M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A          :OLD                   ME-      ...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                                          ...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I AS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                   So products may superce...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A               “Each new medium is justifi...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                “What is new about new med...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                                 Remediati...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                                          ...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A        ‘Hypermediacy’ describes the aware...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                           http://www.yout...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A           Harold Innis           Before d...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A           Communication models           ...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A               “[Hypermedia aka multimedia...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A              TEXT              Writing de...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A     ALPHABET     Alphabetic writing     e...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A        According to Herodotus (History 5:...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A      Huge libraries, such as that in Alex...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A      THE BOOK     Julius Caeser is credit...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A     MANUSCRIPTS     The fall of the Roman...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A     The Arabs revolutionised book product...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I AS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A       Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg    ...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A       The printing press led to       •	D...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A     Steam-powered printing presses     be...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A         TELEGRAPHY         By the early 1...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A         TELEPHONY         Telegraphy not ...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A     RADIO     1895 Guglielmo Marconi sent...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A         RECORDED SOUND         Audio reco...
M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A                                          ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Old Media + New Media = reMedia

2,565 views
2,445 views

Published on

A presentation for RMIT Games Program's Media Cultures class (2010) that looks at technological innovation in communications.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,565
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Old Media + New Media = reMedia

  1. 1. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A :OLD ME- DIA + NEW ME- = DIA re- ME- DIA: 1S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U
  2. 2. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A NOT evolution BUT ‘remediation’ Bolter & Grusins’ theory of media evolution that contested the myth of the ‘newness’ of new media and the linear destruction and succession of older media by newer ones.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 2
  3. 3. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I AS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 3
  4. 4. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A So products may supercede each other... but do mediums?S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 4
  5. 5. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A “Each new medium is justified because it fills a lack or repairs a fault in its predecessor, because it fulfills the unkept promise of an older medium. (Typically, of course, users did not realize that the older medium had failed in its promise until the new one appeared.) The supposed virtue of virtual reality, of video- conferencing and interactive television, and of the World Wide Web is that each of these technologies repairs the inadequacy of the medium or media that it now supersedes.” Bolter and Grusin, Remediation: The meaning of new mediaS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 5
  6. 6. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A “What is new about new media comes from the particular ways in which they refashion older media and the ways in which older media refashion themselves to answer the challenges of new media.” Bolter and Grusin, Remediation: The meaning of new mediaS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 6
  7. 7. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Remediation Old and new media influence each other, each succeeding media enfolding the styles, techniques and content of earlier media, ‘re-mediating’ them and forming a new identity from old components. In turn, older media attempt to retain their currency by adopting the stylistic and conceptual paraphernalia of new media: eg multiple windows, fast edits, etc. • New media begin by incorporating many of the stylistic and other conventions of traditional media, however their popularity is often due to their ability to provide an experience of greater realism. • Traditional media start using the new conventions and styles typical of the new media , maintaining market currency.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 7
  8. 8. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Remediation is driven by the dynamic between ‘immediacy’ and ‘hypermediacy’. ‘Immediacy’ describes the transparency of a medium - its sense of realism. Hamlet on the Holodeck Author: Janet Murray http://www.lcc.gatech.edu/~murray/hoh/ tablecontents.html Cornelis Gijsbrechts (1659-1675) Seventeenth Century Trompe L’Oeil : http://www.students.sbc.edu/clarke04/ trompe.htm Trompe l’oeil http://www.artlex.com/ ArtLex/t/trompeloeil.htmlS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 8
