Climate Change and Climate Policy*
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Climate Change and Climate Policy*

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Simply put, I designed this PPT with the idea of making climate change an easier topic to understand. This document will address the main causes, facts, rhetoric, predictions, public policy, and ...

Simply put, I designed this PPT with the idea of making climate change an easier topic to understand. This document will address the main causes, facts, rhetoric, predictions, public policy, and impacts of climate change. It is my hope that you will (1) learn something about this topic that you did not know…and (2) it will spark an intellectual curiosity that will encourage you to seek more information.

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  • Simply put, I designed this PPT with the idea of making climate change an easier topic to understand. This document will address the main causes, facts, rhetoric, predictions, public policy, and impacts of climate change. It is my hope that you will (1) learn something about this topic that you did not know…and (2) it will spark an intellectual curiosity that will encourage you to seek more information.
  • Climate change is already beginning to transform life on Earth. Around the globe, seasons are shifting, temperatures are climbing and sea levels are rising. And meanwhile, our planet must still supply us – and all living things – with air, water, food and safe places to live. If we don't act now, climate change will rapidly alter the lands and waters we all depend upon for survival, leaving our children and grandchildren with a very different world. The most dangerous consequences of climate change include: higher temperatures, changing landscapes, wildlife at risk, rising seas, increased drought, famine, fire, and floods, stronger storms and increased storm damage, more heat-related illnesses and death, and last but not least economic losses. Simply put, we are already feeling the effects of climate change – we shouldn’t wait to act on this issue.Now is the time to take action and enact comprehensive legislation that: (1)puts strong limits on carbon pollution, (2)reduces our dependence on oil, (3) drives the innovation necessary to create millions of clean energy jobs and (4) ensures our natural resources are healthy and strong enough to survive the impacts of climate change that we are already seeing today. In short, reducing human activity that contributes to climate change.
  • There are two key factors responsible for Earth’s climate. Both natural and human factors account for what is considered to be climate change. Science dictates that natural factors caused climate change prior to the time before humans walked the planet. Changes in the Earth’s orbit, lunar and solar activity, as well as the movement of tectonic plates were solely responsible for climate change. In turn, humans have heavily influenced climate change since the Industrial Era. While these human factors and advancements offer empowerment to stakeholders, it is also welcomed with great detriment to the atmosphere. While the age of technology and industrialization has vastly developed many nations, it has also initiated the blossom of unbridled transportation, globalization, international trade, and has ‘flattened the world.’ Thomas Friedman’s 10Forces That Flattened the World details the account of such activity as creating the foundation for new and competing global collaboration. Thishistorical record of temperature indicates that “most of the observed warming since the mid-20th century is due to human-caused greenhouse gas emissions” (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013, para 1). It is important to note that the model using only natural forces has continued to decrease as the models using both natural and human forces have increased. A key observation is the temperature increase over the past century with human effects. It is apparent that human activity has a greater effect than before on climate change, as a result, the human “added billions of tons of heat-trapped greenhouse gases to the atmosphere” have contributed to the current state of recent climate change (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013, para 5).
  • The Environmental Protection Agency details its efforts alongside a number of organizations to monitor 26 indicators of climate change. For my analysis and argument mapping, I chose to focus on increased gas emissions as it relates to increased transportation. Among these tracking signs are U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to global greenhouse gas emissions, climate forcing, weather and climate patterns, ocean activity, snow and ice variations, and notable differences in society and ecosystems. The effects of the climate change crisis can be viewed in the influence diagram.
  • The preceding argument map will concern itself with structuring the policy argument designed to further climate policy through energy conservation and transportation initiatives. Assuming that the original qualifier was certainly; one can indicate the qualifier changes as it move from a simple, static, uncontested argument to a complex, dynamic and contested argument. Upon movement in to a more complex argument, it is evident that the issue of rights, privileges, and the level of priority involved with managing transportation effects in climate change will waver with each objection, rejection, warrant, and backing accordingly. It is of the upmost importance to provide policy analysis and program evaluation. The current state of climate policy is average.
