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  • 1. VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING July 14 2010Presented by: Mary Rose F. Laguindam 1
  • 2. TERMINOLOGIES1. Vermi – worm/earthworm2. Vermiculture – the science of July 14 2010 breeding and raising earthworm3.Vermiculturist – a person who farms, breeds and cares for vermi/worms4. Vermicasts- excreta of worms 2 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 3. TERMINOLOGIES-consist of organic matter that has undergone physical and chemical breakdown through the activity of the July 14 2010 muscular gizzard grinds the material-rich source of macro and micronutrients, vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, growth hormones and microflora 3 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 4. TERMINOLOGIES5. Vermicomposting – use of worms for composting organic materials6. Vermicompost – the product of July 14 2010 vermicomposting containing worm castings, bedding materials as well as organic matter in various stages of decomposition7. Vermi tea – a water extract of compost that is brewed 4 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 5. ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS Improves soil aeration, texture, structure and fertility and reduces soil compaction July 14 2010 Enhances microbial activity that promotes plant growth and health Serve as natural food for fish, birds and mammals 5 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 6. ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS Vermicompost is an ecofriendly natural fertilizer prepared from biodegradable organic wastes and is free from chemical inputs July 14 2010 It does not have any adverse effect on soil, plant and environment It improves water retention capacity of soil because of its high organic matter content 6 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 7. ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS It promotes better root growth and nutrient absorption It improves nutrient status of soil July 14 2010 both macro-nutrients and micro- nutrients Increases population of beneficial microorganisms Prevents plant pests and diseases 7 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 8. ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS Accelerates plant growth and promotes flowering and fruiting Vermicomposting is more effective as July 14 2010 an organic fertilizer than ordinary compost Minimizes farm inputs No overdose Minimizes foul odor 8 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 9. ADVANTAGES/BENEFITS Highly profitable, both the wormsand castings are saleable Turns trash to cash July 14 2010 9 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 10. PRINCIPLES Similar to ordinary composting except that earthworms (vermi) are added In ordinary composting July 14 2010 microorganisms (i.e,: bacteria and fungi) are “decomposers” while in vermicomposting, microorganisms and earthworms “soil engineers” work together, thus, hasten the process and gives more quality on the compost suitable for organic 10 farming Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 11. PRINCIPLES Vermicompost does not heat Vermicompost may be low in NPK but contains essential micronutrients (e.g., calcium, July 14 2010 magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and zinc) not found in “complete fertilizers” The quality of vermicompost depends on the materials used and the processes applied 11 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 12. PRINCIPLES Vermicompost has microbial activities that promote plant health and pest/disease resistance July 14 2010 Actions of vermi in the composting process has the benefits/advantages of: CARBON-NITROGEN ratio for digestible nutrients by plants 12 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 13. PRINCIPLES Compost-feeding earthworms (e.g. African nightcrawler) digest organic matter in their alimentary tract and produce “sanitized, July 14 2010 deodorized and texturized” humus (castings) Vermicompost consisting of castings and undigested organic matter contains plant growth regulators (i.e., auxins, gibberelins and humic acid) 13 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 14. ANATOMY OF VERMI July 14 2010 14 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 15. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Number of Earthworm Species  4,000 in the world  400 in the Philippines Characteristics July 14 2010  Simple animals  They have 2 tubes (one inside the other). The inner tube is a digestive system which can be seen outside as a dark line inside the worm. The black color is actually the food in 15 the digestive tract Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 16. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Characteristics  Worms are segmented where each segment is the same except for the head and a larger band called the July 14 2010 clitellum  The clitellum ( or band) contains many glands which secrete mucus to make the walls of a cocoon in which fertilized eggs are deposited. The cocoon is then left to hatch in 16 the soil Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 17. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Characteristics Free-living, beneficial, terrestial invertebrates The head is the end which moves July 14 2010 forward and has a mouth but no eyes since worms are always underground in the darkness The body walls contain many nerve receptors that taste chemical changes (or smell) / and detect light 17 (see) in their environment Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 18. