F. C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969 soccer teams. X’s signature product, Y, was first marketed in Japan in 1909, having been discovered and patented by Kikunae Ikeda. He found that the most important compound within seaweed broth for common use was actually a ____ salt, which seemed to give out a unique taste sensation. Incidentally, Y is known more widely as X! The literal translation of X is “Essence of Taste,” used as a trademark for the company’s Y. As of Feb 2009, X produces around 33% of the world’s Y. Identify X and Y.
17• X is an English diver, who specialises in the 10 metre platform event and is currently the FINA World Champion. He started diving at the age of seven, and is a member of Plymouth Diving Club. He has made an impact in national and international competition at age 9. He represented Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Olympics, where he was Britains youngest competitor, the youngest competitor of any nationality outside the sport of swimming, and the youngest to participate in a final. In the first post-Rome 2009 World Championships edition of the FINA World Diving Rankings for the ten-metre platform, he reached a new career best ranking of number one. He lives in Plymouth with father Robert, mother Debbie and two brothers, William and Ben. He won two gold medals for England at the 2010 Commonwealth Games, in the 10 metre synchro diving (with Max Brick) and the 10m Individual Platform competition
18• XY is an idiom for the bottom of the sea: the state of death among drowned sailors. It is used as a euphemism for death at sea. The origins of the name are unclear and many theories have been put forth, including incompetent sailors, a pub owner who kidnapped sailors, or that X is another name for the devil. This nautical superstition was popularized in the 19th century.• The earliest known reference of the negative connotation of X occurs in the "Four Years Voyages of Capt. George Roberts", by the author Daniel Defoe, published in 1726 in London.• “Some of Loes Company said, They would look out some things, and give me along with me when I was going away; but Ruffel told them, they should not, for he would toss them all into XY if they did.”
21• This practice dates back to the Middle Ages and includes Christmas wassailing. X resembles the late medieval practice of souling, when poor folk would go door to door receiving food in return for prayers for the dead on All Souls Day . It originated in Ireland and Britain, although similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far south as Italy. Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593). Almost all pre-1940 uses of the term X are from the western United States and Canada. X spread from the western United States eastward, stalled by sugar rationing that began in April 1942 during World War II and did not end until June 1947..
22"Wow, India has now joined the elite club ofChina, Iran, North Korea and suchlike in the areaof Internet censorship.“- Who? About what in mid 2009?