MANAGING WATER AND ITS CONSERVATION BY SHION .K.BABU III B.COM(CA) O9CCU004
WHY CONSERVE WATER?1.It is a resource that is a benefit to everyone.2. To save money. Lower consumption means lower water bills.3. To keep rates low. Maximizing current water supplies helpsdefer the need to develop new, more expensive sources of water.4. To prepare for a drought. Many areas of the country haveexperienced drought conditions in the past few years. Waterconservation helps prepare for these worst of times.5. To comply with regulations. Many states and local regulatorshave established efficient water use regulations
TWO TYPES OF PRACTICES1. Engineering practices: practices based on modifications in plumbing, fixtures, or water supply operating procedures.2. Behavioral practices: practices based on changing water use habit.
MONITORINGProvides baseline information on quantities ofoverall company water use, the seasonal and hourlypatterns of water use, and the quantities andquality of water use in individual processes. Baseline information on water use can be used toset company goals and to develop specific wateruse efficiency measures. Monitoring also raises employee awareness. Records of meter readings can be used to identifychanges in water use rates and possible problems ina system.
SUB METERINGThe practice of placing water meters throughout afacility is called sub metering. Sub metering helps account for water usage andcan help in the process of leak detection. Areas to consider sub metering are landscapedareas, cafeterias, laundries, and major industrialequipment that use water. Sub metering makes water users more aware ofhow much water they use and its cost. By placing meters and monitoring those metersthroughout a facility, experts estimate that a facilitycan help reduce water usage by 20 to 40 percent.
METER ACCURACYWater meters can be damaged anddeteriorate with age, thus producinginaccurate readings.All meters, especially oldermeters, should be tested for accuracy ona regular basis. Meters that are used to measure largevolumes of water may be too large for acustomers level of use and will tend tounder-register water use. A Meter testing, calibration, repair, andreplacement program needs to beestablished.
LEAK DETECTIONleaks saves money on water bills. Theearly detection of leaks also reduces thechances that leaks will cause majorproperty damage. A leak detection strategy needs toemploy regular on-site testing methods fordetecting leaks along water distributionmains, valves, services, and meters.Leak detection programs are especiallyimportant in facilities that havelarge, old, deteriorating systems.
REDUCING WATER PRESSUREReducing excessive pressures in the waterdistribution system can save a significantquantity of water. Reducing water pressure can decreaseleakage, the amount of flow through openfaucets, and stresses on pipes and joints thatmay result in leaks. Lower water pressure mayalso decrease system deterioration, reducingthe need for repairs and extending the life ofexisting facilities. Lower pressures can help reduce wear onend-use fixtures and appliances
WATER REUSEWater reuse is the use of wastewater orreclaimed water (sometimes called “graywater”) from one application for anotherapplication. Some potential applications include otherindustrial uses in cooling water at power plantsand oil refineries or industrial process water forsuch facilities as paper mills and carpetdyers, toilet flushing, dust control, constructionactivities, concrete mixing, and artificial lakes. Reused water can also be used in landscapeirrigation, agricultural irrigation, aesthetic usessuch as fountains, and fire protection.
COOLING WATER RECIRCULATION The use of water for cooling in industrialapplications represents one of the largest wateruses in the United States. The most water-intensive cooling method used inindustrial applications is once-through cooling, inwhich water contacts and lowers the temperature ofa heat source and then is discharged.Recycling water with a re circulating coolingsystem can greatly reduce water use by using thesame water to perform several cooling operations. Three cooling water conservation approachesthat can be used to reduce water use areevaporative cooling , ozonation , and air heatexchange.
EVAPORATION COOLERSThe principal use of water byevaporative coolers is to increase thehumidity of incoming air being drawninto a building and decrease itstemperature. The building’s air cools as itabsorbs the moisture. Evaporative coolers require an annualmaintenance check-up for the mostefficient cooling.
OZONATIONThe use of ozone to treat cooling tower water (ozonation):Can result in a 99% reduction in the appearance of bacteria. Andpersonnel no longer have to handlechlorine, bromine, phosphates, and other chemicals. It helps keepthe metal surfaces of pipes and equipment clean, makingequipment more energy efficient. Controls corrosion by producing a protective coating on metalsurfaces, extending equipment life. Acts as a strong disinfectant. Can use lower amounts of high-quality water and it reduces cooling tower blow down waterconsumption by 50 to 90%.
