BIOTECHNOLOGBIOTECHNOLOG
YY
““Unwinding the helical mystery”Unwinding the helical mystery”
What is Biotechnology ???
Technology based on biological sciences
that includes
 Agriculture
 Food science
 Genetics
 ...
Bioengineering
Using scientific methods with organisms to
produce new products or new forms of
organisms
Techniques used t...
APPLICATIONS
A multidisciplinary field involving number of
interrelated subjects
SCIENCE
 Physical sciences
 Life scienc...
What Are the Stages of Biotechnology
Development
• Ancient biotechnologyAncient biotechnology-- early history as
related t...
Animal cloning
Gene cloning for
pharmaceutical production
The promise and perhaps
perils of embryonic stem cells
DNA finge...
Basics of Biotechnology
• Biochemistry
• Microbiology
• Cell biology
• Molecular
biology
Areas of Biotechnology
• Genetic Engineering
• Protein engineering
• Bioinformatics
• Immunology
• Plant biotechnology
• A...
GENETIC ENGINEERING
 Genetic modification of
an organism’s genes
 It uses techniques to
alter the structure and
characte...
Central dogma of Molecular Biology
Recombinant DNA technology
Technology involving removing, modifying and
inserting the gene of interest
rDNA technology req...
Producing Recombinant molecules
1. Isolate the gene
2. Insert it in a host using a vector
3. Produce as many copies of the...
Plasmids are Used to Replicate a Recombinant DNA
• Plasmids are small circles of DNA found in bacteria
• Plasmids replicat...
Human Insulin
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction is an in vitroin vitro
technique used for the amplification of
DNA
It can amplify 10^5 copie...
PCR steps
Denaturation at 94°c
for 20-30 sec
Annealing at ~50°c
for 20-60 sec
Extension at 72°c
for 30-60 sec
PCR machine
Applications of Genetic Engineering
• Insertion of genes from one organism to
another
• Producing recombinant cytokines, g...
Transgenic Animals
Animals that undergo
deliberate modification in the
structure of its genomegenome by
inserting genes of...
Transgenic Plants
• Plants that can be genetically
modified by inserting other
plant genomes for the
effective production ...
Animal Cloning
Animal Cloning is the process
by which an entire organism is
reproduced from a single cell
taken from the p...
Development of Cloning
• Scientists have been producing cloned animals
from embryonic cells for long time but they do not
...
Procedure of Animal cloning
• Extract DNA nucleus from developed
embryonic cells
• Implant into an unfertilized egg from w...
Reproductive
cloning
The Next step of
Cloning ?????
Extremely improbable
Bioinformatics
• Bioinformatics is the study of science in
which biologybiology, computer sciencecomputer science and
info...
Computers and Bioinformatics
 Bioinformatics is the computer assisted
data management field that helps us
 Gather
 Stor...
 There are many different Bioinformatics
tools available online that contains biological
databases. Commercial software a...
What is done ?
• Analysis and Interpretation
• Development of new Algorithm
and Statistics
• Development and
Implementatio...
Units of Information
DNA
RNA
Protein
Sequence
Structure
Evolution
Pathways
Interaction
Mutation
Biological Data used in
Bioinformatics
DNA ( Genome )
RNA ( Transcriptome )
Proteins ( proteome )
DNA analysis
 Simple sequence analysis
Database searching
Pairwise analysis
 Regulatory regions
 Gene finding
 Whole g...
RNA analysis
 Splicing variant
 Tissue specific expression
 Structure
 Single gene analysis ( various cloning
techniqu...
Protein
• Proteome of an organism
• Structure
• 2D gel
• 2D structure
• 3D structure
• Mass spectroscopy
0101011101100101011001010111010000101101
0101101100100111111011010011010000101101
A A C G T C A T T C G A T G A T T C G A
...
Systems Biology
• Metabolic
Pathways
• Regulatory
Networks
• Whole
organism
Phylogeny
Applications
• Medical
 Understand life processes in healthy and
disease states
 Genetic diseases
• Biotech and Pharmace...
DNA Microarray
Gene expression patterns of whole
genomic analysis of many organisms have
been achieved by DNA microarraysD...
