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New approaches for quantification scheme of carbon footprint of paper book and e-book

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  • 1. New approaches for quantification scheme ofCarbon Footprint of paper-book and e-bookDr. SHIMIZU, HirokazuVice-President, WILL-POWER CONSULTING INC.President, SHIMIZU PRINTING INC.Visiting Senior Researcher, Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteExpert, ISO TC130 (Graphic technology) WG11(Environmental impact of graphic technology)1Nagata Laboratory, Waseda University Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering
  • 2. Self-introduction1. Date of birth• May 19th, 19672. Qualification• Specialist on UV printing technology of graphic technology• Specialist on Life-cycle approach (LCA, LCC, MFCA..and etc.)3. Pioneering achievements• Development of “UV Waterless High-Definition” printing method”• Schematization of “Printing service LCA and LCCO2”4. Award• “UV Waterless High-definition” printing, Encouraging Prize byJapanese Society of Printing Science and Technology in 2011• “Establishment of quantitative assessment for printing service”,Best Paper Award by Japanese Society of Printing Science andTechnology in 2010• “Establishment of Printing service LCA to propose environment-conscious solution”, Chairman’s Award (2nd best)by 6th LCA Japan Forum in 20102Waseda University Environmental Research Institute
  • 3. Self-introduction5. Extra activities (present)• Visiting Senior Researcher, Waseda University EnvironmentalResearch Institute• Expert (Thailand), ISO130 (Graphic technology) WG11(Environmental impact of graphic technology)• Policy Adviser for SMEs at Japan Chamber of Commerce• Committee, Electricity Supply & Demand Verification Committee atMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry• Committee, Energy and Nuclear Committee at Japan Chamber ofCommerce• Committee, Environment Committee at Tokyo Chamber of Commerce6. Extra activities (past)• Committee, Renewable energy buy-out committee at Ministry ofEconomy, Trade and Industry• Committee, Product Category Rule for Carbon Footprint of ProductsCommittee at Japan Federation of Printing Industry• Supervisor, Joint research project for CFP of printed products withChulalongkorn University in Thailand3Waseda University Environmental Research Institute
  • 4. Self-introduction7. Academic paper1) Hirokazu Shimizu, Katsuya Nagata, and Aran Hansuebsai. 2012. Comparisons ofPaper-book and E-book by the scale of carbon footprint. Proceedings of TheAsian Symposium on Printing Technology: 39-442) Hirokazu Shimizu, Katsuya Nagata, and Aran Hansuebsai. 2011. Integrated Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) for Printing Service in an emerging country. Proceedingsof EcoDesign 2011 International Symposium: 283-2883) Hirokazu Shimizu, and Katsuya Nagata. 2010. Integrated Life cycle Assessment(LCA) Approach for Printing Service by Using Environmental Load Point (ELP)Method. Journal of Printing Science and Technology 47 (3): 39-474) Hirokazu Shimizu, and Katsuya Nagata. 2010. Comparison of Life-cycle CO2emissions for Paper-Based Books and Electronic Books. Journal of PrintingScience and Technology 47 (2): 19-295) Hirokazu Shimizu. 2009. Establishment of quantitative assessment for PrintingService. Journal of Printing Science and Technology 46 (6): 26-354Waseda University Environmental Research Institute
  • 5. Agenda5Waseda University Environmental Research Institute1. Framework of the study2. System boundary for paper-book and e-book3. Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book4. New ideas for environmental impact of e-book5. Comparison of paper-book and e-book
  • 6. 1.Framework of the study6Waseda University Environmental Research Institute1. Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book• Carbon Footprint of positive impact (recycle) should be considered• Carbon Footprint of “Bookstore”&”Shopping” should be considered2. New ideas for environmental impact of e-book• Back calculation to assume assumption of use hour/day for iPad• Back calculation to assume assumption of use hour/day for iPhone3. Comparison of carbon footprint: paper-book vs e-book• Well-examined quantification rule is tried to be developed• Well-refined quantification result is not expected
  • 7. 2.System boundary for paper-book and e-book7Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteRaw materialacquisitionData creation/editing Data conversion Server operation Electricity usageDisposal/Recyclee-reading device (material input, production, distribution, use and disposal/recycle)Raw materialacquisitionProduction UseDisposal& Recycle*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.*Meeting for planning*Writing*Designing*Image editing*Proof reading*Info gathering activities*None*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.*Direction*Authoring*Verification*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.*Software-Development forapps and server*Server system*Accessing*Downloading*Reading*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.=life-cycle for e-book=life-cycle for e-reader (laptop, desktop, tablet, smart-phone...etc.)Distribution
