Recyclability for paper and board from the viewpoint of de inking

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Paper recycling in terms of de-inking

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Recyclability for paper and board from the viewpoint of de inking

  1. 1. Recyclability for paper and board from the viewpoint of de-inking Dr. SHIMIZU, Hirokazu Visiting Senior Researcher, Waseda University Environmental Research Institute President, SHIMIZU PRINTING INC. Expert, ISO TC130 WG11 (Environmental impact of printed products) 1
  2. 2. Contents 1. Background A. Paper and board production B. Main paper recovery pathway C. Paper and board recovery rate and utilization rate 2. Experiment A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan B. Controversial points for test procedure C. De-inking test results from 4-different ink 3. Discussion A. Possibility of establishing a rule for recyclability based on de-inking 2
  3. 3. 1.Background A. Paper and board production (worldwide, 2012) 3 000t 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 100,000 110,000 China USA Japan Germany Sweden Korea Canada Finland Brazil Indonesia India Italia France Russia Spain Austlia Mexico Thailand UK Taiwan 11,417 22,630 26,083 74,375 102,500 Reference: RISI Annual Review 2013 Annual production volume=399,985,000t
  4. 4. 1.Background A. Paper and board production (Japan, 2001-2012) 4 000t 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 22,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 30,000 32,000 Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 12,332 12,158 12,061 12,103 12,051 12,042 12,074 11,800 10,436 10,976 11,163 10,890 18,385 18,528 18,396 18,788 18,901 19,066 19,192 18,827 15,832 16,387 15,446 15,067 30,717 30,686 30,457 30,892 30,952 31,108 31,266 30,627 26,268 27,363 26,609 25,957 Total Paper Paperboard Reference: Paper Recycling in Japan, Paper Recycling Promotion Center
  5. 5. 1.Background B. Main Paper Recovery Pathway 5 Reference: Paper Recycling in Japan, Paper Recycling Promotion Center Single/multi-family residences Local shopping areas, office buildings, train stations..etc. Shopping malls, paper packaging plants, printers, bookbinders, publishers, newspaper companies…etc. Residential Commercial Industrial Collection by local authorities Group collections (Neighbors asso., PTA…etc.) Drop offs (public facilities, supermarket…etc.) Collectors Sources Scrap dealers Intermediate agents Recoveredpapersuppliers Specialized collector PapermillsExports Collection method
  6. 6. 1.Background C. Paper recovery rate (worldwide, 2012) 6 Reference: RISI Annual Review 2013 % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea Japan Germany Canada USA Finland Sweden Indonesia China Brazil 44.444.6 52.5 61.062.264.4 73.2 77.678.0 94.6 Recovery rate = Collected paper Domestic consumption
  7. 7. 1.Background C. Paper utilization rate (worldwide, 2012) 7 Reference: RISI Annual Review 2013 % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea China Germany Japan Indonesia Brazil USA Canada Sweden Finland 5.3 14.2 24.5 35.4 43.3 57.4 64.3 71.672.9 84.5 Utilization rate Consumption of recycled paper New pulp = Consumption of recycled pulp + + Recycled paper Recycled pulp + Raw materials +
  8. 8. 2.Experiment 8 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan Reference: Paper Recycling in Japan, Paper Recycling Promotion Center 1-Pulping 2-Screening 3-Kneading 4-Floating5-Bleaching6-Cleaning Paper recycling process at paper mills
  9. 9. 2.Experiment 1. Printing sample Print UV Bk ink (density=1.60-1.80) on fine paper (64gsm, Oji Paper Mill) by tester, not by real press Cure the ink by either Hg or Fe lamp (120W/cm) at the speed of 30-40m/minute, temperature-aging at 60℃ for a week 2. Defibration (Pulping) 58g of paper (30mm×30mm…printed sheet=17.4g, white paper=40.6g) 1.5 litre of 28-32℃ water+6.9-7.1ml of 3.75% NaOH +6.9-7.1ml of 1.50% De-inking agent Agitate at 3000rpm for 20-minute Condense to 620-630g by using mesh configuration 9 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan
  10. 10. 2.Experiment 3. Dilution Add 1350 ml of water and defiberize again for 1-minute Transfer tested pulp and add 28-32℃ water to make 5.4kg of 1.0% pulp density sample 4. Separating sample Separate 4.3kg of 1.0% pulp density sample and start floatation process 5. Floatation Put 4.3kg of 1.0% pulp density sample into JTAPPI No.39 and send air (3.8-4.2 litre/minute) to skim froth of pulp when rotating screw at1500rpm 6. Collection Collect pulp sample after stopping screws 10 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan
