Introduction ofImplant Surface modifications ALI ALENEZI
Dental implants are widely used in dental practice to replace lost teeth. in 1960s, Professor Per-IngvarBrånemark introduced the term"0sseonintegration". Which indicatesto strong fixation of implant withinbone.
osseointegration process is responsible forimplant stability and long term survival rate.Dental implant especially with titanium materialshows high success rate.
Titanium is the most common material used as an implant material.- very compatible .- shows good mechanical and chemical properties.
A lot of implant studies in the latest decades discuss new implant designs and surface modifications in order to:- improve implant early stability and,- shorten the healing time.
This is not just to increase implant success ratebut also to deal with some cases that complainfrom medical problems that may effect theosseontegration and healing process.
Implant surface modification can be basically classified into three levels:1- Macro-level surface modification.2- Micro-level surface modification.3- Nano-level surface modification.
Macro level modification: Changes related to implant general design, for example; screw threads. The aim is to enhance initial implant stability and bone in-growth.
Micro-level modification: Surface treatment to make modification on the surface within range of micro meters:- To form film by using some coating materials like HA.- To remove part of surface structure by using acidetching or grind blasting.
Nano-level modification: Get more attention in the latest years. Surface modification within range of Nano meters. Can increase the surface area of implant. Believed to improve bone formation process.
All this kind of modifications can change thedegree of surface roughness.This roughness shows higher success rate whencompared with smooth surface implants.
The most common techniques used to apply thismodifications:- Acid etching.- Blasting.- Sol gel.- Anodization