PLANTS AND ECOLOGY  PART 2
CHAPTER 34 & 35 UNIT 3 LESSON 4
<ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic components include sunlight, inorganic nutrients, soil, water, temperatur...
<ul><li>Populations of an Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs (producers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require an...
<ul><li>Populations of an Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs (consumers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need a p...
<ul><li>Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy enters ecosystem in the form of sunlight absorbed by...
<ul><li>The interconnecting paths of energy flow are represented by diagramming food webs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing f...
<ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A trophic level is composed of all the organisms that feed at a particular li...
<ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In general, only about 10%...
<ul><li>Biogeochemical Cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathways Involve both Biotic and Abiotic Components </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater evaporates from bodies of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precip...
<ul><li>The Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphates are an important component of many biological processes and ...
<ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen gas makes up about 78% of the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrification:  production of nitrates which plants can also use </li></u...
<ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is added to fert...
<ul><li>The Carbon Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis takes up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Biome: A Major Type of Terrestrial Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic mix of plants and animals </li><...
<ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encircles Earth south of polar seas in the Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Coniferous Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern part of North America and E...
<ul><li>Temperate Deciduous Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern North America, Europe, Eastern Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Tropical Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South America, Africa, Indo-Malayan region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weath...
<ul><li>Shrublands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs with waxy leaves, adapted to arid conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall is greater than 25 cm/year but not enough to support trees </li></ul...
<ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot days and cold nights </li></ul><...
CHAPTER 36 UNIT 3 LESSON 5
<ul><li>Conservation biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary discipline with the explicit goal of protecting biodi...
<ul><li>Ethical principles of conservation biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is desirable for the biosphere and t...
<ul><li>Conservation biology has often been called a “crisis discipline” or a “discipline with a deadline” </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Biodiversity:  The variety of life on Earth, described in terms of the number of different species found in a give...
<ul><li>Four Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>SEE OBJECTIVE #4 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Direct value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicinal value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rosy periwinkle, penicillin, gro...
<ul><li>Indirect value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services that are pervasive and not easily discernible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>5 causes for species extinctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exotic species </li...
<ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important cause of biodiversity loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern ce...
<ul><li>Exotic species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonnative members of a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human introductio...
<ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any environmental change that adversely affects the lives and health of living thi...
<ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any environmental change that adversely affects the lives and health of living thi...
<ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of individuals taken from a wild population is so great that the pop...
<ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife exposed to new pathogens from domestic animals living nearby </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Conservation of habitat is of primary concern </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on habitats with highest levels of biodivers...
<ul><li>Conserve keystone species habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of a keystone species would result in a great number...
<ul><li>3 principles of habitat restoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin as soon as possible before remaining fragments of ...
<ul><li>Ultimately, biodiversity loss results from human consumption of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable resources...
<ul><li>Human society at present is not sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable proportion of land, and therefore o...
<ul><li>Human society at present is not sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture requires large inputs of nonrenewabl...
<ul><li>Sustainable society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to provide the same goods and services for future generations as it...
<ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of world’s energy supply comes from finite, nonrenewable sources </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Renewable energy sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presently generates 20% o...
<ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide, 70% of all fresh water is used to irrigate crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Dam drawbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs lose water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases salinity </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Conservation of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population may be facing serious wa...
<ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, current agricultural practices provide enough food to provide everyone on...
<ul><li>Modern farming methods are environmentally destructive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
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Gen bio unit 3 part 2

  1. 1. PLANTS AND ECOLOGY PART 2
  2. 2. CHAPTER 34 & 35 UNIT 3 LESSON 4
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic components include sunlight, inorganic nutrients, soil, water, temperature and wind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic components are the various populations of organisms that form a community. </li></ul></ul>Producers Carnivores Herbivores Decomposers
  4. 4. <ul><li>Populations of an Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs (producers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require an energy source and inorganic nutrients to produce organic food molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacture organic nutrients for all organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green plants and algae carry on photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some bacteria are chemoautotrophs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support communities at hydrothermal vents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Populations of an Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs (consumers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need a preformed source of organic nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores: graze directly on plants or algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores: feed on other animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivores: feed on both plants and animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break down nonliving organic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They release inorganic matter to be used by producers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detritus: partially decomposed matter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy enters ecosystem in the form of sunlight absorbed by producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals enter when producers take in inorganic nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers then make organic nutrients for themselves and all other organisms in the ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers (herbivores and omnivores) gain nutrients and energy from eating producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level consumers (carnivores) then gain nutrients and energy from eating herbivores and omnivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some energy is released at each level to the environment in the form of heat and waste products </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The interconnecting paths of energy flow are represented by diagramming food webs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing food webs begin with producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detrital food webs begin with detritus </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A trophic level is composed of all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of a food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leaves caterpillars tree birds hawks </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Trophic Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In general, only about 10% of the energy of one trophic level is available to the next trophic level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represent amount of available energy in each trophic level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers are at the base - the most available energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is given off in less usable forms as producers are eaten by primary consumers, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass: the number of organisms at each level multiplied by their weight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Biogeochemical Cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathways Involve both Biotic and Abiotic Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir: source unavailable to producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange pool: source from which