Defining Automotive Technology by SouLSteer


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Defining automotive technology from scratch. Must for any dealership owner or any sales man of a automobile dealership. Anyone related to automobile cars or industry this presentation is for you.

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  • Benz Motorwagen – developed by a German named Karl Benz (Co founder of Mercedes Benz) in 1885 – World’s first automobile (Vehicle propelled by a motor)
  • Defining Automotive Technology by SouLSteer

    1. 1. More: Basic Automotive Technology Submitted by: Shobhit Gosain, Gwalior (MP) India Dealer Development Division Toyota Kirloskar Motor Pvt. Ltd.
    2. 2. Basic Automotive Technology Benz Motorwagen – developed by a German named Karl Benz (Co founder of Mercedes Benz) in 1885 – The World’s first automobile
    3. 3. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    4. 4. Vehicle Body
    5. 5. Classification of Cars a. Based on space • 1. Three Box car Separated engine/cabin/luggage room design • 2. Two Box car Integrated cabin/luggage room design • 3. One Box car Integrated cabin/luggage room design with under-floor engine a Engine space b Occupant space c Cargo / Luggage space
    6. 6. Classification of Cars b. Based on body styles The body is the portion of the vehicle that carries people or luggage. Hatch back Sedan / Notch back MPV Pick up SUV
    7. 7. Classification of Cars b. Based on body styles Station Wagon Convertible Coupe
    8. 8. Classification of Cars Hatch Back • Hatchback contains a passenger cabin with a joined cargo space. • The vehicle commonly has two rows of seats • The back door is referred to as the hatch
    9. 9. Classification of Cars Sedan • The has a separate passenger cabin and cargo space (called the boot) • A sedan is a passenger car with two rows of seats.
    10. 10. Classification of Cars Convertible • It is known as a Convertible , usually very sporty in design • It has a retractable roof either made of metal or Fabric • Very popular in the Western countries
    11. 11. Classification of Cars Station Wagon • It is known as a Station Wagon or Estate • It has an extended boot area, which can be accessed from inside the car • Very popular in the Western countries
    12. 12. Classification of Cars Coupe • It is known as a Coupe , very sporty in design • It has the best seating capacity for only 2 people • Very popular in the Western countries
    13. 13. Classification of Cars Pickup • The cargo area is separated from the passenger cabin and used for carrying or pulling heavy loads. • A pickup has an open-top rear cargo area • It usually has one row of seat
    14. 14. Classification of Cars Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) • A MPV is also called a multi-utility vehicle (MUV) • They are designed for maximum interior room. • MPVs are taller than sedans or hatchbacks • It typically has 3 rows of seats
    15. 15. Classification of Cars Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) • It is known as "off-roader" or "four-wheel drive“ (4WD) or "4x4“ (four-by-four) • It usually has very powerful engines mainly for off road benefits • It has a passenger-carrying space of a MPV (3 rows of seats)
    16. 16. Classification of Cars c. Based on market segments
    17. 17. Classification of Cars Commonly known as “City Car” Price Band Rs. 1.5L to 4L
    18. 18. Classification of Cars Commonly known as “Sub-Compact Cars” Can be further classified as: B Hatchback B Hatchback Price Band Rs. 4L to 6L B Sedan B Sedan Price Band Rs. 4L to 6L B+ Sedan B+ Sedan Price Band Rs. 6.5L to 9L
    19. 19. Classification of Cars Commonly known as “Compact Car” Price Band Rs. 11L to 15L
    20. 20. Classification of Cars Can be further classified as: D D Price Band Rs. 20L to 30L D+ (Compact Executive car / /Entry D+ (Compact Executive car Entry level luxury car) level luxury car) Price Band Rs. 30L to 40L
    21. 21. Basic Body Construction There are two types of body construction: a. Chassis / Frame type body b. Monocoque body
    22. 22. Basic Body Construction a. Chassis / Frame Type Body • Used as a main structure of an automobile • To the Chassis we mount the engine, transmission, suspension, steering, brakes, and wheels • Chassis is used in Vehicles that carry load and for tough terrains
    23. 23. Basic Body Construction b. Monocoque Body • This is used in vehicles that does not carry heavy load. To this body we mount the engine, Transmission and other components of the vehicle • A Monocoque is made out of lightweight materials so that it is stiff and stable at high speeds and in tight corners.