  • 8. 2.System boundary for paper-book and e-book8Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteRaw materialacquisitionData creation/editing Data conversion Server operation Electricity usageDisposal/RecycleRaw materialacquisitionProduction UseDisposal& Recycle*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.*Meeting for planning*Writing*Designing*Image editing*Proof reading*Info gathering activities*None*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.*Direction*Authoring*Verification*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.*Software-Development forapps and server*Server system*Downloading*Accessing*Reading*Copy paper*DVD/USB..etc.=life-cycle for e-book=life-cycle for paper-bookDistribution*Paper*Ink*PlatePrinting materials Data creation/editingItems are thesame as e-bookNADelivery*Wrapping paper*TransportationDisposal/Recycle*Paper*Aluminum (plate)Press/Postpress*Plate output*Printing*Binding
  • 9. 3.Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book9Waseda University Environmental Research Institute1. Carbon Footprint of “Avoidance of new production”• Deduction of “Paper recycle”• Deduction of “Printing plate recycle”2. Carbon Footprint of “Bookstore operation”• Calculate the load at large/medium/small bookstore• Utilize weighting average for the load of “Bookstore operation”3. Carbon Footprint of “Shopping”• Calculate the load for purchasing paper-book by transportation• Calculate based on fictional scenario
  • 10. 3.Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book10Waseda University Environmental Research Institute• Size: B5 (127.0mm*188.0mm*14.0mm)• Pages: 4P+224P• Copy: 5000 copies, 3000 sold in 12-month and the rest returned topublisher’s warehouse• Substrate: Coated paper for jacket,Coated cardboard for cover,Fine paper for text• Books at home are incinerated (22%)and recycled (78%) at the end127.0mm188.0mm• Specification of paper-book14.0mm
  • 11. 11Waseda University Environmental Research Institute3.Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book•Carbon footprint of “Avoidance of new production: paper”ItemEmission Factor(kg-CO2e/kg)Virgin pulp 0.837Recycled pulp 0.335Difference: 0.5020 0.250 0.500 0.750 1.000Virgin pulpRecycled pulpItemEmission Factor(kg-CO2e/kg)Primary Al 10.000Secondary Al 3.130Difference: 6.87002.5005.0007.50010.000Primaly AlSecondary Al•Carbon footprint of “Avoidance of new production: aluminum”→1170.845kg×(0.837kg-CO2e/kg-0.335kg-CO2e/kg)=587.764kg-CO2e→9.5kg×(10.000kg-CO2e/kg-3.130kg-CO2e/kg)=65.265kg-CO2eReference: CFP database, JEMAI CFP Program0.502kg-CO2e/kg6.870kg-CO2e/kg
  • 12. 12Waseda University Environmental Research Institute3.Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book•Carbon footprint of “Bookstore operation”Size of Bookstore kg-CO2e/sold-bookFloor spaceratio (%)Weighted kg-CO2e/sold-bookLarge (sold-book 3500K</yr.) 0.0810 21.3% 0.0173Medium (sold-book 600K</yr.) 0.0585 76.7% 0.0449Small (sold-book 70K</yr.) 0.00850 2.0% 0.000170Weighted averaage carbon footprrint/sold-book: 0.06230 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100Large booksotreMedium bookstoreSmall bookstore→0.0810kg-CO2e×21.3%+0.0585kg-CO2e×76.7%+0.00850kg-CO2e×2.0%=0.0623kg-CO2e/sold-book0.0623kg-CO2e/sold-bookReference: Statistics of Publication 2011, actual data from Bookstoreskg-CO2e
  • 13. 13Waseda University Environmental Research Institute3.Additional items for environmental impact of paper-book•Carbon footprint of “Shopping”→80% of purchasers use rail to buy a book with stopping by 3-shop→1-person×15km×0.030kg-CO2e/person-km÷3-shop=0.151kg-CO2e/book→20% of purchasers use car to buy a book with stopping by 3-shop→1-person×10km×0.498kg-CO2e/person-km÷3-shop=1.660kg-CO2e/book→0.151kg-CO2e/book×80%+1.660kg-CO2e/book×20%=0.453kg-CO2e/book0 0.500 1.000 1.500 2.000RailAutomobilekg-CO2e0.453kg-CO2e/book
  • 14. 14Waseda University Environmental Research Institute4.New ideas for environmental impact of e-book•iPad and iPhone5
  • 15. 4.New ideas for environmental impact of e-book15Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteItemCO2e/yr.(kg-CO2e)Manufacturing 38.534Use 13.033Transportation 3.967Recycle 1.133Total: 56.667Manufacutring68%Use23%Transportation7%Recycle2%→XX-kWh/yr.×0.648 kg-CO2e/kWh=13.033 kg-CO2eReference: Electricity Information 2009, International Energy Agency→XX-kWh/yr.=20.113kWh/yr.→20.113kWh/yr.÷0.008kW(battery charge/use)÷365-day→6.888h/day=6 hours 53 minutes for battery charge/useReference: iPad Environmental Report (Apple), modified by Dr.Shimizu•Carbon footprint of iPad for 1-year