organisms take chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic community: chemicals move through community along food chains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Main Types of Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaseous cycle: chemical element is drawn from and returns to the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary cycle: chemical element is drawn from soil by plant roots, eaten by consumers, returned to soil by decomposers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater evaporates from bodies of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation over land enters ground, surface waters, aquifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually returns to oceans over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In arid West and southern Florida, groundwater mining is occurring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aquifers are being drained faster than they can be naturally replenished </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Phosphorus Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphates are an important component of many biological processes and structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipids, ATP, nucleotides, teeth, bones, shells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate can be a limiting inorganic nutrient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphates are used in fertilizers, animal feeds, and detergents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excess phosphates in water supplies can lead to eutrophication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algal blooms that can lead to massive fish kills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen gas makes up about 78% of the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants cannot use nitrogen gas, so nitrogen is a limiting factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carried out by some cyanobacteria and bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonium ions (NH4+) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants can use ammonium ions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrification: production of nitrates which plants can also use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen gas converted to nitrate in atmosphere by lightning, meteor trails, cosmic radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonium in soil converted to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denitrification: conversion of nitrate back to nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is added to fertilizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Runoff that contains nitrogen also contributes to eutrophication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilizer use also results in the release of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Carbon Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis takes up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell respiration returns it to the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs of Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dead organisms, shells, fossil fuels, limestone, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More carbon dioxide is being deposited in atmosphere than is being removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to deforestation and burning of fossil fuels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere contributes to global warming </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Biome: A Major Type of Terrestrial Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic mix of plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate influences which species survive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of biomes is due to climatic factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encircles Earth south of polar seas in the Northern Hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very cold and dark most of the year—short growing season, precipitation is minimal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost prevents water drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens, short grasses, dwarf shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lemmings, ptarmigans, caribou, reindeer, wolves, polar bears </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Coniferous Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern part of North America and Eurasia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees are well adapted to the cold climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needles (reduced leaves), thick bark </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cone-bearing trees: pine, firs, spruce </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses, lichens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bears, deer, moose, beaver, muskrats, wolves, birds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western coast of the United States and Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old growth forest </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Temperate Deciduous Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern North America, Europe, Eastern Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-defined seasons, long growing season, relatively high precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oak, beech, maple, and other broad-leaf deciduous trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tall trees form canopy, shrubs and shorter trees below </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens, ferns on forest floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squirrels, rabbits, chipmunks, and other small herbivores. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turkeys, pheasants, and grouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beaver, muskrats, red foxes, deer, and black bears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reptiles (turtles) and amphibians (frogs) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Tropical Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South America, Africa, Indo-Malayan region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather is always warm, abundant rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biome with the greatest diversity of species of plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex structure, many levels of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many animals live in the trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Shrublands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrubs with waxy leaves, adapted to arid conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to burn-off from fires due to dryness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals include coyotes, jackrabbits, gophers and other rodents </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall is greater than 25 cm/year but not enough to support trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses well adapted to changing environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals include small mammals, hawks, snakes, coyotes, antelope and bison. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannas: grasslands that contain some trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African savanna - greatest variety of large herbivores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals include elephants, giraffes, zebras, wildebeests </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot days and cold nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Succulents: cacti, sagebrush </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many are burrowing animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nocturnal to avoid heat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. CHAPTER 36 UNIT 3 LESSON 5
  26. 26. <ul><li>Conservation biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary discipline with the explicit goal of protecting biodiversity and Earth’s natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relies on many subdisciplines of biology for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of basic scientific concepts to describe biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application of these concepts for sustainable management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Ethical principles of conservation biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity is desirable for the biosphere and therefore for humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-induced extinctions are therefore undesirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex interactions within ecosystems and communities support biodiversity and the maintenance of such interactions is therefore desirable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity generated by evolutionary change has intrinsic value, regardless of any practical benefit </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Conservation biology has often been called a “crisis discipline” or a “discipline with a deadline” </li></ul><ul><li>Facing a sixth mass extinction </li></ul><ul><li>We may lose as many as 50% of all species by the year 2100 </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Biodiversity: The variety of life on Earth, described in terms of the number of different species found in a given area or ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 1.9 million species have been described across the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates are that there may be between 10 and 50 million species in all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>75,000 species worldwide are endangered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In danger of extinction </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Four Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Populations with high genetic diversity are more likely to have some individuals that can survive changes in their community or ecosystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve species with critical roles to play in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dangers of fragmentation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>SEE OBJECTIVE #4 </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Direct value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicinal value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rosy periwinkle, penicillin, growing leprosy in armadillos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, corn, rice, pest control, pollinators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumptive use value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most freshwater and marine harvests depend on wild animals; trees in rainforests produce fruits and rubber </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Indirect value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services