    24. 24. Dimensions a. Exterior Wheelbase Overall length • A long wheel base offers more cabin space for the passengers seated inside and improves the stability to the car. • An overly long wheelbase and length leads to difficulty in turning and therefore increasing the turning radius
    25. 25. Dimensions a. Exterior contd. Overall Height Front Tread Overall Width Ground Clearance Rear Tread • A wider tread (distance b/w the center of the front 2 wheels or rear 2 wheel) offers more stability • A car with a large width offers more shoulder room for the passengers seated inside • A good ground clearance helps avoids the car underbody from hitting the road humps • A good height offers more headroom for passengers
    26. 26. Dimensions Turning Radius • This is the distance between the center of the turning of the vehicle and the center of the tire of the outermost wheel. • A lesser turning radius means a car needs lesser space to turn which is good for city driving:
    27. 27. Dimensions Angle of Approach / Departure & Front / Rear Overhang Angle of approach Angle of departure Front and Rear overhangs • This is important for off roading as the vehicles clears obstacles easily, entry and exit of the vehicle is easy in tough terrains
    28. 28. Vehicle Weights Gross Vehicle Weight: Weight of the vehicle + fuel, vehicle fluids (oil, coolant), passengers, and cargo + + + Kerb weight: Weight of a vehicle + fuel, vehicle fluids (oil, coolant) only +
    29. 29. Aerodynamics a. What is aerodynamics? • Aerodynamics is the study of designing the car in such a way so that it faces minimum air resistance and can cut through air easily. • It is measured in a unit known as Cd (Coefficient of Drag)
    30. 30. Aerodynamics Advantages & Benefits of Aerodynamics Advantages: • Offers lesser wind resistance • Vibrations are less • Cuts through air easily •Benefits: • Accelerates faster • Less wind noise • Helps achieve very good fuel efficiency
    31. 31. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    32. 32. Engine Systems • The engine is source of power for the car that makes the car move. • The fuel that is burnt inside the engine generates power. • This power is transmitted to the wheels of the car with the help of Transmission systems.
    33. 33. General Physics Force • In physics, a force is to push or pull that can cause an object to change its speed • It is expressed in Newton's (N)
    34. 34. General Physics Torque Force applied Crankshaft • The tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis is called torque. • Torque can be thought of as a twist force • It is expressed in Newton meter (Nm) • The engine torque represents the power that rotates the crankshaft.
    35. 35. General Physics Power • Power is the rate at which energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required for a given time. • Different units its measured in are in brake horse power (bhp) or kilo watts (kW) or Pferdestärke (PS) – German or Horse power (HP)
    36. 36. General Physics RPM • Revolutions per minute ( rpm, RPM, rev/min) is the number of full rotations completed in one minute • In Automobiles we relate this to the Crankshaft of the engine
    37. 37. General Physics Power to Weight Ratio • Lower the power to weight ratio, better the pickup. • Power to wt ratio = Power in bhp Kerb wt in kgs • Ex: Engine power of 250 bhp and a weight of 450 kgs gives it a power-to-weight ratio of 250/450 = 0.42
    38. 38. Engine Operation Super car engines like the one pictured typically are high powered engines whose stats read like this: • Can accelerate from 0 to 100 kmph in 3.14 secs • It can reach a top speed of 355 kmph • It gives a mileage of about 4.2 km per liter • Typically have a 6 litre V 12 engine that gives 660PS of power!! Any buyers?? The cars cost something like Rs. 3.2 Crores!!!
