Examples of gmo
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Examples of gmo

on

  • 217 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
217
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
192
Embed Views
25

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

1 Embed 25

http://www.scoop.it 25

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Examples of gmo Examples of gmo Presentation Transcript

    • BIOTECHNOLOGY Risk Assessment & Management
    • BIOTECHNOLOGY  Science based technology and includes recombinant DNA techniques, biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, microbiology, and genetics
    • Impact of biotechnology  Potential impact of transgenic crops on the environment – most hotly debated
    • Transgenic crops and traits GM Crops Traits ____________________________________________________ Canola Herbicide tolerance; modified seed fatty acid content Maize Herbicide tolerance; resistance to corn root worm; resistance to European corn borer Melon Delayed ripening Papaya Resistance to viral infection Potato Resistance to Colorado potato beetle; resistance to potato leafroll luteovirus Rice Herbicide tolerance; Beta-carotene Soya bean Herbicide tolerance; modified seed fatty acid content Squash Resistance to viral infection Tomato Delayed ripening; delayed softening
    • GM Crops under production  Corn 140 million hectares  Soybeans 72 million hectares  Cotton 34 million hectares  Canola 25 million hectares
    • Global Area of GM Crops  The United States (68%)  Canada (7%)  Argentina (23%)  China (1%)  Other (1%)
    • Delayed ripening in Tomato  Introduction of a gene that results in degradation of a precursor of the plant hormone, ethylene  Production of tomatoes for human consumption, either fresh or processed  Agritope Inc. USA
    • Genetic Trait  S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) encoding gene  E. coli bacteriophage T3
    • Modification  Transformed tomato plants that exhibit significantly reduced levels of SAM, the substrate in ethylene biosynthesis  Ethylene plays an important role in fruit ripening of climacteric fruits  Lack of a sufficient pool of SAM results in a tomato fruit with significantly reduced ethylene biosynthetic capabilities and a modified ripening phenotype
    • Resistance to Colorado potato beetle  Introduction of a toxin gene from a bacteria that results in insect resistance in potato  Production of potatoes for human consumption and livestock feed including potato process residue  Monsanto Company, USA
    • Trait  Colorado potato beetle resistant potatoes produced by inserting the cry3A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (subsp. tenebrionis)  encodes an insecticidal crystalline Cry3A delta-endotoxin protein
    • Modification  Transformed potato plants expresses the insecticidal crystalline Cry3A delta-endotoxin protein  Cry3A protein binds selectively to specific sites localized on the brush border mid-gut epithelium of susceptible insect species  Causes loss of ions
    • Herbicide tolerance Corn  Glyphosate herbicide tolerance  Production of Z. mays for human consumption (wet mill or dry mill or seed oil), and meal and silage for livestock feed  Monsanto Company, USA
    • Trait  Glyphosate tolerant version of the enzyme 5- enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene  Isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS)
    • Modifcation  Biolistic transformation of embryogenic maize cells with genes encoding the CP4 EPSPS enzyme  The modified enzyme (CP4 EPSPS) has a reduced binding affinity for glyphosate and allows the plant to function normally in the presence of the herbicide
    • Papaya Resistant to viral infection  Resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)  Production of papaya for human consumption, either fresh or processed  Cornell University, USA & UWI, Jamaica
    • Trait  Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) resistant papaya produced by inserting the coat protein (CP) encoding sequences from this plant potyvirus
    • Modification  Microparticle bombardment of plant cells or tissue  Transgenic papayas exhibit “pathogen- derived resistance” to infection and subsequent disease caused by PRSV through a process that is related to viral cross-protection
    • Virus resistant tomato  Insertion of a mutant gene from the virus to prevent replication  Production of tomatoes for human consumption, either fresh or processed  UW-Madison, Hebrew Univ., UWI
    • Agricultural Biotechnology  Benefits of transgenic plants – To improve agricultural, horticultural and ornamental value of a crop plant – Can act as a living bioreactor – Means of studying the action of genes
    • Benefits of the New Technology  Higher yields & lower pesticide usage – Provide indirect benefits for consumers and the environment through lower usage of pesticides and there are higher yields due to reduced pest losses – A transition to less toxic chemicals – Facilitation of zero-till agriculture
    • Benefits of the New Technology  More Nutritious Foods – increasing the levels of essential amino acids, vitamins, bio-available iron and to reduce toxicity – more nutritious harvested products that keep much longer in storage and transport.
    • Benefits of the New Technology  Utilization of marginal lands – produce plants that are more tolerant to drought, salt and heat stresses, toxic heavy metals