Preparation of Microarrays
DNA Microarray
Applications of DNA Microarray
Detect pathogens from blood
samples
Examine targets for drug discovery
Determine gene expre...
Cancer biology
Cancer is a group of
disease due to
uncontrolled celluncontrolled cell
proliferation andproliferation and
d...
How cancers are caused ?
• Any alteration in the genetic material
• Effects of physical and chemical
carcinogens
• Errors ...
Cell Cycle
Apoptosis
Tumor suppressor genes
Genes that reduces the probability of cells
turning into tumor cells.
A mutation or deletion of suc...
Carcinogens
( Agents that cause cancer )
Physical carcinogenesis
Ionizing radiations like X-rays, α particles,
γ rays whic...
Types of cancer
Generally cancers can be classified as
Benign tumorsBenign tumors and Malignant tumorsMalignant tumors
• C...
Screening and Diagnosis of cancer
• Screening testScreening test
Mammography
Cervical smear or Pap test
Endoscopies
Examin...
Cancer therapy
• Chemotherapy
• Radiation therapy
• Gene therapy ( in vivo and ex vivo )
• Monoclonal antibody therapy
• I...
Monoclonal antibodies
• Antibodies produced from
single epitope of an antigen
• Polyclonal antibodies that
produces antise...
Production of MAbs
Fusing myeloma cells
and spleen cells of mice
Uses of MAbs
 Antigen detection
 Tumor related antigen detection
 Imaging agent
 Immunoscintigraphy
 Pregnancy and Se...
Plant Biotechnology
 Genetically modified crops
and plants
 Transgenic plants
 Plant tissue culture
 Therapeutic plant...
Methods of plant gene delivery
1. Agro bacterium mediated gene transfer
(most widely used method)
2. Gene gun / biolistic ...
Ti plasmid of A.tumefaciens
Mode of gene transfer
Transgenic plants
Genetically modified
( GM ) crops improved
food production for the
growing population by
producing trans...
GM technology
• Pest resistant plants
• Herbicide resistant plants
• Virus and fungal resistant plants
• Modification of p...
Transgenic rice
• Introduction of three genes
into rice ( one from daffodil
and two from
microorganism ) exhibits
an incre...
Golden rice
To alleviate vitamin A
deficiency problem,
development of a rice
variety which produces
β-carotene in the edib...
Extended shelf life of fruit
A major problem in fruit marketing is
premature ripening and softeningpremature ripening and ...
Flavr Savr Tomato
Antisense RNA against
the enzyme activity
developed to inhibit the
synthesis of the enzyme
and delayed t...
Plant tissue culture
Plant tissue culture is a novel and
innovative technique to grow high quality,
disease free plantsdis...
Tissue culture process
Gene gun method
DNA finger printing
Basics of finger printing
• A DNA fingerprint is made by
analyzing the sizes of DNA
fragments produced from a
number of di...
Stem cell
A stem cell is an
undifferentiated,
dividing cell that gives
rise to a daughter cell
like itself and a
daughter ...
Embryonic stem cell
Nano biotechnology
Nano-TechnologyNano-Technology is one of the emerging interdisciplinary
fields which is about to bring ...
Nanobots
• A nanorobot is a specialized
nanomachinenanomachine designed to perform
a specific task or tasks repeatedly
and...
Applications
• Nanobomb
• Nanoimaging
• Nano drug delivery
• Microbivore
• Artificial mechanical phagocytes
• Tissue recon...
Ethical Arguments
Ethical argument for or against the following
topics
• Human Cloning
• Gender Reversal on Livestock
• Ge...
Career opportunities
BiotechnologyBiotechnology is a new and innovative
industry with innumerable career options
for anyon...
Occupational opportunities
• Research
• Quality control
• Manufacturing and production
• Regulatory affairs
• Administrati...
Scope of biotechnology
• Genetically engineered microbes are today
widely used for producing drugs and vaccines
in large s...
The Indian advantage
• No other country in the world today has the unique
set of advantages that India offers for large-sc...
Future belongs to
Biotechnology
BiotechnologyBiotechnology gives answer to many
burning problems like food scarcity,food s...
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biotechnology

1,309 views

Published on

Biotechnology ppt for high school students.
Im not the author.

