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Science 9 Unit A Biological Diversity Section2 Lesson Variation
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Science 9 Unit A Biological Diversity Section2 Lesson Variation

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Variation …

Variation
Natural Selection
Charles Darwin
Discrete Variation
Continuous Variation

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  • 1. Science 9 Unit A: Biological Diversity Science InAction Section 1.3: Pages 20-24 Section 2.1: Pages 26-29
  • 2. Lesson #3
    • Learner Outcomes
    • I can identify the role of variation in species survival under changing environmental conditions
    • I can describe examples of variation of characteristics within a species, and identify examples of both discrete and continuous variation
    • I can distinguish those characteristics that are heritable from those that are not heritable, and identify characteristics for which heredity and environment may both play a role
  • 3. What is Variation ?
    • Variability within a species population.
    • Eg. Red/Blond Hair vs. Brown Hair
    • Eg. Blue eyes vs. Green eyes
    • Examples of variability in include:
    • Red fox (color of coat)
    • Antibiotic resistance (bacteria)
    • Banded snail (color and design of shell)
  • 4. Variation of Human Physical Characteristics
    • Skin, eye, complexion colouring
    • Hair colour, baldness
    • Supernumerary body part (extra parts), or missing body parts
    • Cleft Lip and Palate
  • 5. Variation of Human Physical Characteristics
    • Height – average range
    • Dwarfism
    • Gigantism
    • Blood type
    • - Groups A, B, AB, and O
    • Somatotype
    • Dominance of handedness
    • Dexterity and motor skills
  • 6. Who is This Man?
  • 7. What is Natural Selection ?
    • Happens when factors in the environment determines, or “selects” which individuals, within a species, will be able to survive.
    • Offspring will usually have similar adaptations for survival. Whales
    • Charles Darwin – Theory of Evolution – “On the Origin of Species” book - 1859
  • 8. The 5 year voyage of the HMS Beagle Surveying and charting coasts
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Antibiotic resistance is enhanced by natural selection
    • The top section represents a population of bacteria before exposure to an antibiotic.
    • The middle section shows the population directly after exposure, the phase in which selection took place.
    • The last section shows the distribution of resistance in a new generation of bacteria.
    • The legend indicates the resistance levels of individuals.
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Variations
    • Variation is one of the most critical aspects of species survival.
    • It may be:
    • a genetic (cellular code) modification
    • a behavioral tendency
    • This enables some individuals within a species to survive , while others, will perish .
  • 15. Genetic Variability
    • Species of Side-blotched lizards ( Uta stansburiana ) in central California
  • 16. Give it a TRY – Page 27
    • Survey the class and find how many people:
    • Can or cannot bend their thumb joint “backward” without adding pressure
    • Have earlobes that are attached or separate
    • Have a pointed or smooth hairline
    • Draw a data table to record your results. Create a graph that will best illustrate your results
  • 17. Inheritance
    • Transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
    • The characteristics of the parents are carried to the next generation by the process of heredity
  • 18. What are Non-Heritable Traits?
    • Characteristics are acquired and not necessarily passed on from generation to generation.
    • Athleticism , artistic ability , leadership qualities are all learned during the early years of life.
  • 19. Continuous Variation
    • Variations are differences in characteristics that have a multitude of variations , such as height , shoe size , arm length etc…
  • 20. Discrete Variations
    • Discrete variations are differences in characteristics that have a definite form .
    • One characteristic , or the single, other variation, of the characteristic.
    • Either the organism has a trait or it does not .
    • Example: Either your earlobes are attached or they are not.
  • 21. Variation and the Environment
    • Some variations may be influenced by interactions with the environment. These variations are not inherited .
    • Examples include:
    • Change in the pigmentation of skin color throughout the seasons due to the sun.
    • Height and weight can be influenced by diet.
  • 22. Give it a TRY – Page 29
    • Ready…………..set…………GO!!!!
    • Quickly clasp your hands together above your head, interlocking your fingers.
    • Look to see which thumb is on top. Note which way feels more natural.
    • Finish the chart in your notes, indicating Left Thumb on Top vs. Right Thumb on Top
    • Decide whether the data is discrete or continuous. Explain your answer.
  • 23. Is it Discrete or Continuous? Page 29 Action Right Preference Left Preference Type (circle one) Clasping Hands Continuous Discrete Folding Arms Continuous Discrete
  • 24. Sample Multiple Choice Questions
    • Q1. To better understand variation; scientists explore the characteristics, which are passed on from generation to generation within a species. Those characteristics that are passed on from generation to generation are …
    • A. genetic
    • B. inherited
    • C. non-inherited
    • D. non-genetic
  • 25. Sample Multiple Choice Questions
    • Q2. An albino kangaroo is a kangaroo that is pure white. This characteristic is classified as a …
    • A. non-inherited variation
    • B. continuous variation
    • C. discrete variation
    • D. singular variation
  • 26. Sample Multiple Choice Questions
    • Q3. Variations caused by interactions with the environment are not heritable. Plants that are grown in dim lighting conditions would turn out to be …
    • A. identical to their parents in all aspects
    • B. much like their parents
    • C. very different from their parents
    • D. similar to parent plants that were grown in dim light
  • 27. Sample Multiple Choice Questions
    • Q4. Cats B and C are similar in size, but cat A is taller when standing. Like humans, cats pass down genetic information for height, but cats can mature to be a wide range of heights - it is not an "either/or" characteristic. The characteristic of height in cats can be described as a  
    • non-heritable and continuous in variation 
    • heritable and discrete in variation 
    • heritable and continuous in variation
    • non-heritable and discrete in variation 
  • 28. Answers to Previous Questions
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • C
  • 29. Did you …
    • … identify the role of variation in species survival under changing environmental conditions?
    • … describe examples of variation of characteristics within a species, and identify examples of both discrete and continuous variation?
    • … distinguish those characteristics that are heritable from those that are not heritable, and identify characteristics for which heredity and environment may both play a role?
  • 30. Homework
    • Read pages 20-24, 26-29
    • Check and Reflect page 29, #1-2, #5
    • Update Portfolio
    • Read pages 30-36
  • 31. Question 1
    • Give one example of a heritable characteristic and one example of a non-heritable characteristic that we did not discuss in class.
    • Heritable __________________________________
    • Non-Heritable __________________________________
  • 32. Question #2
    • What is discrete variation? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
    • What is continuous variation? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • 33. Question #5
    • A scientist wants to study continuous variation in a mouse population. What mouse characteristics would she or he investigate? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________

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