    • Problems with rDNA technology  Instability in transgene expression  Interruption or silencing of existing genes  Activation of silent genes  Expression of anti-nutrients
    • Unanticipated effects in transgenic crops  Canola – over expression of phytoene synthase resulted in X500 increase in levels of and -carotene  Maize – the stems of Bt maize contain more lignin  Potato – expressing kanamycin showed changes in phynotypic and yield performance
    • Agricultural Biotechnology  Arguments against transgenic plants – Possible negative effects of transgenes on non- target organism – Potential for transgene escape – Impact of gene flow on biodiversity
    • Negative Impact  Food safety  Allergic reaction  Use of antibiotic marker genes
    • Food safety  Unsafe for human consumption ? – Allergic reaction to new proteins – 60% of processes foods in supermarkets in the USA contain a GM ingredient – Soy, corn, canola and some fresh vegetables
    • Allergic reaction  Cry9C a protein in Starlink corn  Insecticidal protein shares properties with proteins that are known food allergen  Not licensed for human consumption  “Taco Bell Home originals”
    • Antibiotic marker genes  Antibiotics – kanamycin, hygromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin  Used to identify plants carrying the transgene  Presence of the gene in the gut could enter gut organism, increase resistance  WHO report that antibiotic genes are safe
    • Impact on non-target species  Pollen from GM corn contains the insecticidal Bt toxin thought to be a danger to the monarch butterfly  Milkweed with pollen from Bt corn plants could kill monarch caterpillars that fed on them  Six recent studies finds that pollen from varieties of Bt corn most commonly grown in the USA do not contain enough toxin to harm monarchs.
    • Gene Flow  Gene flow - natural process and can occur between same or different species  Gene flow between trangenics and traditional maize in Mexico  12 of the world’s 13 most important food crop hybridize with at least one wild relative
    • Gene flow on Biodiversity  Transgene flow might have impact on the within-species genetic diversity of domesticated populations  Introduction of invasive alien species could have far greater impact on biodiversity  Pest or pathogen resistance and tolerance to various abiotic stresses – may be highly advantageous in the wild
    • Risk Assessment  Assessing ecological risk prior GMO release  May take years for the true environmental effects of transgene escape to be known  Predictions can be made about particular crops or traits that are likely to pose the greatest environmental risk  Transgenes that are advantageous in the wild or are weedy forms of a plant are most likely to pose a significant risk
    • Ecological risk assessment  Lack of key information on the ecology of native plant species  Need to generate information to enable risk assessment to be carried out using local information
    • Risk management  Important with regard to new or emerging technologies or programs that have associated risks
    • Biosafety Assessment  Biosafety assessment includes hazard and risk  Hazard can be defined as a potentially adverse outcome of an event or activity  Risk - The probability and severity of an adverse event
    • Risk assessment  Process of characterizing and quantifying risk  Proper risk assessment also involves characterizing and quantifying uncertainties
    • Objective of risk management  Anticipate detrimental effects that might follow the release of a GMO during experimentation or commercialization  Design monitoring systems for the early detection of adverse outcomes  Plan intervention strategies to avert and, if necessary, remediate adverse environmental or health effects
    •  Define regulatory authority to prevent the development and/or importation of potentially dangerous GMOs  Encouraging continued development of increasingly effective biosafety procedures  Providing public information about biosafety
    • Laboratory investigations  Basic molecular genetic analyses and analyses of physiological performance, done to characterize the GMO and indicate whether it expresses the intended phenotypic properties, and whether the properties are altered  Experiments (growth chamber & greenhouse) to study potential ecological impacts and genetic stability of the GMO
    • Small field trials  Done after laboratory investigations suggest that GMO maybe efficacious, genetically stable, and ecologically benign  Suitable protocols are required – design, sample size, controls and statistical analysis  Assay for genetic exchange and genetic stability
    • Larger field trials  If small field trials indicate both efficacy and safety, larger field trials can be done  The same requirement of good experimental design apply as with smaller field trials
    • Commercial release  Initially, commercialization or widespread application should take place in the areas where larger field trials have been completed and found to indicate a high probability of GMO safety and efficacy  Periodic monitoring after a GMO is released into a new environment is essential  DNA markers for the GMO is essential
    • Impact on society  Many countries are actively reviewing the safety and ethics of biotechnology research and its applications  Some countries have established research guidelines and biosafety framework