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Characteristics  They wriggle by moving their front- half forward, anchor it with small hair-like structures called setae then July 14 2010 they pull their back-half forward  Casting, which are excreted wastes and dirt clumps, show up on the surface of the ground  Average weight of breeder earthworm is 1.0 to 1.5 grams 18 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 19. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Characteristics  Breathe through their skin July 14 2010  Hermaphroditic (have both sex organs)  Feed on microorganisms (fungi and bacteria) in the soil  Active at night (nocturnal)  Many are migratory 19 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 20. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Origin  Eudrilus eugeniae (African nightcrawler) comes from West July 14 2010 Africa  Introduced in the Philippines in 1982 by Dr. Otto Graffctive at night (nocturnal)  Most extensively cultured species in the tropics 20 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 21. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Life Cycle  Cocoons (eggs) to Juveniles (young) - 2 weeksActive at night (nocturnal) Many are migratory July 14 2010 Juveniles (young) to Adult (Breeder) - 2 weeks  Breeding worms can lay 2 to 5 cocoons per week that will hatch in 21 days and mature in 60 to 90 21 days Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 22. BIOLOGY OF VERMI July 14 2010Cocoon (eggs) stage Juvenile (young) stage Many are migratory 22 Adult (Breeder) stage Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 23. BIOLOGY OF VERMI July 14 2010 A pair of vermi copulating 23 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 24. BIOLOGY OF VERMI Growth Rate The African nightcrawler can grow to more than 30 cm in length and July 14 2010 3 grams each Life Span 1-2 years in nature More than 10 years in captivity 24 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 25. CULTURAL REQUIREMENT Aeration  Not water-logged  Oxygen needed for respiration July 14 2010 Moisture (40-80%)bacteriagratory  For maintenance of body fluids (80% > of body weight) Temperature  Cold-blooded  20-30 C 25 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 26. CULTURAL REQUIREMENT Organic Matter (decomposed plants and animal matter)  At least 2% to provide substrateFeed on microorganisms (fungi and July 14 2010 for microorganismsbacteria) C:N Ratio in the soil (proportions of carbon and nitrogen) Active at night (nocturnal) Many are migratory 26 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 27. WHAT TURNS WORM OFF?LightHeatToo much waterMeat July 14 2010CheeseCitrusTomato seedsEgg shellsDomestic animal waste (dog cat, 27 pig) Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 28. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING July 14 20101. Site Selection The area must be shady, near water source, accessible to transportation and have abundant source of compost materials 28 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 29. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING2. Wormbed preparation a. Clean and level the soil July 14 2010 b. Construct wormbeds and “trilis” Kind of materials to be used and size of wormbeds to be constructed depend on choice of the project owner c. Put empty sacks at the base 29 of the wormbed Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 30. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010 Engr. Edgar Erum City Heights, GSC 30Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 31. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010 Engr. Edgar Erum City Heights, GSC 31Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 32. VERMI BEDSEngr. Edgar Erum July 14 2010City Heights, GSC 32 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 33. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Bethel Trading CooperativePurok 6, Ligaya, GSC 33 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 34. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Bethel Trading CooperativePurok 6, Ligaya, GSC 34 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 35. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Elmar LaguindamPurok 6, Ligaya GSC 35 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 36. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Elmar LaguindamPurok 6, Ligaya GSC 36 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 37. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Elmar LaguindamPurok 6, Ligaya GSC 37 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 38. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Elmar LaguindamPurok 6, Ligaya GSC 38 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 39. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Capt. James ReamonLagao General Santos City 39 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 40. VERMI BEDS. July 14 2010International Care Ministry of the Philippines, Inc.Fatima, General Santos City 40 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 41. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010Source: A Livelihood Project for the Environment by the Inmates of Talisay City Jail Talisay City, Cebu BJMPRO - VII 41 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 42. VERMI BEDS July 14 2010General Santos City Food Terminal (“Bagsakan” 42 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 43. