Chapter 6.connective tissue 2


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Chapter 6.connective tissue 2

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Connective Tissues and Skeletal System
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To be familiar with the different connective tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>To explain how fat cells grow. </li></ul><ul><li>To differentiate cartilage from bones. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare the three kinds of cartilage. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify the different bones of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how the skeletal system works. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Connects, binds, supports, transports, fights infection and stores materials </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are far apart in arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of large amount of intercellular materia l also known as matrix </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Fibers Composing the Matrix of Connective Tissues <ul><li>Collagenous </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular </li></ul>
  5. 5. Collagen Fiber <ul><li>-Long, wavy and arrange parallel to each other </li></ul>
  6. 6. Collagenous Fiber <ul><li>Locations: tendons and ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: strong flexible support </li></ul>
  7. 7. ELASTIC Fiber <ul><li>The light pink in this tissue is smooth muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic tissue has numerous bundles of elastic fibers with interspersed flattened fibroblasts and collagen fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Location: large arteries, bronchial tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Elastic fibers can stretch l 1/2 times their length and then recoil. These fibers will provide elasticity to tissues. </li></ul>
  8. 8. RETICULAR FIBER <ul><li>Reticular tissue supplies the supporting framework for bone marrow and lymphoid hematopoitic (blood cell making) organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Locations: spleen, lymph nodes, liver </li></ul><ul><li>Function: gives support to soft organs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classification of Connective Tissue <ul><li>A. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1. AREOLAR CONNECTIVE <ul><li>Locations : beneath the skin and around blood vessels, muscles and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: binds one tissue to another (as skin connects to muscle), protection and nourishment to the organs and structures it binds, and stores &quot;body fluid&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cells found in the matrix of Areolar Tissue <ul><li>Fibroblast or Fibrocytes – active in repair and synthesis of fibers and protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophage – agent of defense, engulf foreign bodies present in the tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Mast Cells – produce heparin and histamine. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma cell capable of forming antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesenchymal cell- developed into LCT, aka embryonic LCT cell </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. ADIPOSE TISSUE <ul><li>The cells appear empty. Cells are filled with fat globules (B). </li></ul><ul><li>Locations/functions: -- Anywhere there is an empty space in the body fat is stored as a source of energy and may provide insulation. --The kidneys are correctly positioned and cushioned by adipose tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>--The eye is cushioned in the orbit by adipose. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adipose Tissue <ul><li>is localized to certain depots within the body but may accumulate anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>In men it normally represents some 15-20% of body weight and in women, 20-25% of body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous adipose tissue helps to shape, cushion and insulate the body. It also helps to hold some organs in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all adipose tissue in adults is the called yellow adipose tissue </li></ul>
  15. 15. B. DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE <ul><li>Dense connective tissue has many collagen fibers arranged in bundles and fewer cells. It is stronger and less flexible than loose connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Dense irregular connective tissue, as seen in the dermis, has abundant collagen fibers in bundles with no particular orientation. This allows the tissue to handle stress from any direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Dense regular connective tissue , as found in tendons and ligaments, is characterized by collagen bundles being oriented in the direction of prolonged maximum stress. Both types of dense connective tissue have a shiny white sometimes translucent appearance in the natural state. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1. Dense Regular connective tissue <ul><li>Location : </li></ul><ul><li>Tendon - connects muscle to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Ligament – connects bone to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Aponeurosis - connect muscle to muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia – covers the whole muscle & hold them together </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane – covers organs and cavities </li></ul>
  17. 17. 2. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Location : </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Sheaths of nerves, muscles and tendons </li></ul>
  18. 18. C. SUPPORTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE <ul><li>Characterized by dense, rigid and firm matrix with cells that are far apart and locked up fluid filled spaces. </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1.Cartilage <ul><li>Cartilage is specialized to bear mechanical stress without permanent distortion. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cartilage can be found in areas where shock absorbing or sliding areas for joints. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cartilage <ul><li>As was true with the connective tissues proper, these tissues contain various amounts and types of matrix, fibers and cells. Included here are: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline Cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic Cartilage </li></ul>
  21. 21. a.HYALINE CARTILAGE <ul><li>The chondrocytes (A) are located in lacunae (C). The matrix (B) contain collagen fibers that are so fine they are not visible in tissue preparations. </li></ul><ul><li>Locations: &quot;C&quot; rings in the trachea, nose, articular ends of bones, fetal skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Function: precursor to bone, support </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline cartilage is found in the fetus where it forms the fetal skeleton that is later ossified and becomes bone </li></ul>
  22. 22. b. ELASTIC CARTILAGE <ul><li>The chondrocytes (A) are contained in lacunae (C). The matrix (B) contains abundant elastic fibers.These fibers give great flexibility to this tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Locations : ear, auditory canal, epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: flexible support </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic cartilage contains many elastic fibers giving it a yellowish color. it can be found in the auricle of the ear, ear canal, and epiglottis. </li></ul>
  23. 23. c. FIBROCARTILAGE <ul><li>Locations : pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: supports, withstands compression </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage contains a dense network of collagen fibers and is found in the intervertebral discs, attachments of ligaments to cartilagenous surface of bones, and in the pubic symphysis. There is no perichondrium in fibrocartilage </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. BONE <ul><li>In the center of the osteon is the central canal (A) which hold the blood vessels and a nerve. These canals are surrounded by concentric rings of inorganic matrix, the lamellae (B). Between the lamellae are bone cells, the osteocytes (C) located in lacunae . Nutrients diffuse from cell to cell through the canaliculi (D). </li></ul><ul><li>Location: skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Function : framework, protection </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>The skeleton contains 99% of the body's total calcium . </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic portions of the bone matrix represents about 50% of bone by weight. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, citrate, potassium, and sodium are found there but the substance that gives bone its hardness is hydroxyapatite made from calcium and phosphate. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydoxyapatite crystals are associated with collagen in bone giving it its strength and resistance. </li></ul>
  26. 30. Classification of Bone According to Shape <ul><li>Long – humerus, femur, tibia, fibula, radius & ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Short – clavicle, metacarpals & metatarsals </li></ul><ul><li>Flat – scapula, cranial, ribs & pelvic </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular – carpal, tarsal, vertebrae & auditory ossicles </li></ul>
  27. 31. Membrane Covering of Bones <ul><li>Periosteum – outer covering of the bone </li></ul><ul><li>Endosteum – lines the cavities and haversian canal </li></ul>
  28. 32. Axial Skeleton: <ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><li>spinal column </li></ul><ul><li>sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs </li></ul><ul><li>sternum </li></ul><ul><li>ear ossicles </li></ul><ul><li>hyoid bone </li></ul>
  29. 33. Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>composed of 126 bones. </li></ul><ul><li>shoulder girdle: clavicle scapula </li></ul><ul><li>arms: humerus ulna radius carpals metacarpals phalanges </li></ul>
  30. 34. appendicular skeleton <ul><li>pelvic girdle: pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>legs: femur patella tibia fibula tarsals metatarsals phalanges </li></ul>
  31. 35. Homology PECTORAL GIRDLE PECVIC GIRDLE Clavicle Pubis Scapula Ilium Coracoid Ischium Humerus Femur Radius -Ulna Tibia-Fibula Carpals Tarsals Metacarpals Metatarsals Phalanges Phalanges
  32. 37. <ul><li>Exam next meeting…. </li></ul><ul><li>LOVE, LOVE, LOVE </li></ul>End of Presentation