  • While identifying stakeholders among climate policy, it is important to notate the degree of impact among affected parties. Figure 1 illustrates the policy issue as the innermost circle. Those directly affected by the core issue in the immediate circle surrounding the policy issue including: plant, animal, and wildlife populations, as well as sea levels, climate, and the ecosystem. Those livelihoods that are indirectly affected are in the subsequent circle, and those actors whose influence or interest lies in this issue are represented in the outermost circle. Also within the stakeholder analysis I discussed assumptions relating to climate policy. There are a number of underlying assumptions of climate change that require rating including: what case studies to delve into, implementation of pilot programs to further transportation reform aimed at reducing personal vehicle emissions, distinctions between global warming and climate change, policy analysis of global climate disruption, dispel rhetoric concerning inability to relay on scientific data, and advocacy of public awareness campaign. Immediate policy alternatives include public awareness campaigns, increased media coverage, research and analysis of foreign case studies of smaller carbon footprints. Long term initiatives contain (1) continual monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth’s atmosphere, (2) policies that place limits on automotive industry and trade, (3) radical reform of energy policy, (4) federal public transportation reform modeled after the Eisenhower Interstate Highway System aimed at the promotion of carpool and ride-share communities, and (5) reducing the use of personal vehicles and private travel. The climate policy focus must shift towards atmospheric stabilization throughout limitations in human activity. Limits must be placed on human-made global climate change in order to preserve the environment for future generations; among the interrelated issues advocating for the increased use of public transportation may be the most viable starting points.
  • Form and Enact comprehensive legislation that: (1) puts strong limits on carbon pollution, (2) reduces U.S. dependence on oil,(3) drives the innovation necessary to create millions of clean energy jobs and (4) ensures our natural resources are healthy and strong enough to survive the impacts of climate change that we are already seeing today. And of course…this is easier said than done. Several conclusions can be drawn about the policy problem in the issue area; advocating policy in a major city that will mandate public transportation use during peak hours is one such creative policy solution and pilot program. Immediate policy alternatives include public awareness campaigns, increased media coverage, research and analysis of foreign case studies of smaller carbon footprints. Long term initiatives contain (1) continual monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth’s atmosphere, (2) policies that place limits on automotive industry and trade, (3) radical reform of energy policy, (4) federal public transportation reform modeled after the Eisenhower Interstate Highway System aimed at the promotion of carpool and ride-share communities, and (5) reducing the use of personal vehicles and private travel. The climate policy focus must shift towards atmospheric stabilization throughout limitations in human activity. Limits must be placed on human-made global climate change in order to preserve the environment for future generations; among the interrelated issues advocating for the increased use of public transportation may be the most viable starting points. Bringing me to my next slide…
  • The policy options for climate change fall in two broad categories – mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation addresses the causes of climate change and aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Adaptation deals with preparing for future impacts of climate change. In my humble opinion, I would advocate for both policy options as it provides an offensive and a defensive strategy to the policy issue. When thinking of how to prescribe policies, I think of the opportunity cost involved with combating climate change. It’s net benefits far outweigh the inconvenience of negative policy impact. A simple policy framework would look similar to this…
  • Most of the controversial issues in the policy debate on climate change have to do with mitigation. However, adaptation is extremely important and should not be neglected by policy makers. I would advocate for policy adaption.
  • Although it is tough to place a dollar equivalent on the damage avoided, it is obvious that policy adaption will help to ensure the desired outcome over time.
  • Dispel rhetoric surrounding climate change
  • As global temperatures rise, transportation policy will soon require the in-depth analysis of how climate impacts transportation planning, as well as its effects on structural design, vehicle technology modeling, and travel demand management. Congress should mandate the use of public transportation between high peak hours in efforts to deter future climate disruption. Reliable statistical analysis confirms that traffic congestion creates smog; which in turn pollutes the air quality. Public transportation reduces fuel consumption, traffic congestion, gasoline consumption, carbon footprint, and saves financial resources aimed at vehicle purchase and maintenance. Although attempting to sponsor this legislation will offer difficulties and opposition, advocates will continue in order to stimulate discussion and local action on that issue; with the hope of raising awareness witnessing similar measures in communities. Future transportation networks will have an unbridled liability of managing its infrastructure and daily operations in the face of additional climate changes.In conclusion, climate change is a complex topic and it touches various other concepts, processes and issues including solar cycles, state sovereignty, global security, social evolution, resource depletion, militarization, and demographic trends. There is hope for increased awareness, high priority, and immediate action in the near future. Just yesterday I received an email from Organizing for Action that outlines a plan to bring climate awareness and efforts to combat climate change to the forefront of policy issues.
  • Climate change is a complex topic integrating concepts, processes and issues including solar cycles, state sovereignty, global security, social evolution, resource depletion, militarization, and demographic trends. There is hope for increased awareness, high priority, and immediate action in the near future. As the Earth heats up… we must remain cool! But most importantly, we must take action. More recently, we have seen the White House discuss its plan to bring climate awareness and efforts to combat climate change to the forefront of policy issues.