Published in: Science
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,309
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
74
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Biotechnology

  1. 1. BIOTECHNOLOGBIOTECHNOLOG YY ““Unwinding the helical mystery”Unwinding the helical mystery”
  2. 2. What is Biotechnology ??? Technology based on biological sciences that includes  Agriculture  Food science  Genetics  Medicine
  3. 3. Bioengineering Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms Techniques used to produce or modify plants and animals or its substances and utilize microorganisms for specific use
  4. 4. APPLICATIONS A multidisciplinary field involving number of interrelated subjects SCIENCE  Physical sciences  Life sciences  Social sciences MATHEMATICS  Statistics APPLIED SCIENCES  Computer applications  Agriculture  Instrumentation
  5. 5. What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development • Ancient biotechnologyAncient biotechnology-- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication • Classical biotechnology-Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine • Modern biotechnology-Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
  6. 6. Animal cloning Gene cloning for pharmaceutical production The promise and perhaps perils of embryonic stem cells DNA fingerprinting Genetically modified foods and the American-European opinion divide.
  7. 7. Basics of Biotechnology • Biochemistry • Microbiology • Cell biology • Molecular biology
  8. 8. Areas of Biotechnology • Genetic Engineering • Protein engineering • Bioinformatics • Immunology • Plant biotechnology • Animal biotechnology • Cancer biology • Environmental Biotechnology • Marine Biotechnology • Nano biotechnology • Pharmacology
  9. 9. GENETIC ENGINEERING  Genetic modification of an organism’s genes  It uses techniques to alter the structure and characteristics of genes
  10. 10. Central dogma of Molecular Biology
  11. 11. Recombinant DNA technology Technology involving removing, modifying and inserting the gene of interest rDNA technology requires • Vectors • Plasmids • Restriction Enzyme • DNA sequence and templates • Living organism
  12. 12. Producing Recombinant molecules 1. Isolate the gene 2. Insert it in a host using a vector 3. Produce as many copies of the host as possible 4. Separate and purify the product of the gene
  13. 13. Plasmids are Used to Replicate a Recombinant DNA • Plasmids are small circles of DNA found in bacteria • Plasmids replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome • Replication often produces 50-100 copies of a recombinant plasmid in each cell • Pieces of foreign DNA can be added within a plasmid to create a recombinant plasmid
  14. 14. Human Insulin
  15. 15. PCR Polymerase chain reaction is an in vitroin vitro technique used for the amplification of DNA It can amplify 10^5 copies of DNA from two single strands of DNA after 30 cycles This is achieved by PrimersPrimers, complementary sequences of defined DNA templates PCR technique is applied for detecting pathogens, study of DNA polymorphism, molecular mapping, DNA finger printing
  16. 16. PCR steps Denaturation at 94°c for 20-30 sec Annealing at ~50°c for 20-60 sec Extension at 72°c for 30-60 sec
  17. 17. PCR machine
  18. 18. Applications of Genetic Engineering • Insertion of genes from one organism to another • Producing recombinant cytokines, growth factors, hormones like insulin, enzymes • Recombinant vaccines, nitrogen fertilizers, amylase synthesis for cellulose degradation using plasmid technology • Transgenic plants and animals • Animal cloning • DNA finger printing technology used in forensic sciences
  19. 19. Transgenic Animals Animals that undergo deliberate modification in the structure of its genomegenome by inserting genes of other species. Transgenesis produced animals like mice, pig, cattle and sheep. This technology has applications in agriculture and medicine
  20. 20. Transgenic Plants • Plants that can be genetically modified by inserting other plant genomes for the effective production of crops and plants using plant breeding or tissue culture techniques • This recombinant technology produced many insect, herbicide, fungal, bacterial and virus resistance varieties
  21. 21. Animal Cloning Animal Cloning is the process by which an entire organism is reproduced from a single cell taken from the parent organism and in a genetically identical manner. This means the cloned animal is an exact duplicate in every way of its parent; it has the same exact DNA It can happen naturally for instance: Asexual reproduction in certain organisms and the development of twins from a single fertilized egg
  22. 22. Development of Cloning • Scientists have been producing cloned animals from embryonic cells for long time but they do not live longer • The first cloned animal that lived longer and reproduced naturally later was, Dolly the sheep • Dolly was created from developed mammary gland cells taken from a full grown sheep • Pigs, cats, rats, horses and deer are successful cloned animals after dolly
  23. 23. Procedure of Animal cloning • Extract DNA nucleus from developed embryonic cells • Implant into an unfertilized egg from which the nucleus had already taken • Cells are developed from the process of replication • These cells are implanted into host mothers • Cloned animal that resulted had a genetic make-up exactly identical to the genetic make-up of the original cell.