    39. 39. Engine Operation B: Bore/Cylinder (where burning of fuel takes place) C: Crankshaft (turned by the piston - turns the engine and makes the car go) E: Exhaust valve camshaft (opens and closes the exhaust valves) I: Inlet valve camshaft (opens and closes the inlet valves) P: Piston (moves up and down in the cylinder rotating the crankshaft) B R: Connecting rod (Connects the piston to the crankshaft) S: Spark plug (Generates a spark needed for ignition) V: Valves. Red: exhaust, Blue: intake W: Cooling water passages (For the coolant to cool the engine)
    40. 40. Engine Operation 4 Stroke Petrol Engine 1. Intake / Suction stroke (Fuel + air enters) 2. Compression stroke (Fuel + air is compressed) 3. Ignition / Combustion stroke (Spark plug creates a spark - Fuel is burnt) 4. Exhaust stroke (Exhaust gases come out)
    41. 41. Engine Operation SOHC & DOHC There are various types of valve mechanism, depending on the number (Single or double) SOHC (Single Overhead Camshaft) Single Camshaft • All inlet and exhaust valves are operated by one camshaft directly that is located above the cylinder block. DOHC (Double Overhead Camshaft) Dual Camshafts • Two camshafts, One operating the inlet valve and the other operating the exhaust valve
    42. 42. Engine Operation Variable Valve Timing intelligence (VVTi) • The VVT-i system adjusts the valve timing of the inlet valve • This results in improved torque, power output, fuel economy and smooth engine operation
    43. 43. Engine Operation 4 Stroke Diesel Engine • Stroke 1 (intake) – only air enters cylinder. • Stroke 2 (compression) – air is compressed to high extent, raising temperature. • Stroke 3 (power) – diesel is injected, high air temperature ignites diesel. • Stroke 4 (exhaust) – burnt gases are expelled from the engine
    44. 44. Engine Operation Common Rail Direct injection (CRDi) ECU Common fuel rail line Fuel Tank Engine • All the fuel injectors are supplied with fuel by a common fuel rail line. • The fuel injectors are computer controlled (ECU) and fuel is injected into the cylinders at the desired pressure.
    45. 45. Engine Operation Turbo charger Exhaust gases Shaft Compressor Exhaust Turbine Air Intake • A turbocharger, induces more air into the cylinder by means of a fan driven by the engine’s exhaust gases • It’s purpose is to increase the performance of the engine
    46. 46. Engine Intercooler Intercooler • It cools the compressed hot air that comes from the turbo, before it enters the engine. • Colder air carries more oxygen. Compressed oxygen rich air going into the engine results in efficient combustion. As a result, the engine is able to produce more power.
    47. 47. Engine Intercooler Cool & Compressed Air fed to the engine Intercooler cools the compressed air Compressed Air Turbine rotates the shaft Engine More Air is pushed in by the compressor Exhaust gases spin the turbine Exhaust Gas • The complete process of inducing more air via the turbo and intercooler into the engine cylinder
    48. 48. Engine Operation Differences b/w petrol and diesel engines Petrol Engines Diesel Engines • Fuel and air enter the cylinder • Only air enters the cylinder • Fuel is ignited by a spark plug • Fuel is injected and then ignited due to a high compression ratio • Petrol Engines make lesser noise • Larger compression ratios make diesel engines more noisy • Diesel engines are more heavier • Diesels have more fuel economy because of higher compression ratios • • Petrol Engines are lighter in weight Petrol Engines are poorer than diesel engines in terms of fuel economy
    49. 49. Cooling System Cooling fan • This fan directs a large volume of air to the radiator in order to enhance the cooling effect.
    50. 50. Exhaust Systems Catalytic Converter Clean Air Impure air from Exhaust • The catalytic converter is located in the middle of the exhaust system to remove the harmful elements from the exhaust gases.
    51. 51. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    52. 52. Transmission / Drive Train systems
    53. 53. Types of Transmission • Manual Transmission • Automatic Transmission
    54. 54. Types of Transmission Manual Transmission (M/T) • A manual transmission changes the combinations of the gears that are meshed and they need to be done manually by shifting the gear lever accordingly. • As a result, it can change the power, rotational speed, and the direction of the rotation.
    55. 55. Types of Transmission Automatic Transmission (A/T) (A/T) • An automatic transmission is an automobile gearbox that can change gears automatically as the vehicle moves. • It also uses a computer to regulate shifting in accordance with the driving conditions detected by sensors. This system is called ECT (Electronically Controlled Transmission).
    56. 56. Tiptronic Transmission • The Tiptronic transmission system combines fully automatic transmission operation with the option of manual control. • In manual mode (Sequential shift) you can change the gears by hand using the gear lever • By shifting the lever in ‘S’ position, up shifting can be done by pushing the lever forwards(+), & downshifting(-) by pulling the lever downwards
    57. 57. Types of Drive trains Front Engine – Front Wheel Drive (FF) • Here the drive train channels the power of the engine through the transmission unit and differential to the Front Wheels. Advantages • Weight: Fewer components means lower weight. • Improved fuel efficiency due to less weight. • Cost: Fewer material components means lower cost
    58. 58. Types of Drive trains Front Engine – Rear Wheel Drive (FR) • Here the drive train channels the power of the engine through the transmission unit, propeller shaft and rear differential to the Rear Wheels. • The FR layout is often chosen for its simple design and good handling characteristics..
