Introduction Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. It measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements, for authentication purposes.
Biometric devices consist of: A reader or scanning device Software that converts the scanned information into digital form and compares match points A database that stores the biometric data for comparison
Biometrics can be sorted intotwo classes: Categories of BIOMETRICS Physiological Examples- face, fingerprints, hand geometry and iris Recognition, DNA. Behavioral Examples-signature and voice.
Basic characteristics ofBIOMETRIC Technologies: Universality: Every person should have the characteristic. People who are mute or without a fingerprint will need to be accommodated in some way. Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish. Permanence: The characteristics should not vary with time. A persons face, for example, may change with age.
Collectibility: The characteristics must be easily collectible and measurable. Performance: The method must deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances. Acceptability: The general public must accept the sample collection routines. Nonintrusive methods are more acceptable. Circumvention: The technology should be difficult to deceive
Working principle: Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device software that converts the gathered information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data with comparison with existing records.
Modes Enrollment Mode. Verification Mode. Enrollment Mode: A sample of the biometric trait is captured, processed by a computer, and stored for later comparison. Verification Mode: In this mode biometric system authenticates a person’s claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern.
Face Recognition It involves recognizing people by there: Facial features. Face geometry. Principle: Analysis of unique shape, pattern and positioning of facial features.
Voice Recognition: Voice recognition is not the same as speech recognition, it is speaker recognition. Considered both physiological and behavioral. Popular and low-cost, but less accurate and sometimes lengthy enrollment.
Styles of spoken input: These system have two styles of spoken inputs: Text Dependent- version inherently increases recognition performance, but it requires a co-operative user who can remember a phrase or sentence. Text-independent- version does not even need the user to be aware about the system, which makes it more convenient and secure.
Iris Recognition: It is the colored area of the eye that surrounds the pupil. It is a protected internal organ whose random texture is stable throughout life. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system .
Signature Verification: Static/Off-line: the conventional way. Dynamic/On-line: using electronically instrumented device. Principle: The movement of the pen during the signing process rather than the static image of the signature. Many aspects of the signature in motion can be studied, such as pen pressure, the sound the pen makes.
Smart Cards: These are digital security pocket-sized cards with embedded integrated circuits which can process data. It can be used for identification, authentication, and data storage. It can also be used as a medium to provide a means of effecting business transactions in a flexible, secure, standard way with minimal human intervention.
Encryption Systems : Transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication.
Performance of BIOMETRICS: False accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) False reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) Relative operating characteristic (ROC) Equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER)
Advantages ofBiometrics: Biometric identification can provide extremely accurate, secured access to information; fingerprints, retinal and iris scans produce absolutely unique data sets when done properly. Current methods like password verification have many problems (people write them down, they forget them, they make up easy-to-hack passwords) . Automated biometric identification can be done very rapidly and uniformly, with a minimum of training . Your identity can be verified without resort to documents that may be stolen, lost or altered.
Disadvantages ofBIOMETRICS: The finger print of those people working in Chemical industries are often affected. Therefore these companies should not use the finger print mode of authentication. It is found that with age, the voice of a person differs. Also when the person has flu or throat infection the voice changes or if there there are too much noise in the environment this method maynot authenticate correctly. Therefore this method of verification is not workable all the time For people affected with diabetes, the eyes get affected resulting in differences. Biometrics is an expensive security solution.
BIOMETRICS SECURITY: Security personnel look for biometric data that does not change over the course of your life; that is, they look for physical characteristics that stay constant and that are difficult to fake or change on purpose