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Integrated LCA for Printing Service in an emerging country final
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Integrated LCA for Printing Service in an emerging country final

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  • 1. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate SchoolIntegrated LCA for Printing Service in an emerging country Hirokazu Shimizu, Shimizu Printing Inc. Katsuya Nagata, Waseda University Aran Hansuebsai, Chulalongkorn University Pradya Kiengprakong, Chulalongkorn University 1
  • 2. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Background of the studySchematization of Printing Service LCA in Japan Methods of primary data collection is organized Secondary data is backed up by national database Not only LCCO2e but also Integrated LCA in broad senseAssist emerging countries to localize Printing Service LCA Less experience of life-cycle approach in printing industry Learning basics of LCA from carbon calculator operation Joint research project with Chulalongkorn University in Thailand 2
  • 3. Conceptual diagram of Integrated LCA NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate SchoolClassification Characterization Normalization Crude oil Energy drain Coal LNG Global warming Extensive Environmental Assessment Uranium ore Iron ore Ozone depletion Chrome Bauxite Acid precipitate Environmental Copper Load Point Resource consumption (ELP) CO2 NOx Integrated Air pollution indicator SOx Soot dust Ocean & water pollutionBurnable garbage Landfill Problem of waste disposal Dioxine Ecosystem influence BOD/COD Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 3
  • 4. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Basics of Environmental Load Point (ELP) Questionnaire by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) determining category importance B Category importance Definition of importance Ecosystem effect =Total Product of 9 points1/9 Water pollution Waste disposal Ozone depletion Acid precipitate Global warming consumption ELP 9-category 9- Air pollution and then calculate ratio for each Energy drain Resource category Energy drain 1.000 0.333 3.000 5.000 3.000 0.111 0.111 0.333 0.111 0.037 9.000 A is much more important to the max Global warming 3.003 1.000 5.000 3.000 1.000 0.143 0.143 0.333 0.111 0.044 7.000 A is much more important Ozone depletion 0.333 0.200 1.000 5.000 3.000 0.200 0.200 0.333 0.143 0.032 5.000 A is more important Acid precipitate 0.200 0.333 0.200 1.000 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.333 0.111 0.014 3.000 A is a bit more important ResourceA consumption 0.333 1.000 0.333 6.993 1.000 0.111 0.111 0.200 0.111 0.025 1.000 A is almost the same as B Air pollution 9.009 6.993 5.000 6.993 9.009 1.000 0.200 0.333 0.111 0.112 0.333 B is a bit more important Water pollution 9.009 6.993 5.000 6.993 9.009 5.000 1.000 1.000 0.111 0.181 0.200 B is more important Waste disposal 3.003 3.003 3.003 3.003 5.000 3.003 1.000 1.000 0.111 0.111 0.143 B is much more important Ecosystem effect 9.009 9.009 6.993 9.009 9.009 9.009 9.009 9.009 1.000 0.442 0.111 B is much more important to the max Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY・It is important for a researcher to know group’s environmental conscious for each impact category・Category importance for particular group has significant impact on overall environmental analysis 4
