Why urban areas are attracting more and more people?
About one half of the world’s people live in cities/densely populated urban areas, drawn there for better jobs and a better life .
Cities provide jobs, food, housing, a better life, entertainment, and freedom from the religious, racial, and political conflicts of village life .
3. People are pushed to cities by poverty, no land, declining work, famine, and war. Developing into centers of poverty .
Urbanization and Urban Growth
Los Angeles 13.3 million 14.5 million Mexico City 18.3 million 20.4 million Sao Paulo 18.3 million 21.2 million Buenos Aires 12.1 million 13.2 million New York 16.8 million 17.9 million Cairo 10.5 million 11.5 million Lagos 12.2 million 24.4 million
Mumbai (Bombay) 16.5 million 22.6 million Karachi 10.4 million 16.2 million Dhaka 13.2 million 22.8 million Calcutta 13.3 million 16.7 million Jakarta 11.4 million 17.3 million Beijing 10.8 million 11.7 million Tokyo 26.5 million 27.2 million Shanghai 12.8 million 13.6 million Osaka 11.0 million 11.0 million Manila 10.1 million 11.5 million Cities at night
1. Most huge urban areas are in developing countries.
The number of large cities (a million or more people) is increasing rapidly.
Megacities or megalopolises contain 10 million+ people.
A megalopolis is a merger of a city (or cities) and adjacent urban areas;
Two such areas are Bowash (Boston–Washington) and Chipitts (Chicago–Pittsburgh).
Urban trends that affect urban growth
Boston Springfield Hartford Providence Newark Allentown Harrisburg New York Philadelphia Baltimore Washington Detroit Cleveland Pittsburgh Toledo Akron Chicago Chipitts (Chicago to Pittsburgh) Bowash (Boston to Washington)
Urban Resource and Environmental Problems Air and water pollution; waste management Reduction in vegetation Importation of food, energy, and materials Noise pollution Climate impacts: urban heat islands Impacts on surrounding rural areas
Inputs Outputs Energy Food Water Raw materials Manufactured goods Money Information Solid wastes Waste heat Air pollutants Water pollutants Greenhouse gases Manufactured goods Noise Wealth Ideas
Transportation and Urban Development Individual transit Mass transit Buses Trains Automobiles Advantages Disadvantages More flexible than rail system Can be rerouted as needed Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail system Can greatly reduce car use and pollution Can lose money because they need low fares to attract riders Often get caught in traffic unless operating in express lanes Commit riders to transportation schedules Noisy Buses Trade-Offs Advantages Disadvantages
Urban Land-Use Planning and Control Land-use planning Property taxes Zoning Smart growth Urban growth boundary Cluster development Greenbelts