  9. 9. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A ‘Hypermediacy’ describes the awareness of the media object itself -- it calls attention to its own construction, is conscious of its own artificiality. anamorphosis in art. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anamorphic_format Anamorphic Perspective & Illusory Architecture http://www.generativeart.com/salgado/anamorphic.htm The Ambassadors (1533) Hans Holbein the Younger http://en.wikipedia. 9S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U org/wiki/The_
  10. 10. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UilTOWo1M6YS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 10
  11. 11. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Harold Innis Before digital technology, media either extended communication through space or through time. Space – e.g megaphone, telephone, television and radio Time -- eg alphabetical writing, movable type printing, musical notation, painting.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 11
  12. 12. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Communication models Traditional technologies allow • One-to-many • One-to-one Digital technology adds • Many-to-manyS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 12
  13. 13. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A “[Hypermedia aka multimedia] was born from the marriage of TV and computer technologies. Its raw ingredients are images, sound, text, animation and video which can be brought together in any combination.” Cotton and Oliver, Understanding HypermediaS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 13
  14. 14. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A TEXT Writing developed between the 7th millennium BCE and the 4th millennium BCE, first in the form of mnemonic symbols which became a system of ideograms or pictographs through simplification. The oldest known forms of writing were thus primarily logographic in nature. Nearly everything that could be written upon—stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets, wax —was used for writing.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 14
  15. 15. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A ALPHABET Alphabetic writing emerged in Egypt around 1800 BC. The words weren’t separated from each other and there was no punctuation or vow- els. Texts were written so that alternate lines read in opposite directions (‘boustrophedon,’ literally ‘ox-turning’ for the way a farmer drives an ox to Papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by plough fields.) weaving then pounding the stems of the papyrus reed was used for writing perhaps as early as the First Dynasty. Lengths were stored rolled in SCROLLS. 15S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U
  16. 16. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A According to Herodotus (History 5:58), the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the tenth or ninth century BC. The Greek word for papyrus as writing material (biblion) and book (biblos) come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper in East Asia, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese and Hebrew cultures.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 16
  17. 17. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Huge libraries, such as that in Alexandra, stored thousands of scrolls. The Royal Alexandrine Library was founded in the 3rd century BCE and was destroyed sometime in the 1st century CE. It contained 500,900 volumes (in the Museion section) and 40,000 at the Serapis temple. All books in the luggage of visitors to Egypt were inspected, and could be held for copying. The library attracted scholars from around the ‘known world’ and made Alexandra an international cultural centre. The Library of Alexandria http://www.shekpvar.net/~dna/Publica- tions/Wonders/Wonders/Selected/AlexandriaLibrary.htmlS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 17
  18. 18. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A THE BOOK Julius Caeser is credited with being the first person to fold a scroll into pages, to send dispatches to his troops, thus creating the CODEX. It didn’t REALLY catch on. It wasn’t until the early Christians, who perhaps wanted to diffferentiate themselves from the ‘pagans’ and who needed to be The codex form improved with the able to easily hide their holy books, that separation of words, capital letters, and the codex became popular (circa 3-4 century CE.) punctuation, which permitted silent reading. Tables of contents, page numbers and indices facilitated direct access to information (developed 3-9th CE.)S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 18
  19. 19. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A MANUSCRIPTS The fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D. saw the decline of the culture of ancient Rome. Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment became the main writing material. During the turbulent periods of the ‘Dark Ages’, it was the monasteries that conserved religious texts and some works of antiquity for the West. Reading was an important activity in the lives of monks, which can be divided into prayer, intellectual work, and manual labor (in the Benedictine order, for example). It was therefore necessary to make copies of certain works -- particularly sacred texts. Monks copied and decorated manuscripts in monastery scriptoria.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 19
  20. 20. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A The Arabs revolutionised book production and binding in the medieval Islamic world. They were the first to produce paper books after they learnt paper production from the Chinese in the 8th century. They introduced paper production technologies to Europe through their Spanish empire. Paper was a necessary technology for the mass-production of books. Before the invention (in Europe) of movable type, paper and woodblock printing was used to make cheap broadsheets, playing cards and even pictorial Bibles.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 20
