“Three Circles of English” Braj Kachru Inner-Circle UK, USA, AU, NZ, etc. 380 million speakers Outer-Circle India, Nigeria, Philippines, Ba ngladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia , Tanzania, Kenya, non- Anglophone South Africa and Canada, etc. 150–300 million speakers Expanding Circle China, Russia, Japan, most of Europe, Korea, Egypt, Indone sia, etc. Up to one billion speakers.
“Three Circles of English” Braj Kachru Inner circle: norm-providing. English language norms are developed in these countries. Outer circle: norm-developing. Expanding circle: norm-dependent’ These countries rely on standards set by native speakers in the inner circle.
Numerically speaking, English is increasinglybecoming the language of non-native speakers.The language’s center of gravity is likely to shift in thedirection of the non-native speakers.
A paradigm shift on the way?Language distributionNative speaker-coded formsand meanings transmitted intonew environments. adoption & conformity Language spread the language spreads on its own, and changes along the way. adaptation & nonconformity
Throughout history, most people have learned a foreignlanguage because they have been interested in theassociated culture, and/or have lived in a societydominated by its native speakers.This no longer holds true for the vast majority of peoplelearning English. Their main purpose is to make themselvesunderstood internationally. Most interactions in whichEnglish is used as a foreign or second language take placewithout the presence of native speakers.
American EnglishGlobal EnglishWant to study in USA; Want to communicateassimilate American accent with people all over the world, not only AmericansNow living in America; mainlyinterested in communicating In home country, manywith American people Englishes are spoken; no particular emphasis isEasy to learn, thanks to: given to American English.- movies & other media- straightforward speaking English a means to certain style information that bears no specific relationship to itsAmerica is #1 native speakers or their culture.
English as a “means language”Example from 17th – 19thcentury JapanDutch was studied as a meansof gaining knowledge intechnology and science.Description of a microscopethe 1787 book, Sayings oftheDutch,Japan’s first treatise onWestern anatomy
When examining Global English, we see great heterogeneitybecause speakers are strongly influenced by thegrammatical, lexical and pronunciation patterns of theirrespective mother tongues.How much should we seek to homogenize thatheterogeneity according to American standards?Should the global shift away from native speaker standardsand toward a more functional and international oneinfluence the way we teach?Do native speakers still ‘own’ English?