  • 5. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Basics of Environmental Load Point (ELP) Comparison of category importance in THA and JPN Chula Univ. Housewives Printers Printers ScientistsImpact category THA(100-people) THA (40-people) THA (40-people) JPN (30-people) JPN (86-people ) THA( 100- people) 40- people) 40- people) 30- people) 86-Energy drain 0.098 (6) 0.142 (2) 0.152 (2) 0.142 (2) 0.154 (1)Global warming 0.134 (3) 0.168 (1) 0.156 (1) 0.161 (1) 0.106 (4)Ozone depletion 0.129 (4) 0.109 (5) 0.117 (4) 0.114 (5) 0.101 (6)Acid pollution 0.084 (7) 0.083 (9) 0.096 (6) 0.079 (8) 0.076 (9)Resource consumption 0.168 (1) 0.089 (7) 0.087 (8) 0.098 (7) 0.112 (3)Air pollution 0.100 (5) 0.112 (3) 0.130 (3) 0.106 (6) 0.103 (5)Water pollution 0.082 (8) 0.110 (4) 0.103 (5) 0.118 (4) 0.100 (7)Waste disposal 0.067 (9) 0.089 (7) 0.071 (9) 0.059 (9) 0.097 (8)Ecosystem effect 0.138 (2) 0.098 (6) 0.088 (7) 0.122 (3) 0.151 (2) Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 5
  • 6. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Basics of Environmental Load Point (ELP) Comparison of category importance in THA and JPN1.000 E cos y s tem ef f ect D i s pos a l w a s te0.800 Wa ter pol l uti on A i r pol l uti on0.600 R es ource cons umpti on0.400 A ci d preci pi ta te Ozone depl eti on0.200 Gl oba l w a rmi ng E nerg y dra i n0.000 CU ( T) H ous ew i f e( T) Pri nter( T) Pri nter( J ) Sci enti s t( J ) Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 6
  • 7. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Basics of Environmental Load Point (ELP) Environmental Load Factor (ELF) calculation-1 Weighting Consumption Annual load ELF coefficient /Emission Impact category Item Reference C*AHP/subtotal C TQ A=C*TQ of A*10^16Energy drain oil 1.00E+00 4.91E+10 4.91E+10 1.98E+04 2009:US Energy Information Administration coal 1.10E-01 3.23E+10 3.55E+09 2.18E+03 2009:US Energy Information Administration Lower calorific natural gas 7.70E-01 3.13E+10 2.41E+10 1.52E+04 2009:US Energy Information Administration value*inverse number of reserve- Uranium ore 1.48E+01 6.50E+06 9.63E+07 2.93E+05 2002:Ministry of Natural Resources & Env. production ratio wood 5.00E-02 1.29E+07 6.45E+05 9.89E+02 2006:Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperative Sub total: 7.68E+10Global warming CO2 1.00E+00 2.78E+11 2.78E+11 5.42E+03 2007:National Statistical Office N2O 3.20E+02 2.80E+07 8.96E+09 1.73E+06 2005:International Energy Agency Global warming, IPCC 100yrs CH4 2.45E+01 6.40E+07 1.57E+09 1.33E+05 2009:2007:National Statistical Office Sub total: 2.88E+11Acid precipitate NOx 7.00E-01 8.90E+08 6.23E+08 6.19E+05 2009:2007:National Statistical Office Acidification SOx 1.00E+00 4.62E+08 4.62E+08 8.85E+05 2009:2007:National Statistical Office potential Sub total: 1.09E+09Resource consumption Iron ore 1.00E+00 1.55E+09 1.55E+09 5.60E+05 2002:Ministry of Natural Resources & Env. Inverse number of reserve production ratio Sub total: 1.55E+09Air pollution NOx 1.40E+00 8.90E+08 1.25E+09 1.07E+06 2009:2007:National Statistical Office Inverse number of SOx 1.00E+00 4.62E+08 4.62E+08 7.61E+05 2009:2007:National Statistical Office toxic chemical % Sub total: 1.71E+09Waste disposal Solid waste 1.00E+00 1.53E+10 1.53E+10 4.64E+04 2008:JGSEE King Monkut’s University of Technology Thonburi No weighting, actual amount Sub total: 1.53E+10 Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 7