AIR HEAT EXCHANGEAir heat exchange works on the same principleas a cars radiator. In an air heat exchanger, a fanblows air past finned tubes carrying the recirculating cooling water. Air heat exchangers involve no water loss, butthey can be relatively expensive when comparedwith cooling towers.Air heat exchangers can be more reliable andmore productive than water cooling
ONCE-THROUGH COOLINGMany facilities have one or more pieces ofequipment cooled by a single-pass flow of water.After passing through and cooling theequipment, the water is usually discarded to asanitary sewer system.Equipment that might use a once-through coolingsystem include degreasers, rectifiers, hydraulicequipment, x-ray machines, condensers, andviscosity baths. Also air conditioners, aircompressors, hydraulic presses, welders andvacuum pumps
METAL FINISHING Platters and finishers, printed circuit boardoperators, fabricators, integrated circuit metalfabricators and other facilities use numerousprocess rinses and reaction baths. Water is essentialin the manufacturing process for these facilities. There are several water conserving methods thatmanufacturers should consider including: FlowMonitoring and Control, First Stage StaticTanks, Counter flow Rinsing, SprayRinsing, Membrane Technologies, Ion Exchange andElectrolyte Recovery
CAFETERIAS AND RESTAURANTSUse water in garbage disposer only duringoperation. If thawing foods in cold runningwater, change to thawing underrefrigeration, in a microwave, or in thecooking process. “Double Dip” to clean large volumes ofproduce. Replace "once through" water cooled icemachines and refrigeration condensers withair cooled machines. Limit dishwashing to full loads. Turn off thecontinuous flow used to clean the drain traysof the coffee/milk/soda beverage island.
HOSPITALS AND CLINICSTurn off water required for film processing orcooling in the X-ray department when not inuse. Recycle water where feasible, consistentwith state and county requirements. Use full loads insanitizer, sterilizer, dishwasher, and washingmachines.Overhaul faulty steam traps on sterilizers.Replace equipment with water-savingmodels. Reduce the load on air conditioning units byshutting off air conditioning when and where itis not needed.Recover condensate and use it as make-upwater
CLOSED-LOOP VEHICLE WASHERSThe closed loop vehicle washers are facilitiesthat completely recycle the wash water used incleaning cars, trucks, etc. Wash water will go through three differenttreatment units before being recycled for reuse. The alpha treatment unit is an oil/waterseparator. The beta treatment unit removes fine dirtparticles and any remaining hydrocarbons. The omega treatment adds ozone to the waterbefore reuse.
RAIN WATER HARVESTINGRain Water Harvesting is capturing and storingrainfall to irrigate plants or to supply people andanimals. A well-designed system will also decrease yourlandscape maintenance needs. All you need for a water harvesting system israin, and a place to put it. A "catchment" is any large surface that cancapture and/or carry water to where it can beused immediately or stored.
RAIN WATER HARVESTING A water surplus available at the right time ofyear makes storage well worth the time andeffort. A surplus becomes impractical when itmust be stored for more than several months. Water stored for long periods of time willstagnate and become a health hazard. You can store water in a variety of ways: 55-gallon steel drums, oak barrels or undergroundstorage tanks.Regular maintenance is critical to anydependable water harvesting system
A water surplus available at the right time ofyear makes storage well worth the time andeffort. A surplus becomes impractical when itmust be stored for more than several months. Water stored for long periods of time willstagnate and become a health hazard. You can store water in a variety of ways: 55-gallon steel drums, oak barrels or undergroundstorage tanks. Regular maintenance is critical to anydependable water harvesting system.
XERISCAPE LANDSCAPEBusinesses can save water in landscaping by usingthe principles of Xeriscape™, an efficiency-orientedapproach to landscaping that encompasses sevenessential principles:Planning and design Limited turf areasEfficient irrigation Soil improvementMulchingUse of lower water demand plants Appropriate maintenance