  24. 24. Reproductive cloning
  25. 25. The Next step of Cloning ?????
  26. 26. Extremely improbable
  27. 27. Bioinformatics • Bioinformatics is the study of science in which biologybiology, computer sciencecomputer science and information technologyinformation technology merge into single field • Managing and analyzing biological data using advanced computing techniques • Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment, finding gene, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein- protein interactions, and the modelling of evolution
  28. 28. Computers and Bioinformatics  Bioinformatics is the computer assisted data management field that helps us  Gather  Store  Analyze  Integrate biological and genetic information ( data )  Bioinformatics is the “Electronic“Electronic Infrastructure of Molecular BiologyInfrastructure of Molecular Biology””
  29. 29.  There are many different Bioinformatics tools available online that contains biological databases. Commercial software are also used by researchers  It is associated with massive databases of gene and protein sequences and structure/function information databases  New sequences, new structure, protein or gene function that are discovered, searched, gathered and deposited into databases
  30. 30. What is done ? • Analysis and Interpretation • Development of new Algorithm and Statistics • Development and Implementation of tools
  31. 31. Units of Information DNA RNA Protein Sequence Structure Evolution Pathways Interaction Mutation
  32. 32. Biological Data used in Bioinformatics DNA ( Genome ) RNA ( Transcriptome ) Proteins ( proteome )
  33. 33. DNA analysis  Simple sequence analysis Database searching Pairwise analysis  Regulatory regions  Gene finding  Whole genome annotation  Comparative Genomics where species and strains can be analyzed
  34. 34. RNA analysis  Splicing variant  Tissue specific expression  Structure  Single gene analysis ( various cloning techniques )  Experimental data involving thousands of genes simultaneously  DNA chips, Microarrays and Expression arrays analysis
  35. 35. Protein • Proteome of an organism • Structure • 2D gel • 2D structure • 3D structure • Mass spectroscopy
  36. 36. 0101011101100101011001010111010000101101 0101101100100111111011010011010000101101 A A C G T C A T T C G A T G A T T C G A Just as we can teach a computer to predict things about a sequence of letters in English prose, we can also teach it to predict things about a other sequences—like a genetic sequence
  37. 37. Systems Biology • Metabolic Pathways • Regulatory Networks • Whole organism Phylogeny
  38. 38. Applications • Medical  Understand life processes in healthy and disease states  Genetic diseases • Biotech and Pharmaceutical  To find or develop new and better drug  Designing drug (Gene or Structure based) • Agriculture  Disease, drought, heat resistant plants  High yielding crops
  39. 39. DNA Microarray Gene expression patterns of whole genomic analysis of many organisms have been achieved by DNA microarraysDNA microarrays. High density microarrays allowed global analysis of expression pattern to determine the cellular function of genes, the nature and regulation of biochemical pathways, and the regulatory mechanisms at play during certain signaling conditions or diseases.