  11. 11. 2.Experiment 7. 2nd dilution Add water again to increase pulp sample up to 8kg 8. pH adjustment Add aluminum sulfate for adjusting pH to be 5.0-5.6 9. Drying to make recycled paper sample Press and make 57-63g hand-sheet sample (5 or more) to from recycled paper sample 10.Measure Measure whiteness Measure dirt particle area (>0.05m㎡) Measure number of dirt particle (>0.30m㎡) 11 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan
  12. 12. 2.Experiment 12 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan Printing samples Ageing Defibration Storage Floatation J-Method for UV ink INGEDE Method11 *Bk density 1.60-1.80 *1-lamp of Hg/Fe at 120W/c㎡ Product categories: Newspapers, Magazines, Stationary/tickets/manuals C=3.9%, t=20min., T=30℃, m=58g, speed=3000rpm C=15.0%, t=20min., T=45℃, m=200g, speed=2 Oven: t=168h, T=60℃ Oven: t=72h, T=60℃ Water bath: C=5%, t=60min., T=45℃ 1500g (m=58g) 625g (m=58g) 1975g (m=58g) 5400g (m=58g) 4300g (m=46g) +1350g water +3425g water -900g water+pulp Cell: C=0.8%, t=12min., T=45℃, m=180g, Cell: C=1.1%, t=10min., T=30℃, m=46g, air=4l/min. Reference: Assessment of Print Product Recyclability -Deinkability Test-, INGEDE 0.6% NaOH, 1.8% Sodium silicate, 0.7% H2O2, 0.8% Oleic acid 3.75% NaOH, 1.5% De-inking agent
  13. 13. 2.Experiment ISO related codes 13 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan Reference: INGEDE Methods, INGEDE Reference: Test method for recycle-focused UV ink, Japan Federation of Printing Industries
  14. 14. 2.Experiment Difference between J-Method (J) and INGEDE Method(I) Printing sample is categorized by products (I) Methods for different materials (hot-stamp, sticker…) (J) Testing fine paper only (J) More evaluation parameters (I) • Luminosity • Color • Cleanliness • Ink elimination • Filtrate darkening Definition in size for dirt particle area is much bigger (J) Weighting is utilized for Rating deinkability scores (I) 14 A. De-inking test procedure for UV ink in Japan Quality of deinked pulp Process parameters
  15. 15. 2.Experiment 1. Tested not by real press? Recyclability test by real press is not considered 2. Printing speed of 30-40m/minute is appropriate? Actual UV energy is different from testing condition 3. Type of UV lamp can be Hg or Fe? Curing condition of ink can be totally different 4. Radiation distance by UV lamp should be defined? Distance from UV lamp to substrate is key factor for curing 5. Lifetime of UV lamp can be “averaged life-time”? Energy of UV lamp can be dropped suddenly at uncertain point 6. Ink density can be 1.40 or more on fine paper? When printing on coated paper at 2.00…1.25 on fine paper 7. Measuring device (filter setting) should be defined? Color density can be changed by different devices (different settings) 15 B. Controversial points for test procedure
  16. 16. 2.Experiment 16 B. Controversial points for test procedure UV lamp house and reflector for manroland R710
  17. 17. 2.Experiment 17 B. Controversial points for test procedure UV lamp house is taken out from a press to check real lamp power directly by lighting UV lamp outside a press
  18. 18. 2.Experiment 18 B. Controversial points for test procedure Measuring UV lamps: pulling out a UV lamp house from a press, mount it on conveyor, and light a lamp. Then, check energy and power of a lamp by measuring device to know actual power on a press. Please do not try at your factory.
  19. 19. 2.Experiment 19 B. Controversial points for test procedure Energy and power for different types of UV lamps Item EyeGraphics EyeGraphics EyeGraphics EyeGraphics Lamp Hg Hg Fe Fe Usage h. 0h 900h 0h 900h Type 160W/cm 160W/cm 160W/cm 160W/cm Reflector Used Used Used Used Position/ speed 82mm, 25m/min. 82mm, 25m/min. 82mm, 25m/min. 82mm, 25m/min. Energy/ Peak E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) 1st 106 338 100 312 248 846 142 422 2nd 106 340 100 316 249 864 142 422 3rd 106 340 101 316 250 878 143 426 Avg 106 339 100 314 249 862 142 423 % 100% 100% 94% 93% 100% 100% 57% 49% Usage hours for testing condition should be specified especially when using Fe lamp since its power could be half after using 900 hours
  20. 20. 2.Experiment 20 B. Controversial points for test procedure Energy and power for different types of UV lamps EyeGraphics EyeGraphics EyeGraphics Lamp Hg Hg Hg Usage h. 0h 900h 0h Type 160W/cm 120W/cm 160W/cm Reflector Used Used Used Position/ speed 82mm, 25m/min. 82mm, 25m/min. 82mm+20mm, 25m/min. Energy/ Peak E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) E(mJ/c㎡) P(mW/c㎡) 1st 106 338 79 260 93 280 2nd 106 340 78 258 94 280 3rd 106 340 78 258 94 278 Avg 106 339 78 258 93 279 % 100% 100% 74% 76% 88% 82% Distance from UV lamp to substrate for testing condition should be clarified since curing power could be changed by position of UV lamp house
