Lecture12 oct21-bb (1)

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Lecture12 oct21-bb (1)

  1. 1. isobars 820 mb 860 mb 900 mb 90oF 70oF Cold Warm 780 mb
  2. 2. Land breeze
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Monsoon
  5. 5. wind system is one that changes direction seasonally, blowing from one direction in summer and from the opposite direction in winter
  6. 6. Summer  where is the pressure higher between land and ocean? Warm surface  air rising  low surface pressure Wind Cool surface  air sinking  high surface pressure
  7. 7. monsoon wind system is one that changes direction seasonally, blowing from one direction in summer and from the opposite direction in winter Stepped Art
  8. 8. Valley breeze
  9. 9. -Upslope/valley breeze forms as solar radiation heats the slope of mountain Q: What would happen for the air adjacent to the slope from the heating? SW 750 mb H L 800 mb 850 mb 850 mb 900 mb 900 mb 9 Stepped Art
  10. 10. Katabatic winds
  11. 11. Katabatic winds decent down a mountain slope Q: What would happen ? conditions for katabatic winds ? be optimal LW 750 mb 750 mb 800 mb 800 mb 850 mb 850 mb 900 mb 900 mb 11
  12. 12. Katabatic winds decent down a mountain slope Optimal conditions o snow-covered elevated plateau o generates a horizontal pressure gradient H PGF LW L 750 mb 800 mb 850 mb 900 mb 12
  13. 13. 13 Fig. 7-13, p. 179
  14. 14. Advection issues on eddy flux measurements
  15. 15. Tower-1 Tower-2
  16. 16. Chinook
  17. 17. 1.The air at point A in the figure below will be WARMER COLDER than at B and will have a HIGHER LOWER dew point.
  18. 18. 2. Lifting by topography Fig. 5-14, p. 119
  19. 19. chinooks are descending, warm and dry winds on the leeside of a mountain range 19
  20. 20. Santa Ana winds
  21. 21. Santa Ana winds created wildfire 21
  22. 22.  hot and dry winds that often sweep through the LA Basin in the fall and winter winds descend from hot desert terrain down to the L.A. Basin  parcel becomes warmer and drier because of compression heating need a strong high over southwestern U.S. 22 Stepped Art
  23. 23. Single-Cell Model Three-Cell Model
  24. 24. Single-cell model of General Circulation If you assume earth is uniformly covered by water sun is directly over equator no rotation you will end up with a single cell pattern called the Hadley Cell warm air rises at the equator, cold air sinks in the poles Q: This single cell has never observed, what important processes have we neglected?
  25. 25. Three-cell model of General Circulation Hadley cell (0-30o); Ferrel cell (30-60o); and Polar cell (60-90o) Q: How can we draw the basic characteristics of the general circulations?
  26. 26. 1. 3. draw wind directions by taking into account CF draw five belts at 0, 30, and 60 degree and mark L and H on each of them NH, deflection to right SH, deflection to left 2. draw PGF from H to L Polar H 60o 30o L H Subpolar low L Subtropical high 60o H 30o PGF L Intertropical convergence zone L 0o PGF 0o 30o H 60o Subtropical high L Subpolar low L Polar H H 30o
  27. 27. Hadley cell Thermal cell

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