    59. 59. Types of Drive trains 4 wheel drive(4WD) or All wheel drive (AWD) • The drive from the engine is given to all the wheels at different ratios. • Usually the ratio differs depending on the road conditions and terrain • This is supported by the use of Front and Rear differential
    60. 60. Types of Drive trains Differential • The differential is used to help the wheels to turn at different speeds, • Example: the inner wheel of the car needs to turn slower than the outside wheel when the car is taking a left turn • The other use of the differential is used to convert the vertical motion of the power coming from the gear box to horizontal motion to the wheel
    61. 61. Tyres and Wheels Specification coding system Sidewall 1 7 5 /7 0 -R -1 3 Rim Diameter 1. 2. 3. 4. Tyre width in mm Aspect Ratio (Height/Width) R for radial tyre Rim Diameter in Inches. Width
    62. 62. Tyres and Wheels Aspect Ratio H Aspect ratio • The ratio of sidewall of the tire to the width W • Aspect ratio = H / W x 100 • A tire with a good aspect ratio gives a better ride quality by cushioning the road shocks
    63. 63. Tyres and Wheels Tube and Tubeless tyre Air escapes slowly TUBE TYRE TUBELESS TYRE Air escapes rapidly • The air is held inside the tyre and the rim • Incase of a puncture, the air from the tubeless tyre escapes very slowly. This improves safety as you do not loose control on vehicle in case of puncture • Care should be taken not to damage rim when changing or repairing a tyre
    64. 64. Tyres and Wheels Disc wheels Pressed Steel disc Alloy wheel • Pressed-steel disc wheel This wheel is made of pressed steel. It is heavy, but strong. • Cast light-alloy disc wheel This wheel is made of aluminum. It is lightweight and can be designed excellently
    65. 65. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    66. 66. Steering Systems
    67. 67. Types of Steering Rack and Pinion Type PINION RACK • The pinion changes the rotational movement of the steering wheel into the left or right movement of the steering rack. Advantages • The construction is simple and lightweight. • The steering is solid, and the steering wheel response is very sharp.
    68. 68. Power steering •Power steering reduces the amount of steering effort exerted by the driver. 1. Hydraulic Power steering • When the steering wheel is turned, an oil circuit is switched on. • The oil (supplied by an engine driven pump) supplies the power needed to operate the steering wheel and hence makes it easy to steer
    69. 69. Power steering •Power steering reduces the amount of steering effort exerted by the driver. 2. Electric Power steering (EPS) • An electric motor is used to aid in turning the wheels • Since, the engine power is not being used , EPS leads to better fuel economy • It is good for driving in the city driving conditions
    70. 70. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    71. 71. Braking system
    72. 72. Brakes Braking Principle Master cylinder Wheel Cylinder • One advantage of this is that a small force applied at one end of a system can be magnified at the other, depending on the layout of the system. • This inturn reduces the effort put by the driver and increases braking pressure
    73. 73. Brake Layout • Generally, disc brakes are used on the front wheels, and drum brakes are used on the rear wheels.
    74. 74. Brakes a. Disc Brakes • Disc Brakes stop the rotation of the wheels when the disc brake pad pushes against the disc brake rotor. • Disc Brakes are very powerful and effective.
    75. 75. Brakes Ventilated Disc Brakes Air Vents • “Ventilated" disc brake design helps to cool down the disc from heat generated from due to friction with the air vents provided. • Usually the front wheels are provided with ventilated disc brakes and the rear with solid disc
    76. 76. Brakes b. Drum Brakes • The brake shoes press against the drum from the inside (red arrows shown) thus stopping the wheel from rotating.
    77. 77. Anti lock Braking System (ABS) ABS The function of the ABS is to regulate braking pressure hence preventing the wheel from locking. • There is a speed sensor on all four wheels ,the ABS controller monitors each wheel individually to make sure it is achieving maximum braking force. • The benefits of ABS are avoids skidding, steering control while braking , stability and shorter stopping distance
    78. 78. Anti lock Braking System (ABS) Operation of ABS • When a wheel is about to lock, the system instantly releases the brake of that particular wheel to enable the wheel to rotate again • After the wheel that was about to lock recovers its rotation, the application of the brake of that wheel is resumed and released just before the wheel locks • This system repeats the above processes over dozens of times per second.