  21. 21. 2.Experiment 21 B. Controversial points for test procedure Total energy by actual press (25m/min.) 160W: Fe(249)+Fe(249)+Hg(106)=604mJ/c㎡ 160W: 604mJ/c㎡×(25m/min÷87m/min.)=173mJ/c㎡ Total energy by actual press (87m/min.=7000s/h) J std.: Hg=106mJ/c㎡×(25m/min÷30m/min.)=88mJ/c㎡ J std.: Hg=106mJ/c㎡×(25m/min÷40m/min.)=66mJ/c㎡ Total energy by sampling test is much less than actual press Printing sample for de-inking test is easier to be recycled than actual printed matters
  22. 22. 2.Experiment 22 B. Controversial points for test procedure Color densities (Bk) for 4-different ink Device settings UV-1 (Supersensitive) UV-1 (normal) Coventional Inkjet Density standard: ISO-T 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.00 White base: Abs. Density standard: ISO-T 1.14 1.13 1.10 0.97 White base: Paper Density is 2.00 when printed on coated paper; it is impossible to be 1.60 or more on fine paper Density value can be different when setting of measuring device is not the same; it should be clearly stated about measuring mode
  23. 23. 2.Experiment 23 C. De-inking test results from 4-different ink Testing conditions for 4-different ink UV ink-1 (supersensitive) UV ink-2 (normal) Conventional Ink jet Ink density
 (ISO-T) 1.19 1.18 1.16 1.00 Paper OK Prince 
 (fine paper by OJI) OK Prince 
 (fine paper by OJI) OK Prince 
 (fine paper by OJI) OK Prince 
 (fine paper by OJI) Press manroland R707 manroland R707 Akiyama ? UV device 120W, Hg 120W, Hg NA NA Aging period 1-week, normal temperature 1-week, normal temperature 1-week, normal temperature 1-week, normal temperature Unfortunately,type of inkjet cannot be specified
  24. 24. 2.Experiment 24 C. De-inking test results from 4-different ink Whiteness (ISO) for 4-different ink Items Number of tests Avg Max Min SD UV-1 (supersensitive) 10 72.85 72.95 72.75 0.0755 UV-2 (normal) 10 73.00 73.15 72.80 0.0101 Conventional 10 66.40 66.70 66.10 0.205 Inkjet 10 42.75 42.95 42.65 0.102 Inkjet show lower whiteness (lower than threshold?) because of small dirt specks entwining around fibre
  25. 25. 2.Experiment 25 C. De-inking test results from 4-different ink Dirt particle areas (>0.05m㎡) for 4-different ink Items Number of tests Avg Max Min SD UV-1 (supersensitive) 5 196 223 165 22.1 UV-2 (normal) 5 290 338 260 30.1 Conventional 5 94.1 146 54.5 34.0 Inkjet 5 5.38 15.0 0.00 5.85 Dirt particles should be lower than 1300m㎡/㎡, so all of those can pass criteria (because of low density of ink?)
  26. 26. 2.Experiment 26 C. De-inking test results from 4-different ink Number of dirt particles (>0.3m㎡) for 4-different ink Items Number of tests Avg Max Min SD UV-1 (supersensitive) 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 UV-2 (normal) 5 0.20 1.00 0.00 0.45 Conventional 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Inkjet 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Number of dirt particles for UV-2 has ink spot; there was only one sheet which has a spot among 5-sample
  27. 27. 2.Experiment 27 C. De-inking test results by 4-different ink Dried hand-sheet,UV-1 Dried hand-sheet,UV-2 Dried hand-sheet,Conv. Dried hand-sheet,Ink jet
  28. 28. 2.Experiment 1. Whiteness (no criteria is specified) Ink jet is extremely low, so is considered as non-preferred one to be recycled though it can pass other criteria 2. Dirt particle area (total area of 0.05m㎡ should be less than 1300m㎡/㎡) UV-2 can pass the criteria though only UV-1 is regarded as “eco-conscious UV ink” 3. Number of dirt (a sample on which a dirt can be found should not be more than one among 5-sample) All inks can be considered as non-problematic inks 28 C. De-inking test results by 4-different ink
  29. 29. 3.Discussion Testing and verification rules Printing: • Paper (type and thickness) • Energy (UV/LED) • Ink (density) De-inking: • Experimental processes • Experimental conditions • Standards for verification result Verification • Verification items • Scoring procedure • Criteria for determining 29 A. Possibility of establishing a rule for de-inking
  30. 30. 3.Discussion Labeling rules Labels for recommended combinations of materials for printed matter Labels for reducing workload to separate paper for recycling at paper mills Others Possibility to fix a rule to what extent? Who will study existing ISO rules relating to paper recycling test procedure and rules in different countries? Possibility to include surface coating and hot-stamping, sticker..etc.? Institutions working on recycling test should have approval and license? Any other rules for de-inking in other countries? 30 A. Possibility of establishing a rule for de-inking
  31. 31. 31 Thank you for your close attention ! You can download this material at: http://www.slideshare.net/ShimizuHiro/edit_my_uploads

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