  40. 40. Preparation of Microarrays
  41. 41. DNA Microarray
  42. 42. Applications of DNA Microarray Detect pathogens from blood samples Examine targets for drug discovery Determine gene expression changes for diseases like cancer Identify inheritable markers which is used as genotyping tool
  43. 43. Cancer biology Cancer is a group of disease due to uncontrolled celluncontrolled cell proliferation andproliferation and differentiationdifferentiation Cancer biology deals with studies of all types of cancer and different forms of therapies involved
  44. 44. How cancers are caused ? • Any alteration in the genetic material • Effects of physical and chemical carcinogens • Errors in DNA replication or inheritance • Misexpressed growth factors • Activated Mutation and over expression
  45. 45. Cell Cycle
  46. 46. Apoptosis
  47. 47. Tumor suppressor genes Genes that reduces the probability of cells turning into tumor cells. A mutation or deletion of such genes will increase the probability of formation of tumors Examples : p53, RB1, WT1, DCC etc Inactivation of one allele of some tumor suppressor genes is sufficient to cause tumors Tumor markersTumor markers are used to identify these genes. E.g. CA 27.29, PSA, CA-125 etc
  48. 48. Carcinogens ( Agents that cause cancer ) Physical carcinogenesis Ionizing radiations like X-rays, α particles, γ rays which are >10eV Non ionizing radiations like UV rays, microwaves, Ultrasound which are <10eV Chemical carcinogenesis Organic chemical carcinogen Inorganic chemical carcinogen Inert chemical carcinogen Hormonal carcinogen
  49. 49. Types of cancer Generally cancers can be classified as Benign tumorsBenign tumors and Malignant tumorsMalignant tumors • Carcinoma ( adenocarcinama, squamous cell carcinoma ) • Sarcoma ( fibro sarcoma, liposarcoma ) • Lymphoma ( chronic lymphocytic leukemia, AIDS related lymphoma ) • Blastoma (fibroma, chondroma, osteoma, adenoma )
  50. 50. Screening and Diagnosis of cancer • Screening testScreening test Mammography Cervical smear or Pap test Endoscopies Examination of faecal occult blood test • DiagnosisDiagnosis Histopathological examination( biopsy ) Endoscopy (broncho, colono, cysto, duodeno, gastro, lapro) Biomarker studies (CA 15-3, PSA, AFP ) Imaging ( x rays, MRI, CT, PET scan )
  51. 51. Cancer therapy • Chemotherapy • Radiation therapy • Gene therapy ( in vivo and ex vivo ) • Monoclonal antibody therapy • Immunotherapy • Hormonal therapy • Symptom control drugs • Angiogenesis inhibitor
  52. 52. Monoclonal antibodies • Antibodies produced from single epitope of an antigen • Polyclonal antibodies that produces antiserum affect the normal cells • But MAbs produced from single clones react with single antigenic determinants • It’s a technique for in vitro production of antibodies using HybridomaHybridoma technologytechnology
  53. 53. Production of MAbs Fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells of mice
  54. 54. Uses of MAbs  Antigen detection  Tumor related antigen detection  Imaging agent  Immunoscintigraphy  Pregnancy and Sex determination  Against viral and bacterial infections  Producing anti-idiotype antibodies  Immnuo diagnostic reagents
  55. 55. Plant Biotechnology  Genetically modified crops and plants  Transgenic plants  Plant tissue culture  Therapeutic plants  Molecular pharming Engineering plants genetically is Plant Biotechnology
  56. 56. Methods of plant gene delivery 1. Agro bacterium mediated gene transfer (most widely used method) 2. Gene gun / biolistic method 3. Electroporation 4. Microinjection 5. Viral vector method
  57. 57. Ti plasmid of A.tumefaciens
  58. 58. Mode of gene transfer
  59. 59. Transgenic plants Genetically modified ( GM ) crops improved food production for the growing population by producing transgenic plants. GM crops include cotton, mustard, potato, maize, wheat, cassava, yams, sorghum, rice, millet etc.
  60. 60. GM technology • Pest resistant plants • Herbicide resistant plants • Virus and fungal resistant plants • Modification of plant oil biosynthesis • Extended shell life of fruits • Medicinal plants producing vaccines • Nutritional enrichment/synthetic seeds • Tolerance to abiotic stress ( heat, drought, cold, saline )
  61. 61. Transgenic rice • Introduction of three genes into rice ( one from daffodil and two from microorganism ) exhibits an increased production ofproduction of ββ-carotene-carotene as a precursor to vitamin A in the endosperm of the rice
  62. 62. Golden rice To alleviate vitamin A deficiency problem, development of a rice variety which produces β-carotene in the edible grains of the rice
  63. 63. Extended shelf life of fruit A major problem in fruit marketing is premature ripening and softeningpremature ripening and softening during transport. These changes are part of the natural ageing ( senescencesenescence ) process of the fruit. Ripening of fruit is closely associated with increase in polygalaturanase activity
  64. 64. Flavr Savr Tomato Antisense RNA against the enzyme activity developed to inhibit the synthesis of the enzyme and delayed the fruit ripening of tomato by GM technology. These tomato have longer shelf life called as “FLAVR SAVR“FLAVR SAVR TOMATO”TOMATO”
  65. 65. Plant tissue culture Plant tissue culture is a novel and innovative technique to grow high quality, disease free plantsdisease free plants quickly and in a large quantity by culturing and maintaining plant cells or organs like leaves, stem, root, branch shoot tip, petals, anther and pollen in sterile
  66. 66. Tissue culture process
  67. 67. Gene gun method
  68. 68. DNA finger printing
  69. 69. Basics of finger printing • A DNA fingerprint is made by analyzing the sizes of DNA fragments produced from a number of different sites in the genome that vary in length The more common the length variation at a particular site and the greater the number the sites analyzed, the more informative the fingerprint
  70. 70. Stem cell A stem cell is an undifferentiated, dividing cell that gives rise to a daughter cell like itself and a daughter cell that becomes a specialized cell type.