    79. 79. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    80. 80. Suspension systems
    81. 81. Suspension Systems Outline / Function A. Front suspension B. Rear suspension • The suspension system helps us to steer the car properly, give us comfort on different road conditions and ride quality • There are many components to this system and vary by their construction
    82. 82. Suspension Systems a. Springs • A (Coil) spring, also known as a helical spring, compresses when loaded i.e. to absorb shocks • They are formed in a spiral shapes which returns to its natural length when unloaded.
    83. 83. Suspension Systems b. Shock Absorbers • The shock absorbers restrain the movement of springs • They also absorb the vibrations (Shocks) of the vehicle body, and give a good ride.
    84. 84. Suspension Systems A.Non-Independent • Good for load carrying purpose B. Semi – Independent • Good for Load carrying and Luxury purpose C. Independent Suspension • Good for Good ride quality and Luxury purpose
    85. 85. Types of Suspension a. Non-Independent Suspension • Both wheels are joined to a single axle, which is mounted to the body via springs. • Because both wheels and the axle move vertically in unison, its working is rigid • This type of suspension has a simple and solid construction. This is also called the rigid axle also Ex: • Torsion beam type • 4 link type • Leaf Srings
    86. 86. Non-Independent Suspension Torsion bar Torsion Bar • A torsion bar suspension, also known as a torsion spring suspension or incorrectly as torsion beam. • Vertical (up and down) motion of the wheel causes the bar to twist around its axis thereby creating resistance to vehicle vibrations
    87. 87. Non-Independent Suspension Leaf Spring • A leaf spring can be made from several leaves stacked on top of each other in several layers, often with progressively longer leaves. • Sets of leaves are also clamped together to hold them together
    88. 88. Types of suspension b. Semi- Independent Suspension Twist Beam • In this type of a suspension there is a flexible link between the two wheels (Twist beam). • If one wheel experiences an irregularity the other wheel is not entirely affected.
    89. 89. Types of suspension C. Independent Suspension • Each wheel is supported by an independent arm, which is mounted to the vehicle body via a spring. • This type of suspension can efficiently absorb the roughness of the road, and gives an excellent ride because each wheel moves up and down independently from the other wheel.
    90. 90. Independent Suspension McPherson Strut • The McPherson strut, developed by Earle S. McPherson is the most widely used front suspension system. • The McPherson strut combines a shock absorber and a coil spring into a single unit. • This provides a more compact and lighter suspension system that can be used for front-wheel drive vehicles.
    91. 91. Types of suspension Anti-Roll Bar • The resistance to twist the bar prevents body roll of the vehicle • The compression of the suspension causes the body to roll during cornering.
    92. 92. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    93. 93. Safety Systems The fundamental idea behind collision safety is to: 1. Have a vehicle body which effectively absorbs collision impact. 2. A strong cabin that ensures survival space, and 3. Restraint devices that protect occupants.
    94. 94. Active Safety systems • Active safety systems are features that help prevent an accident • Toyota's basic stance on active safety technology is that it must provide vehicular stability as well as help drivers to avoid accidents. Examples: • ABS with EBD • Child lock • Automatic door lock • Jam protection • Rear window demister
    95. 95. Passive Safety systems •Passive safety technologies help to reduce injury to people in case of a accident •Passive safety applies to the period during a collision and focuses on safety measures for reducing injuries. • Examples: • GOA Body • Crumple Zones • Pedestrian Injury Lessening • Whiplash Injury Lessening • SRS Airbags • ELR with Pre tensioner and load limiter
    96. 96. Passive Safety systems GOA Body • GOA (Global Outstanding Assessment) The GOA clears the strictest crash safety tests established by Toyota. • It is a type of crash safety body that minimizes the deformation of the cabin by absorbing the energies of the crash and then dissipating them over the rest of the body
    97. 97. Passive Safety systems Crumple Zones • A crumple zone also known as a crush zone, are areas of a vehicle that are designed to deform and crumple in a collision. • This absorbs some of the energy of the impact, preventing it from being transmitted to the occupants.
    98. 98. Passive Safety systems Whiplash Injury Lessening • Whiplash injuries occur when the head and torso move together during a rear-end collision. • It is important for the seatback and headrest to simultaneously cushion the occupant's head and torso during an impact.