  • 8. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Basics of Environmental Load Point (ELP) Environmental Load Factor (ELF) calculation-2 ELF Paper Ink (polyurethane) Electricity 10t-truck LandfillImpact category Item C*AHP/subtot Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory Inventory ELF ELF ELF ELF ELF al of A*10^16 data data data data data oil 1.98E+04 2.20E-01 4.35E+03 1.42E+00 2.81E+04 1.80E-02 3.56E+02 3.76E-02 7.44E+02 8.25E-04 1.63E+01 coal 2.18E+03 2.43E-01 5.29E+02 1.85E-01 4.03E+02 9.74E-02 2.12E+02 1.95E-04 4.24E-01 natural gas 1.52E+04 2.27E-02 3.46E+02 8.59E-02 1.31E+03 4.52E-02 6.88E+02 1.40E-04 2.13E+00Energy drain Uranium 2.93E+05 3.72E-06 1.09E+00 1.63E-05 4.78E+00 8.55E-06 2.50E+00 1.71E-08 5.01E-03 ore wood 9.89E+02 CO2 5.42E+03 1.42E+00 7.69E+03 3.73E+00 2.02E+04 4.46E-01 2.42E+03 1.20E-01 6.50E+02 3.49E-03 1.89E+01Global warming N2O 1.73E+06 2.45E-05 4.25E+01 1.14E-04 1.98E+02 1.94E-05 3.36E+01 1.93E-06 3.34E+00 1.01E-07 1.75E-01 CH4 1.33E+05 6.70E-05 8.89E+00 1.51E-04 2.00E+01 9.45E-06 1.25E+00 8.97E-08 1.19E-02 NOx 6.19E+05 1.07E-03 6.63E+02 1.98E-03 1.23E+03 2.39E-04 1.48E+02 9.14E-04 5.66E+02 1.35E-06 8.36E-01Acid precipitate SOx 8.85E+05 1.42E-03 1.26E+03 3.17E-03 2.80E+03 8.57E-05 7.58E+01 2.60E-05 2.30E+01 3.30E-07 2.92E-01Resource Iron ore 5.60E+05consumption NOx 1.07E+06 1.07E-03 1.14E+03 1.98E-03 2.11E+03 2.39E-04 2.55E+02 9.14E-04 9.74E+02 1.35E-06 1.44E+00Air pollution SOx 7.61E+05 1.42E-03 1.08E+03 3.17E-03 2.41E+03 8.57E-05 6.52E+01 2.60E-05 1.98E+01 3.30E-07 2.51E-01 SolidWaste disposal 4.64E+04 1.60E+00 7.42E+04 waste ELF (emission factor of ELP): 1.71E+04 5.88E+04 4.25E+03 2.98E+03 7.42E+04 Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 8
  • 9. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Analysis by Environmental Load Point (ELP)Case study (500 copies of textbook at the university) Textbook named “The beginning of Siam Architecture Arts” is selected to apply for CFP logo here in Thailand. 6mm Carbon calculation to be certified as CFP product is first trial in printed matters. Printing Service LCA which is established in Japan is transferred, and then modified to adopt printing method in Thailand. 260mm There is no obstacles to collect primary data in the factory, but many of secondary data is not well organized since government related institution and suppliers cannot publicize some items for printing production. So on that point, some items are substituted by the ones in Japan to complete calculations. 190mmTitle: The beginning of Siam Architecture Arts At the end of case study, this book is certifiedAuthor: ML Prateep Malakul as CFP product and also printing factory isSize(mm): 190*260*6Copies: 500 approved as CFP printing factory by aPages: Cover 4P + Taxt 128P government related institution. 9
  • 10. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Analysis by Environmental Load Point (ELP) ELP comparison of Printers in 500/3000 copies in THA Case study-1 (Printer, 500) Case study-2 (Printer, 3000) ELP Process ELF Input/output ELP-1 Input/output ELP-2 CS2/CS1Paper 1.71E+04 267.210kg 4.73E+06 31.1% 1058.750kg 1.81E+07 46.9% 382.7%Al 2.18E+05 10.000kg 2.18E+06 14.3% 10.000kg 2.18E+06 5.6% 100.0%Ink (polyurethane) 5.88E+04 1.033kg 6.07E+04 0.4% 4.276kg 2.51E+05 0.7% 413.5%Water 9.95E-01 2.580kg 2.57E+00 0.0% 10.691kg 1.06E+01 0.0% 412.5%Electricity 4.25E+03 1243.908kWh 5.29E+06 34.8% 1655.352kWh 7.04E+06 18.2% 133.1%2t-truck 4.38E+03 41.208tkm 1.80E+05 1.2% 114.936tkm 5.03E+05 1.3% 279.4%4t-truck 3.52E+03 2.843tkm 1.00E+04 0.1% 2.843tkm 1.00E+04 0.0% 100.0%10t-truck 2.98E+03 278.549tkm 8.30E+05 5.5% 1069.382tkm 3.19E+06 8.3% 384.3%Recycled pulp 1.57E+03 149.351kg 2.35E+05 1.5% 374.659kg 5.89E+05 1.5% 250.6%Recycled Al 5.44E+04 10.000kg 5.44E+05 3.6% 10.000kg 5.44E+05 1.4% 100.0%Landfill 7.42E+04 15.477kg 1.15E+06 7.6% 83.459kg 6.20E+06 16.0% 539.1% Total ELP: 1.52E+07 3.86E+07 253.9% ELP per book: 3.04E+04 1.29E+04 42.4% Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 10