Climate Change and Climate Policy* Climate Change and Climate Policy* Presentation Transcript

  • Navigating Climate Change Policy Shermaine Perry Policy Analysis and Program Evaluation 11 June 2013 Source: COP16/CMP6 Cancun, Mexico
  • Policy Problem Climate change impacts and threatens our daily lives, the environment, and the global economy. Lack of urgency to address climate issues An absence of comprehensive climate legislation What are you waiting for? I need your help…
  • Rising Temperatures Linked to Increased Human Activity
  • Influence Diagram
  • Argument Mapping
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • What Should be Done? Enact comprehensive legislation that: (1) puts strong limits on carbon pollution (2) reduces U.S. dependence on oil (3) drives the innovation necessary to create millions of clean energy jobs (4) ensures our natural resources are healthy and strong enough to survive the impacts of climate change that we are already seeing today. That’s easier said than done.
  • Prescribing Policies Source: Georgiev, 2009
  • Prescribing Policies cont.
  • Source: Agrawala and Fankhauser (2008)
  • Policy Outcomes 1. Compliance 2. Inaction 3. Resistance Valid rebuttals include: 1. Federal budget deficit 2. Scientific data refuting climate change 3. Policy alternatives (inexpensive) 4. Discussion of the many unknown factors affecting climate change
  • Executive Summary Source: Mitchell (2009)
  • In Conclusion… Climate change impacts state sovereignty and global security… however, there is hope for increased public awareness, and immediate government action regarding this issue in the near future.
  • References Baker, M. L. (2010, September 7). The Coming Conflicts of Climate Change. The Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from www.cfr.org/climate-change/coming-conflicts-climatechange/p22886 Basics | Climate Change | US EPA. (2013, April 22). US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 4, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basics/ Causes of Climate Change | Climate Change | US EPA. (2013, April 22). US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 7, 2013, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/causes.html Dunn, W. N. (2012). Public policy analysis: an introduction (Fifth ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Dye, T. R. (2011). Understanding public policy (13 ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Global Warming: Will Our Actions Stop a Grim Future? | Use Celsias.com - reduce global °Celsius. (n.d.). Use Celsias.com - reduce global °Celsius. Retrieved June 11, 2013, from http://www.celsias.com/article/global-warming-will-our-actions-stop-grim-future/ Hope, C. (2006). ‘The Marginal Impact of CO2 from PAGE2002: An Integrated Assessment Model Incorporating the IPCC’s Five Reasons for Concern.’ IPCC (2001a). The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. IPCC (2001b) Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • References cont. • • • • • • • • • IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. UNFCCC (2008). Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change. UNFCCC, Bonn. Levi, M. A. (2008, November 20). A Changed Prognosis for Climate Change Policy. The Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from www.cfr.org/climate-change/changed-prognosisclimate-change-policy/p17823 Levi, M. A. (2009, June 27). Trade and Climate Change. The Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from www.cfr.org/economics/trade-climate-change/p19674 Public Transportation Benefits. (n.d.). (2013). APTA Homepage. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from http://www.apta.com/mediacenter/ptbenefits/Pages/default.aspx Sargent, G. (2013, May 10). Maybe We Should Talk About Climate Change?. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/plumline/wp/2013/05/10/maybe-we-should-talk-about-climate-change/ Schuetze, C. (2013, April 8). U.S. Moves Toward Teaching Climate Change; Britain Does the Opposite. The New York Times. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/08/u-s-moves-toward-teaching-climate-changebritain-does-the-opposite/ Smith, L. (2013, May 20). Overheated Rhetoric on Climate Change Doesn't Make for Good Policies. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P234672723.html?refid=bibme_hf U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012. (2012, June 27). Census. Retrieved May 6, 2013, from www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s1058.pdf