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Criminology pp1a

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  • 1. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGERPearson Education, Inc.
  • 2. CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGER Chapter 1 What is Criminology?Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 3. What is Crime? • Four definitional perspectives – Legalistic – Political – Sociological – Psychological • Perspective is important because it determines the assumptions we make and the questions we ask • This book uses the legalistic perspectiveCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 3 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 4. Legalistic Perspective • Crime is defined as: Human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such lawsCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 4 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 5. Shortcomings of the Legalistic Perspective • Yields moral high ground to powerful individuals who can influence lawmaking • Insists that the nature of crime and the nature of law cannot be separated – not all immoral acts are contravened by statuteCriminology • AnToday: Fails to recognize that formal law did not always existIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 5 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 6. Political Perspective • Crime - the result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups and are then used to label selected undesirable forms of behavior as illegal • Laws serve the interests of the politically powerful • Crimes are behaviors those in power perceive as threats to their interestsCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 6 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 7. Sociological (Sociolegal) Perspective • Crime – an antisocial act of such a nature that its repression is necessary or is supposed to be necessary to the preservation of the existing system of society • Crime is an offense against humanCriminology relationships first, a violation of law secondToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 7 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 8. Psychological (Maladaptive) Perspective • Crime - problem behavior, especially human activity that contravenes the criminal law and results in difficulties in living within a framework of generally acceptable social arrangementsCriminology • Includes anyToday: An harmful or potentially harmful behaviorsIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 8 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 9. Crime and Deviance • Deviant behavior – any activity that violates social norms • Deviance and crime overlap – not identicalCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 9 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 10. What Should be Criminal? • Lack agreement about appropriate legal status of many behaviors • Question answered differently by two contrasting perspectives – Consensus – PluralistCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 10 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 11. What Should be Criminal? Consensus Pluralist • Laws are enacted to • Behaviors typically criminalize given forms of criminalized through a behavior when agreed political process, after upon by members of debate over appropriate society course of action • Most applicable to • Legislation, appellate court homogeneous societies actionCriminologyToday: An • Most applicable to diverseIntegrative societiesIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 11 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 12. What Do Criminologists Do? • Criminologist – studies crime, criminals and criminal behavior • Criminalist – a specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime • Criminal Justice Professionals – do the day-to- day work of the criminal justice systemCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 12 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 13. What Do Criminologists Do? Characteristics of academic and research criminologists: • Ph.D. in criminology, criminal justice, or related field • Teach in colleges and universities • Most conduct research designed to advance criminological knowledgeCriminology write for publication in journals • MostToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 13 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 14. What is Criminology? • Many difficulties in defining subject • Text’s definition of criminology: An interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their manifestations, causes, legal aspects, and control • Focus on causes of criminalityCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 14 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 15. What is Criminology? Social scientific discipline InterdisciplinaryCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 15 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 16. What is Criminology? • Criminal justice: – Application of the criminal law and study of the components of the justice system – Police, courts, corrections • Focus on control of lawbreakingCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 16 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 17. Theoretical Criminology • Subfield of general criminology • Primarily found in colleges and universities • Posits explanations for criminal behaviorCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 17 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 18. Theoretical Criminology • Theory Made up of clearly stated propositions that posit relationships, often of a causal sort, between events and things under study • Criminologists have developed many theories to explain and understand crimeCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 18 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 19. Theoretical Criminology • General theory – tries to explain all/most forms of crime through a single overarching approach • Unicausal – approaches that posit a single identifiable source for all serious deviant and criminal behavior • Integrated theory – tries to explain crime by merging concepts from different sources • Experimental criminology – uses social scientificCriminology techniques to test the accuracy of theories about crimeToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 19 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 20. Formulation of Social Policy • Social policies based on research findings are of potentially broader importance than theory testing • Social policy includes government initiatives, programs, plans to address problems in society • Should be linked to objective findings of well- conducted criminological researchCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 20 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 21. Social Policy and Public Crime Concerns • Concern about crime not always related to actual incidence of crime • Concern about crime an important factor in determining public policy – political agendas focusing on reducing crime well- receivedCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 21 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 22. The Theme of This Book Social Problems Social Responsibility • Crime a manifestation of • People responsible for social problems own behavior, choose crime over other • Public health model to legitimate options deal with crime – Large-scale government expenditures • Personalized crime – Social programs reduction strategies addressing roots of crimeCriminology • Micro approachToday:Macro approach • AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 22 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 23. The Social Context of Crime • Crime does not occur in a vacuum – every crime has a unique set of – Causes – Consequences – Participants • Crime provokes reactions from many sources • Reactions to crime may affect future criminalCriminology eventsToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 23 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 24. Causes and Consequences of Crime • Crime is a social event, not an isolated individual activity • Crime has many different kinds of meanings • Crime is socially relative: Social events are interpreted differently according to the cultural experiences and personal interests of the initiator, observer, or recipient of the behaviorCriminologyToday: An • CrimeIntegrative means different things to different peopleIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 24 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 25. Causes and Consequences of CrimeCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 25 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 26. Causes and Consequences of Crime • Crime results from the coming together of inputs provided by the offender, the victim, the criminal justice system, and society • Foreground – features that immediately determine the nature of the crime • BackgroundCriminology causes – generic contributionsToday: An to the crimeIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 26 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 27. Crime and the Offender • Background features • Foreground – Life experiences contributions – Biology and personality – Motivation – Values/beliefs – Specific Intent – Skills/knowledge – State of mind (drug- induced)CriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 27 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 28. Crime and the Criminal Justice System • Background • Immediate contributions - failure contributions – to: features of situation – Prevent crime – Presence/absence of – Identify/inhibit specific police officers offenders – Availability of official – Prevent release of assistance recidivists – Willingness of officers toCriminology intervene pre-crimeToday: An – Response timeIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 28 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 29. Crime and the Victim • Background contributions – Passive presence – Active contributions through lifestyle • Victim precipitation – Active victim participation in initial stages of criminal event – Victim instigates chain of events resulting inCriminology victimizationToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 29 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 30. Crime and Society • Background contributions – Generic social practices and conditions – Socialization process • Foreground contributions – Distribution of resources – Accessibility of servicesCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 30 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 31. Immediate Effects of Crime • Outputs affect all parties involved • Impact affected by perceptual filters – Results in ongoing interpretations before, during, after crime – Everyone associated with a crime engages in interpretationsCriminologyToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 31 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 32. Integrative Approach to Crime • Attempt to identify and understand multiple causes of crime • Highlight the processes involved in the criminal event as it unfolds • Analyze the interpretationCriminology of the crime phenomenonToday: AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 32 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 33. Integrative Approach to Crime Crime as an emergent activity that: • Arises out of past complex causes • Assumes a course that builds upon immediate interrelationships among everyone involved • Elicits a formal response from the justice system,Criminology public perceptions, and may give rise to shapesToday: An changes in social policyIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 33 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 34. The Primacy of Sociology? • Many disciplines have made important contributions to criminology • Many criminologists today operate primarily from a sociological perspective • Many modern theoriesCriminology of criminal behaviorToday: based in sociology AnIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 34 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  • 35. The Primacy of Sociology? • Advantages – Crime is a social phenomenon – Much contemporary criminology rests on tradition of social scientific investigation • Problems – Reluctant to accept findings from other disciplines – Frequently unable to integrate these findings intoCriminologyexisting sociological understandings of crimeToday: An – Unable to show effective ways to control crimeIntegrativeIntroduction, 6/eFrankSchmalleger 35 Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1996 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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