that are pervasive and not easily discernible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biogeochemical cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste disposal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provision of freshwater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flood prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of soil erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecotourism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>5 causes for species extinctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exotic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some species imperiled by more than one cause </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Habitat loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important cause of biodiversity loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern centered on tropical rain forests and coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of high biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rainforests reduced from 14% of landmass to 6% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60% of coral reefs have been destroyed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be completely gone in 40 years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Exotic species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonnative members of a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human introductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horticulture/ agriculture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exotics on islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islands particularly susceptible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any environmental change that adversely affects the lives and health of living things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acid Deposition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens trees and makes them susceptible to disease, insects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kills organisms in lakes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over-enrichment of lakes by inorganic nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algae blooms, decomposers break them down </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen depleted and fish die </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From greenhouse gases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction of wetlands as seas rise, shift in temperature so that species cannot survive, die off of coral reefs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any environmental change that adversely affects the lives and health of living things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone Depletion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release of CFCs causes ozone shield to break down </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impairment of crop and tree growth, death of plankton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many are endocrine-disrupting contaminants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect the endocrine system and reproductive potential </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of individuals taken from a wild population is so great that the population becomes severely reduced in numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive feedback - the more depleted a population, the more commercially valuable its members become which is an incentive to capture the few remaining organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) was an agreement established in 1973 to ensure that international trade of species does not threaten their survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overexploited 11 of 15 major oceanic fishing areas </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife exposed to new pathogens from domestic animals living nearby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed to animals they would not ordinarily come into contact with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost half of sea otter deaths along the coast of California are due to infectious diseases </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Conservation of habitat is of primary concern </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on habitats with highest levels of biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity hotspots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain unusually large number of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endemic species – not found anywhere else </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Conserve keystone species habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of a keystone species would result in a great number of secondary extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wolves, bats, grizzly bears, beavers, elephants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Flagship species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evoke an emotional response from humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lions, tigers, dolphins, giant panda </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>3 principles of habitat restoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin as soon as possible before remaining fragments of the original habitat are lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to use biological techniques that mimic natural processes to bring about restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is sustainable development, the ability of an ecosystem to maintain itself while providing services to human beings </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Ultimately, biodiversity loss results from human consumption of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable resources – limited supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land, fossil fuels, minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable resources – not limited supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain forms of energy </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Human society at present is not sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable proportion of land, and therefore of natural ecosystems, is being altered for human purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our society primarily utilizes nonrenewable fossil fuel energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though fresh water is a renewable resource, we are using it faster than it can be replenished </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Human society at present is not sustainable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture requires large inputs of nonrenewable fossil fuel energy, fertilizer, and pesticides, which create much pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least half of the agricultural yield in the United States goes toward feeding animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals are nonrenewable, and the mining, manufacture, and use of mineral products is responsible for much environmental pollution </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Sustainable society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to provide the same goods and services for future generations as it does now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should shift our efforts to using renewable energy resources and recycle materials </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of world’s energy supply comes from finite, nonrenewable sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6% from nuclear power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>75% from fossil fuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparatively speaking, each person in a more-developed country (MDC) uses approximately as much energy in one day as a person in a less-developed country (LDC) uses in one year </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Renewable energy sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydropower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presently generates 20% of electricity worldwide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large dams can have detrimental environmental impacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth has internal heat source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply hot water or run steam-driven turbines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected to account for a significant percentage of our energy needs in the future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic (solar) cells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide, 70% of all fresh water is used to irrigate crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although the needs of the human population overall do not exceed the renewable supply of water, this is not the case in certain regions of the United States and the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans will dam rivers and withdraw water from aquifers </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Dam drawbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoirs lose water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment buildup reduces capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced water below the dam has negative impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aquifers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater depletion has become a problem in many areas of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of water is causing land subsidence </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Conservation of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population may be facing serious water shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planting drought- and salt-tolerant crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using drip irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusing water and adopting conservation measures </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, current agricultural practices provide enough food to provide everyone on Earth a healthy diet consisting of 2,500 calories per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, one-sixth of the world’s population (over 1 billion people) are currently considered malnourished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much grain is used to feed livestock rather than humans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Modern farming methods are environmentally destructive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses significant amounts of fresh water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses large amounts of fuels </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods to reduce erosion </li></ul></ul>

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