    99. 99. Passive Safety systems Seatbelts • The seat belt properly secures the person to the seat. • Prevents the person from being thrown forward • We have a 3 point type of seatbelt in our car
    100. 100. Passive Safety systems ELR / Pre Tensioner & Load Limiter Pre-tensioner • The Emergency Locking Retractor (ELR) of the seatbelt automatically locks when you are subjected to a sudden forward movement, during panic braking conditions • Pre tensioner and load limiters act only if the airbags deploy • The Pre-tensioner pulls the seat belt keeping the person secure in the seat • The Load limiter limits the amount of load exerted and does the release action
    101. 101. Passive Safety systems SRS Airbags • Airbags are known as Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) ie. (supplement – in addition to the seatbelts) Working: • When the impact limit has been reached or exceeded, an airbag control unit being impact sensitive will trigger the inflation of a nylon fabric bag with help of a sensor
    102. 102. Passive Safety systems Collapsible Steering Column • During a collision, the steering column will compress under impact, as the two tubes slide into each other and additionally the joints break • This reduces the potential for injury to the driver’s chest.
    103. 103. Table Of Contents Body Engine Systems Transmission / Drive Train Systems Steering systems Braking Systems Suspension Systems Safety Systems Electrical Systems
    104. 104. Electrical systems
    105. 105. Engine Electrical Various pieces of equipment are necessary for starting the engine and operating it in a stable manner. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Battery Starter (Starting system) Alternator (Charging system) Ignition coil (Ignition system) Ignition switch Combination meter (Discharge warning light) 7. Sensors
    106. 106. Engine Electrical Battery • The battery is a rechargeable device that serves as a power supply for the electrical parts when the engine is stopped.
    107. 107. Engine Electrical Starter (Starting Systems) • The starting system forces the engine to crank with an electric motor, and starts the engine. Alternator (Charging Systems) • The charging system produces electricity to supply to the electrical components and charges the vehicle's battery ECM / ECU (Electronic control Module /Unit ) • This is the computer of the car, which processes different data that is sent by the different sensors in the car and then gives instructions for a specific action to be done. It has a 32bit processor in it
    108. 108. Lighting Systems
    109. 109. Headlamp Technology HID (High intensity Discharge) HID – High Intensity Discharge also known as Xenon Headlights They produce brighter, clearer light, use less energy and have a longer service life • • Xenon headlights provide particularly bright, intense illumination of the road, ensuring significantly greater visibility in bad weather or in the dark • Also the focusing of the beam can be done with more precision
    110. 110. HID Headlights focusing Projector lamps • To make sure that vehicles driving towards you or ahead of you are not dazzled by this stronger light, Projector lenses are used to direct the beam straight to the road • Beam height adjustment aligns the headlights to suit the load the car is currently carrying
    111. 111. Combination meter and Gauges Tachometer and Speedometer Tachometer Speedometer • A tachometer (also called a revolution-counter, rev-counter, or RPM gauge) is an instrument that displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) • A speedometer is a device that measures the speed of a vehicle. • An odometer shows the amount of distance traveled. Eg: 36000kms
    112. 112. Sensors Engine Immobilizer • In this system, the engine ECU (Electronic Control Unit) in the vehicle checks the ID of the chip that is integrated in the key to prevent the engine from being started when the codes do not match, thus preventing theft of the vehicle
    113. 113. Sensors Wireless Door lock and Keyless entry 1. Wireless tuner (Inner mirror) 2. Door lock assembly 3. Transmitter • The doors can be locked or unlocked wirelessly by pressing the LOCK or UNLOCK button on the key. • Some vehicles are equipped with an answer-back function, in which the turn signal lights flash when the doors are locked once or unlocked twice.
    114. 114. Air Conditioning • Air conditioning is used the cool the interior cabin. • It also functions as a dehumidifier (reduces water content present in air), in addition to its heating and cooling functions. • Most car air conditioning systems use compressors (devices that cool air) driven by the engine
    115. 115. Air Conditioning Auto Air Conditioning • An auto AC system automatically adjusts the temperature of the interior to a set temperature. • Sensors detect the ambient air temperature, interior temperature, and the set temperature. • The computer automatically controls the outlet temperature & blower speed, in order to attain the set temperature in the least possible time.
    117. 117. Thank You