Mobashir's presentation

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Mobashir's presentation

  1. 1. PAKISTAN: AT A GLANCE Area 877406 sq.km Population 169 millions Female:Male 100:108 Province Four Climate Diverse Crops cotton, wheat, rice Sugar cane, citrus and many more
  2. 2. Silk Route
  3. 3. Dravidian Civilization (2800 BC) Hindus and Nature Worshipers Harappa City
  4. 4. Mohenjo-Daro City Sewer drain
  5. 5. Civilization destroyed by Aryan Invasion Drought Salinity
  6. 6. Present-day Hindu God : Shiva
  7. 7. Alphabets
  8. 8. Kushan-Gandhara Civilization (200 BC) Buddhist Texla City Vihara (temple) and University
  9. 9. Buddha Persian/Greek
  10. 10. Muslim culture (900 BC
  11. 11. Decedents of the Alexander the great
  12. 13. Nitrate pollution in vegetable-soil-water ecosystems Muhammad M. Qureshi Institute of Pure and Applied Biology Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan
  13. 14. INTRODUCTION
  14. 15. Excessive N fertilization of crops is considered by producers as an insurance against yield losses in Pakistan. High nitrate content sewer water for irrigating crops is common in Pakistan. Increasing nitrate concentration in vegetables, soil and drinking is a public health concern.
  15. 16. Nitrate by itself is non-toxic, however, its metabolites are related to Gastric cancer , Methaemoglobinaemia (blue babies syndrome in infants and elderly people), and blocking of iodide uptake (neuro-transmitter). The USEPA has set a standard for 10 ppm nitrate in drinking water.
  16. 18. Thus, a reduction of nitrate pollution in plant-soil-water ecosystems is highly desirable. The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of nitrate pollution in vegetable-soil-water ecosystems of Punjab, Pakistan
  17. 19. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  18. 20. Data collection Collection of vegetables Summer and winter vegetables were collected from all 35 districts in Punjab, Pakistan. In each district, 9 markets and agricultural fields were selected to collect: Carrot, Eggplant, Okra, Onion, Potato, Radish, Spinach, Squash, Tomato, and Turnip. Total number of vegetables = 35 x 9 x 2 = 630
  19. 21. Sample collection points from different localities in Punjab, Pakistan
  20. 22. Data collection…... Collection of soil samples Soil samples were randomly collected from all 35 districts. In each district, 4 soil samples were collected at 0 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 60, 60 - 90 , and 90 - 120 cm depth. Total number of soil samples = 35 x 4 x 5 => 700
  21. 23. Data collection.... Collection of water Water samples were randomly collected from all 35 districts in summer and winter. In each district, 20 samples of 5 different types of water samples were collected.
  22. 24. Data collection..... The water samples collected from Water & Sanitation Authority = Deep well water (~ 400 ft) Medium Depth Pump = Medium well water (~ 200 ft) Shallow Depth Pump = Shallow well water (~ 100 ft) Tube-well = Water collected from rural areas (~ 300 ft) Bottled water = As standard Total number of samples = 35 x 2 x 20 => 1400
  23. 25. Sample analysis Vegetables were analyzed for N itrate, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and boron content Soils were analyzed for N itrate, pH, organic matter, Ec, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and boron content
  24. 26. Sample analysis………. Water samples were analyzed for Nitrate, pH, Ec, bi-carbonate, carbonate, residual sodium carbonates, sodium absorption ratio, chloride, sulfate, calcium/magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and boron content
  25. 27. Data organization and statistical analyses Vegetable, soil and water data were organized and a number of suitable predictor variables were created for multi-variate statistics . The variables were: Division - Different locations Population density - High, medium and low Season - Summer and winter Types of water Types of vegetables Agricultural intensity - High, moderate, and low Sewer water use - High, moderate, and low Types of soil, and soil depth
  26. 28. Data organization and statistical analyses…. Multi-variate statistics were performed as follows: Mean and standard error of mean Analysis of variance Repeated analysis Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) To evaluate predictor variables Simple and interactive effects on nitrate pollution of vegetables, soil and water samples
  27. 29. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  28. 30. Nitrate concentration in winter vegetables
  29. 31. Nitrate concentration in summer vegetables
  30. 32. Nitrate concentration in seasonal vegetables as influenced by agricultural activities
  31. 33. Nitrate concentration in seasonal vegetables as influenced by sewer water-use irrigation
  32. 34. Nitrate concentration in seasonal vegetables as influenced by soil texture
  33. 35. Soil nitrate concentration
  34. 36. Seasonal variation in soil nitrate concentration in different divisions (cities)
  35. 37. Seasonal variation in soil nitrate concentration as influenced by agricultural activities
  36. 38. Seasonal variation in soil nitrate concentration in response to sewer water irrigation
  37. 39. Seasonal variation in soil nitrate concentration as influenced by soil texture
  38. 40. Nitrate concentration in different textured soil as influenced by agricultural activities
  39. 41. Seasonal variation in soil nitrate concentration as influenced by soil texture
  40. 42. Water nitrate concentration
  41. 43. Nitrate concentration of drinking water sources in different divisions (cities)
  42. 44. Seasonal variation in nitrate concentration of drinking water sources
  43. 45. Nitrate pollution of drinking water sources as influenced by agricultural activities
  44. 46. Nitrate pollution of drinking water sources as influenced by sewer water-use
  45. 47. Nitrate pollution of drinking water sources as influenced by soil texture
  46. 48. Conclusions Greater Ag-intensity and sewer water use for irrigation significantly increased nitrate pollution. Among the winter vegetables, nitrate accumulation was highest (> 5000 ppm ) in radish/spinach and lowest (<1000 ppm ) in potatoes. Among the summer vegetables, nitrate accumulation was highest (~ 2000 ppm ) in eggplant and lowest (<1000 ppm ) in tomatoes.
  47. 49. Conclusions….. Averaged across soils, wide-spread nitrate accumulation was found at 2 - 3 feet deep The nitrate pollution was more pronounced in Sandy Clay Loam than other soils
  48. 50. Conclusions….. Except deep well, nitrate pollution was more abundant in medium, shallow and tube-well water The medium, shallow and tube-well drinking water sources were easily affected by agricultural intensity, and sewer water use for irrigating crops

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