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING3. Preparation of feeding materials a. Selection of feeding materials July 14 2010 Identify materials rich in nitrogen Kakawate Katuray leaves Ipilipil Monggo Peanut Animal manure Other leguminous plants 43 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 44. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING Identify materials rich in carbon July 14 2010 Grass Saw dust Rice straw Coco dust Corn stalks Paper Wood 44 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 45. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING Choose either of the following combinations : cow manure + sawdust (3:1) July 14 2010 shredded fresh grass + kakawate, ipil-ipil (3:1) manure + ipil-ipil or kakawate (2:1) rice straw + manure (1:1) 45 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 46. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING  grasses + chicken manure (3:1)  sawdust + ipil-ipil (3:1) July 14 2010  compost / rice straw + corn barn (1:1)  Engr. Edgar Erum’s Practice: 45% goat manure 45% coconut sawdust 10% carbonized rice hull 46 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 47. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING Elmar Laguindam’s Practice: A – plant wastes (banana bracts/ July 14 2010 peels/leaves, rice straws, coco sawdust, madre de cacao/ipil-ipil leaves) + animal manure (3:1) B - plant wastes (banana bracts madre de cacao/ ipil-ipil leaves + animal manure (1:1) 47 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 48. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTINGb. Filing of substrates at the wormbeds: July 14 2010  Mixed filing  Sandwich filing c. Water the wormbeds 48 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 49. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING d. Cover the vermibeds with plastic July 14 2010 sheet , tarpaulin, laminated sacks to initiate anaerobic decomposition e. Remove plastic sheet /tarpaulin or laminated sack after 15 days to lower the temperature of the substrate (aerobic decomposition)49 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 50. STEPS IN VERMICULTURE AND VERMICOMPOSTING4. Introduction of vermi into the July 14 2010 substrate Scatter vermi at the vermibed at the rate of 1 kg per square meter 50 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 51. CARE AND MAINTENANCE Conduct regular monitoring Water wormbeds when necessary to maintain moisture requirement of July 14 2010 feeding substrates and vermi Cover wormbeds with net or plant leaves to protect vermi from direct sunlight and predators (duck, chicken, turkey, birds and other animals) 51 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 52. HARVESTINGHarvest the vermi, vermicast andvermicompost after 2 to 3 months July 14 2010 a. Handpicking Pick the worms by hand, put theharvested worms in a container andtransfer them to a new bed. Sift thevermicompost if finer compost is desired. 52 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 53. HARVESTINGb. Pyramid piling of vermicompost Pile the vermicompost in pyramid,Feed on microorganisms (fungi and July 14 2010bacteria)let thestay for 1 day so that worms will in it soilgo down the bottom pile to easily Active at night (nocturnal) Many are migratoryharvest the top part, when bottomportion is reached, worms can beeasily extracted manually. 53 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 54. HARVESTINGc. Moving of contents to one side Move the contents and the whole bed Feed on microorganisms (fungi of July 14 2010to one side and fill the other half with bacteria) in the soilnew compost materials. The worms Active at night (nocturnal)will move to the new food. Harvest the Many are migratorycasts/compost left by the worms. 54 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 55. HARVESTINGd. Use of fresh food in an onion/garlicbagFeed on microorganisms (fungi and July 14 2010bacteria) onion/garlic bag with freshFill an food in the soilthen bury in the bed for a week. Active at night (nocturnal)Worms migratory Many are will transfer in the bag for newfood. Empty the bag in a newwormbed. Harvest the casts/compost. 55 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 56. HARVESTINGe. Use of screen Put screen on top of the bed thenput fresh food on top of the screen.Wormsmicroorganisms (fungi and Feed on will go up the screen for fresh July 14 2010 bacteria)food. Remove the screen and put it on in the soil Active at night (nocturnal)top of arenew worm bed. The worms Many a migratorywill move down the bed for a newfood. Harvest the cast/compost in thebed left by the worms.Note: If finer compost is desired, siftthe vermicompost with a 3/16” mesh 56wire Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 57. POST-HARVEST HANDLINGAvoid vermi, vermicast and vermicompost from exposure to sunlight July 14 2010Air-dry newly harvestedvermicast/vermicompost) Many are migratoryPack air-dried vermicast/vermicompost and store in a cooland dry place or store in a concretestorage or box or ventilated building 57 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 58. POST-HARVEST HANDLINGFor longer storage, water thevermicast/vermicompost to maintainthe nutrients and enzymes presentin the vermicast/ vermicompost July 14 2010 58 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 59. Take good care of your worms and they willmultiply and make lots ofbeautiful odorless, non- July 14 2010 toxic vermicompost fertilizer. 59 Mary Rose F. Laguindam
  • 60. END July 14 2010 60Mary Rose F. Laguindam