  • 16. 16Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteItem 6h53m 3h 2h 1hManufacturing 38.534 38.534 38.534 38.534Use 13.033 5.676 3.784 1.892Transportation 3.967 3.967 3.967 3.967Recycle 1.133 1.133 1.133 1.133Total: 56.667 49.310 47.418 45.526% to original practice: 100.0% 87.0% 83.7% 80.3%CO2e/hour 0.023 0.045 0.065 0.1254h to read e-book 0.090 0.180 0.260 0.499(kg-CO2e)Reference: iPad Environmental Report (Apple), modified by Dr.Shimizu0 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.5006h53m use/day3h use/day2h use/day1h use/day4h to read e-book (kg-CO2e)4.New ideas for environmental impact of e-book•Carbon footprint of iPad for 1-year
  • 17. 17Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteItemCO2e/yr.(kg-CO2e)Manufacturing 19.000Use 4.500Transportation 1.000Recycle 0.500Total: 25.000Manufacutring76%Use18%Transportation4%Recycle2%→XX-kWh/yr.×0.648 kg-CO2e/kWh=4.500 kg-CO2e→XX-kWh/yr.=6.944kWh/yr.→6.944kWh/yr.÷0.004kW(battery charge/use)÷365-day→4.756h/day=4 hours 45 minutes for battery charge/use4.New ideas for environmental impact of e-book•Carbon footprint of iPhone5 for 1-yearReference: Electricity Information 2009, International Energy AgencyReference: iPad Environmental Report (Apple), modified by Dr.Shimizu
  • 18. 18Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteItem 4h45m 3h 2h 1hManufacturing 19.000 19.000 19.000 19.000Use 4.500 2.839 1.892 0.946Transportation 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000Recycle 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500Total: 25.000 23.339 22.392 21.446% to original pracice: 100.0% 93.4% 89.6% 85.8%CO2e/hour 0.014 0.021 0.031 0.0594h to read e-book 0.058 0.085 0.123 0.235(kg-CO2e)0 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.5004h45m use/day3h use/day2h use/day1h use/day4h to read e-book (kg-CO2e)4.New ideas for environmental impact of e-book•Carbon footprint of iPhone5 for 1-yearReference: iPad Environmental Report (Apple), modified by Dr.Shimizu
  • 19. 19Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteStage Item CO2e (kg) %Substrate 2797.098 83.8%Ink 63.396 1.9%ProcurementDampening solution 3.945 0.1%ProcurementPlate 114.250 3.4%Glue 10.697 0.3%PP lamination 9.033 0.3%Planning and research 36.436 1.1%Writing 53.456 1.6%Data creation Designing 14.514 0.4%Image editing 2.419 0.1%Proof-reading 11.430 0.3%Computer to plate 9.728 0.3%Production Press 336.096 10.1%Post-press 116.236 3.5%Distribution Packing and delivery 252.105 7.6%Disposal/ Incineration 34.712 1.0%Recycle Recycle 125.835 3.8%Avoidance of Paper recycle -587.764 -17.6%new production Plate recycle -65.265 -2.0%Total: 3338.357 100.0%Per book-1: 0.668 56.4%Storage Bookstore/book 0.063 5.3%Shopping By rail & car/book 0.453 38.3%Per book-2: 1.183•Carbon footprint of paper-book-0.25000.2500.5000.7501.0001.2501.500paper-book, 5000 copiesProcurement Data creation ProductionDistribution Waste/Recycle Recycle impactStorage Shoppingkg-CO2e/copy5.Comparison of paper-book and e-book
  • 20. 20Waseda University Environmental Research Institute•Carbon footprint per e-book (besides e-reading device)5.Comparison of paper-book and e-book→Data creation/editing→118.264kg-CO2e÷3000DLs=0.0394kg-CO2e→Data conversion→0.110kg-CO2e/kWh×20h÷3000DLs=0.000733kg-CO2e→Server operation→3420kg-CO2e×(2,097,152÷53,687,091,200)÷3000DLs=0.0000445kg-CO2e→Internet use→0.00164kg-CO2e/MB×2MB=0.00328kg-CO2e
  • 21. 21Waseda University Environmental Research Institute•Carbon footprint of paper-book and e-book-0.25000.2500.5000.7501.0001.2501.500paper-booke-book (iPad)e-book (iPhone5)Material DeviceData creation Printing&bindingData conversion BStore/ServerDist./Dwld. ShoppingUse Dis&recN.P.avoidancekg-CO2e/copy5.Comparison of paper-book and e-bookitempaper-book,5000copiese-book,3000DLs(iPad)e-book,3000DLs(iPhone5)Material 0.600 - -Device (manufacturing,transportation)- 0.465 0.219Data creation 0.0237 0.0394 0.0394Printing &binding 0.0924 - -Data conversion - 0.000733 0.000733Bookstore/Serveroperation0.0623 0.0000445 0.0000445Dist./downloads 0.0504 0.00328 0.00328Shopping 0.453 - -Use - 0.0210 0.0103Disposal/recycle,Device(recycle)0.0321 0.0126 0.00564New productionavoidance-0.131 - -kg-CO2e/book: 1.183 0.542 0.278% to paper-book: 100.0% 45.8% 23.5%
  • 22. 22Waseda University Environmental Research InstituteThank you for your attention.You can have a look at presentation file:http://www.slideshare.net/ShimizuHiro/edit_my_uploadsCorporate web site:http://www.will-power.jp/en/http://www.shzpp.co.jp

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