  71. 71. Embryonic stem cell
  72. 72. Nano biotechnology Nano-TechnologyNano-Technology is one of the emerging interdisciplinary fields which is about to bring a technological revolution. It is a engineering at the atomic or molecular scale, deals with devices typically less than 100 nanometers in sizeless than 100 nanometers in size, or one billionth of a meter, or one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair Nanotechnology provides a new basis for innovation in the life sciences, revolutionary biotechnology processes, the synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering stem cell research, genomics, proteomics as well as the well- established fields of agriculture, environmental management, medical device manufacturing
  73. 73. Nanobots • A nanorobot is a specialized nanomachinenanomachine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision. Nanorobots have dimensions on the order of nanometers • The nanorobot developed to kill the cancer cells would have a small computer, several binding sites to determine the concentration of specific molecules, and a supply of some toxin, which could be selectively released to kill a cell identified as cancerous.
  74. 74. Applications • Nanobomb • Nanoimaging • Nano drug delivery • Microbivore • Artificial mechanical phagocytes • Tissue reconstruction • Frying tumors • Quantum dots
  75. 75. Ethical Arguments Ethical argument for or against the following topics • Human Cloning • Gender Reversal on Livestock • Gender Reversal on Humans • Genetic Engineering of Plants • Genetic Engineering of Humans
  76. 76. Career opportunities BiotechnologyBiotechnology is a new and innovative industry with innumerable career options for anyone interested in life sciences. Biotechnology has changed the quality of life through improved medicine,medicine, diagnostics, agriculture and wastediagnostics, agriculture and waste managementmanagement. Because the field of biotechnology is still relatively new, there is an abundance of unique opportunities to make new discoveries and introduce useful innovations to the world.
  77. 77. Occupational opportunities • Research • Quality control • Manufacturing and production • Regulatory affairs • Administration • Information system • Clinical research • Marketing and sales
  78. 78. Scope of biotechnology • Genetically engineered microbes are today widely used for producing drugs and vaccines in large scale at low costs that are of great importance (human insulin, erythropoietin, and(human insulin, erythropoietin, and hepatitis-B vaccine)hepatitis-B vaccine) • Genetically engineering plants are also poised to produce vaccinesvaccines • One of the future sources of cheap protein-cheap protein- drugsdrugs in the coming years, would be genetically engineered animals who would secrete drugs in abundance
  79. 79. The Indian advantage • No other country in the world today has the unique set of advantages that India offers for large-scale practice of biotechnology. We have one of the largest bio in the world • We have at least seven distinct climatic zonesseven distinct climatic zones and one of the largest and most varied sets of marine organisms anywhere • The ambient temperatureambient temperature in most parts of the country is just what living organisms need for their activities that result in a biotechnological product • We have large tracts of land available for growinglarge tracts of land available for growing the desired plantsthe desired plants required for agriculture-based biotechnology
  80. 80. Future belongs to Biotechnology BiotechnologyBiotechnology gives answer to many burning problems like food scarcity,food scarcity, ecological problems , pharmaceuticalecological problems , pharmaceutical sector dropsector drop and spans its wings to almost all living World problems. Although there is lot of hype in media about the sector, but unfortunately in India [and in many countries surprisingly] it has not got due attention till yet. Government has started taking steps and new institutions are built and skill has started coming up

×