  21. 21. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I AS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 21
  22. 22. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available. By c. 1500 Estimated 30,000 titles were printed (250-1000 copies each) since Gutenberg’s first printed book in 1455 A person born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded the city in A.D. 330.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 22
  23. 23. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A The printing press led to • Democratization of knowledge : Within fifty or sixty years of the invention of the printing press, the entire classical canon had been reprinted and widely promulgated throughout Europe. • Literacy : cheaper books meant more were available outside religious institutions. • The Enlightenment : the establishment of a community of scientists who could easily communicate their discoveries through the establishment of widely disseminated scholarly journals, helping to bring on the scientific revolution. Because of the printing press, authorship became more meaningful and profitable. • Copyright : book production was a commercial enterprise and the first copy- right laws were passed to protect intellectual property rights. • Nationalism : the decline of Latin as the language of most published works, to be replaced by the vernacular language of each area, increasing the variety of published works. This rise in importance of national languages as opposed to pan-European Latin is cited as one of the causes of the rise of nationalism in Europe. • Reformation : Personal access to the Bible led to a huge growth of diverse (non-S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U Catholic) inter- 23
  24. 24. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A Steam-powered printing presses became popular in the early 1800s. These machines could print 1,100 sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2,000 letters per hour. Monotype and linotype presses were introduced in the late 19th century. They could set more than 6,000 letters per hour and an entire line of type at once. In mid-20th century, Europe book production had risen to over 200,000 titles per year.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 24
  25. 25. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A TELEGRAPHY By the early 19th century, all of the essential components necessary to construct an electrical communications system had been discovered. Late 1830s, Samual Morse invented the telegraph system. Morse’s telegraph was: • The first technology to bridge spaces greater than the throw of the human voice. • Initiated the birth of the ‘skin of electric communications’ which now wraps the entire globe and is exemplified by the Internet. Morse’s code plus transmitting/recieving equipment • The first electronic medium. replaced previous systems because of its: • The first industrial use of electricity • simplicity (both code and equipment used few omponents and were easy to learn) • The most abstract form of communication ever invented. • reliability (worked on inferior quality lines)S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 25
  26. 26. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A TELEPHONY Telegraphy not only made the telephone conceptually possible, it laid the material grounds for its dissemination. Telephony was an ‘accidental’ invention. Graham Alexander Bell, was actually trying to develop an hearing aid for his deaf wife. He had seized upon telegraphy as a paradigm, seeking a ‘harmonic telegraph’ to transform speech into electrical signals which could be written visually as in a telegraph. Telephony was far more publicly popular than the telegraph despite being derided by experts as sim- ply an ‘electric toy’. By the turn of the century tele- phone calls outnumbered telegraph messages by 50:1 and it provided the catalyst for the inventionS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 26
  27. 27. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A RADIO 1895 Guglielmo Marconi sent the first radio signal. Marconi originally intended the radio to be a ‘telephone without wires for the populace’ -- a ‘many to many’ communications device. He was stymied in this intention by the high cost of transmitters compared with the relatively low cost of receivers which ensured, instead, its development as a ‘one to many’ mass communications device. • Democratic media/propaganda tool for all Goebbels’s great passion was radio, the most • Radio music box modern and effective medium of propaganda. He • Social educator arranged for the production of low-cost radios, and • Live medium until the ‘50s the National Socialist revolution was supposed to put one of them in every German living room. By • The threat of TV 1942 sixteen million households, that is, about 70% of the population, hadS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 27 radio reception.
  28. 28. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A RECORDED SOUND Audio recording and storage technologies developed more or less independently of audio transmission. The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. He initially saw its chief commercial potential as being a telephone recording device. However, despite improvements in recorded sound quality due to improvements in storage medium (from wax cylinder to wire to Bakelite disc), the phonograph remained essentially unchanged for 70 years in that once a series of sounds were re- corded they could not be reconfigured. It was not until the 1940s that audio-tape, invented in 1928, became available and allowed editing first via splicing, and then multitracking and overdubbing. Nothing much changed until the 1970s when the audio cassette sparked a home recording boom which, at the time, seemed toS H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 28
  29. 29. M E D I A C U LT U R E S I I : O L D M E D I A | N E W M E D I A | r e M E D I A SOUND CINEMA Synchronised sound for cinema was not commercially possible until the 1920s and at first was only applied to shorts called ‘talkies’. The first feature film originally pre- sented as a talkie was The Jazz Singer, released in October 1927.S H I R A L E E . S A U L @ R M I T. E D U . A U 29

×