  • 11. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Analysis by Environmental Load Point (ELP) ELP comparison of Printers 500/3000 copies in THA 4.00E+07 Lan dfill 3.50E+07 10 t- truc k 4t-tru ck 3.00E+07 2t-tru ckELP (points) 2.50E+07 Re c yc le d Al 2.00E+07 Re c yc le d pu lp Elec tricity 1.50E+07 Water 1.00E+07 In k Al 5.00E+06 Paper 0.00E+00 Case study-1(Printer, 500) Case study-2(Printer, 3000) Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 11
  • 12. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Analysis by Environmental Load Point (ELP) ELP comparison of Printers in THA and JPN Case study-1 (THA, Printer) Case study-2 (JPN, Printer) ELP Process Input ELF-1 ELP-1 ELF-2 ELP-2 CS1/CS2Paper 267.210kg 1.71E+04 4.72E+06 31.1% 4.75E+03 1.31E+06 30.0% 360.3%Al 10.000kg 2.18E+05 2.18E+06 14.3% 9.62E+04 9.62E+05 22.0% 226.6%Ink (polyurethane) 1.033kg 5.88E+04 6.07E+04 0.4% 1.49E+04 1.54E+04 0.4% 394.2%Water 2.580kg 9.95E-01 2.57E+00 0.0% 1.93E-01 4.98E-01 0.0% 516.1%Electricity 1243.908kWh 4.25E+03 5.29E+06 34.8% 8.21E+02 1.02E+06 23.4% 518.6%2t-truck 41.208tkm 4.38E+03 1.80E+05 1.2% 1.86E+03 7.66E+04 1.8% 235.0%4t-truck 2.843tkm 3.52E+03 1.00E+04 0.1% 1.68E+03 4.78E+03 0.1% 209.2%10t-truck 278.549tkm 2.98E+03 8.30E+05 5.5% 1.42E+03 3.96E+05 9.0% 209.6%Recycled pulp 149.351kg 1.57E+03 2.34E+05 1.5% 3.02E+02 4.51E+04 1.0% 518.8%Recycled Al 10.000kg 5.44E+04 5.44E+05 3.6% 2.36E+04 2.36E+05 5.4% 230.5%Landfill 15.477kg 7.42E+04 1.15E+06 7.6% 1.96E+04 3.03E+05 6.9% 379.5% Total ELP: 1.52E+07 4.37E+06 347.8% Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 12
  • 13. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Analysis by Environmental Load Point (ELP) ELP comparison of Printers by category importance of THA and JPN 1.75E+07 Landfill 1.50E+07 10t-truck 4t-truck 1.25E+07 2t-truckELP (points) Recycled Al 1.00E+07 Recycled pulp 7.50E+06 Electricity Water 5.00E+06 In k Al 2.50E+06 Paper 0.00E+00 Case study-1(THA Printer) Case study-2(JPN Printer) Reference: Nagata Lab., WASEDA UNIVERSITY 13
  • 14. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Analysis by Environmental Load Point (ELP)Referenced data (CO2 emission/$1 GDP) kg-CO2/$1 GDP 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Year 2007 Scale kg-CO2/$1 GDP TH Thailand 0.565 Japan 0.310 JP JP/TH 54.9% Reference: United Nations Statistics Division 14
  • 15. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Conclusion of the studyELP can grow out of “Carbon centered evaluation” Emission factors in emerging countries are not organized LCCO2 sometimes distorts ideal selection of printingELP is “Easy-to-use method” for different countries Quick start by survey about people’s subconscious and annual consumption/emission of selected items Comparisons among countries can be simplifiedELP is based on people’s subjective view Weighting of impact category is determined by people Major determinant is people’s (not only professional) subconscious 15
  • 16. NAGATA Laboratory, Environment and Energy Engineering Department, Waseda University Graduate School Thank you very much for your kind attention. You can find my presentation at;http://www.slideshare.net/ShimizuHiro 16