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Vocational Qualifications System in Korea

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  • 1. 1 Vocational QualificationsVocational Qualifications System in KoreaSystem in Korea Vocational QualificationsVocational Qualifications System in KoreaSystem in Korea Jeong-Yoon, ChoJeong-Yoon, ChoJeong-Yoon, ChoJeong-Yoon, Cho
  • 2. 2 ContentsContents 1. Structure of Korean Qualification System1. Structure of Korean Qualification System 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification System3. Structure of National Technical Qualification System 4. Administration of Certification4. Administration of Certification 2. Enactment of National Technical Qualification2. Enactment of National Technical Qualification 6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical QualificationQualification 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical Qualification5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical Qualification 7. Authorization of Private Qualification by Government7. Authorization of Private Qualification by Government 8. APEC Engineer8. APEC Engineer 9. Mutual Recognition of IT Qualifications9. Mutual Recognition of IT Qualifications 10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification System10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification System 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification System11. Reform of National Technical Qualification System 12. Fundamental Points in Designing Qualification System12. Fundamental Points in Designing Qualification System
  • 3. 3 1. Structure of Korean Qualification1. Structure of Korean Qualification SystemSystem Qualifications in KoreaQualifications in Korea National QualificationsNational Qualifications Private QualificationsPrivate Qualifications National TechnicalNational Technical QualificationsQualifications -National Technical Qualification Act -25 Technical /service Categories -603 items (professional engineer, engineer, etc.) Pure PrivatePure Private QualificationsQualifications -no legal basis -accurate name of items or number of items undetermined Authorized PrivateAuthorized Private QualificationsQualifications - Basic Act on Qualification - Authorized 51 Qualification items in 2005 National QualificationsNational Qualifications of Non-Technicalof Non-Technical CategoriesCategories -Separate acts under related ministries -120 occupational fields (lawyer, accountant, Patent attorney, etc.)
  • 4. 4 1.The Structure of Korean Qualification1.The Structure of Korean Qualification SystemSystem 1. National Technical1. National Technical Qualifications(NTQ)Qualifications(NTQ) •• NTQ focused on manufacturing, service, business management and professionalNTQ focused on manufacturing, service, business management and professional business industriesbusiness industries •• Qualification testing was administered by HRD Korea (public organization, handling 557Qualification testing was administered by HRD Korea (public organization, handling 557 qualification items) and KCCI (Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry) (privatequalification items) and KCCI (Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry) (private organization, covering 18 qualification items)organization, covering 18 qualification items) 2. National Qualifications of Non-Technical2. National Qualifications of Non-Technical CategoriesCategories •• There are various kinds of qualification items in this categories from medical doctor toThere are various kinds of qualification items in this categories from medical doctor to driving licensedriving license •• Qualification testing was administered by individual testing agency, which wasQualification testing was administered by individual testing agency, which was designated by each ministrydesignated by each ministry
  • 5. 5 1.The Structure of Korean Qualification1.The Structure of Korean Qualification SystemSystem 3. Authorized Private Qualifications3. Authorized Private Qualifications •• 51 qualification items were authorized by government by 200551 qualification items were authorized by government by 2005 •• Annually over 100 private qualification providers have applied for the authorization ofAnnually over 100 private qualification providers have applied for the authorization of private qualification, which was mainly handled by KRIVET, since 1999private qualification, which was mainly handled by KRIVET, since 1999 4. Pure Private4. Pure Private QualificationsQualifications •• Qualification items could be created by private qualification providers freelyQualification items could be created by private qualification providers freely •• Categories of qualification testing are so broad such as business management,Categories of qualification testing are so broad such as business management, computers, language skills, sports/health, hobbies, design, hairdressing, social welfare,computers, language skills, sports/health, hobbies, design, hairdressing, social welfare, sanitation, counseling, education, construction and civil engineering, machinery, andsanitation, counseling, education, construction and civil engineering, machinery, and service, etc.service, etc. •• Credit Analyst, loan inspector, e-Test professionals, internet search expert, policyCredit Analyst, loan inspector, e-Test professionals, internet search expert, policy analysis, and evaluation expert etc. were authorizedanalysis, and evaluation expert etc. were authorized
  • 6. 6 1.The Structure of Korean Qualification1.The Structure of Korean Qualification SystemSystem •• There is no official statistics because private qualification providers don’t have obligationThere is no official statistics because private qualification providers don’t have obligation to reporting to government-related organizations when they create qualification itemsto reporting to government-related organizations when they create qualification items
  • 7. 7 Background(Dec. 1973)Background(Dec. 1973) •• FirstFirst,, the lack of coherence among the technical qualifications issued by variousthe lack of coherence among the technical qualifications issued by various government ministries and lawsgovernment ministries and laws •• SecondSecond,, the criteria for national technical qualification are much too complicatedthe criteria for national technical qualification are much too complicated and unbalancedand unbalanced •• ThirdThird,, the various qualifications authorized by different sources, many of themthe various qualifications authorized by different sources, many of them overlapping in their content, are not being accorded inter-changeabilityoverlapping in their content, are not being accorded inter-changeability •• FourthFourth, the near absence of preferential treatment for certificate holders has, the near absence of preferential treatment for certificate holders has worked to deter the incentives of workers to acquire technical skillsworked to deter the incentives of workers to acquire technical skills •• FifthFifth, due to the unorganized system of qualification, it has been impossible to, due to the unorganized system of qualification, it has been impossible to keep technical education and vocational training in line with the needs of thekeep technical education and vocational training in line with the needs of the industryindustry 2. Enactment of National Technical2. Enactment of National Technical QualificationQualification
  • 8. 8 2. Enactment of National Technical2. Enactment of National Technical QualificationQualification Basic PrincipleBasic Principle •• Referencing to this classification, technological and technical track wereReferencing to this classification, technological and technical track were introduced.introduced. •• Human resources in the science and technology field were classified intoHuman resources in the science and technology field were classified into three categories:three categories: •• The former consists of 3 grades, such as Professional Engineer, ClassⅠThe former consists of 3 grades, such as Professional Engineer, ClassⅠ and Ⅱand Ⅱ Engineer, the latter comprises of 4 grades, such as Master Craftsman,Engineer, the latter comprises of 4 grades, such as Master Craftsman, Class Ⅰ andClass Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ Craftsman, and Assistant Craftsman.Craftsman, and Assistant Craftsman. ①① scientists(the so-called brain power)scientists(the so-called brain power) ②② on-site technicians, who are in charge of technical matters in the actual workplaceon-site technicians, who are in charge of technical matters in the actual workplace ③③ craftsmen, whose main duties are manufacturing, assembling,operating, repairingcraftsmen, whose main duties are manufacturing, assembling,operating, repairing and maintenanceand maintenance
  • 9. 9 Change of National Technical Qualification FrameworkChange of National Technical Qualification Framework ProfessionProfession al Engineeral Engineer MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman 11stst ClassClass EngineerEngineer 22ndnd ClassClass EngineerEngineer 11stst ClassClass CraftsmanCraftsman 22ndnd ClassClass CraftsmanCraftsman AssistantAssistant CraftsmanCraftsman TechnicianTechnician ProfessionProfession al Engineeral Engineer MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman EngineerEngineer Industrial EngineerIndustrial Engineer CraftsmanCraftsman Past (by 1998)Past (by 1998) PresentPresent 2. Enactment of National Technical2. Enactment of National Technical QualificationQualification
  • 10. 10 2. Enactment of National Technical2. Enactment of National Technical QualificationQualification FunctionFunction •• FirstFirst, individual skills and capabilities should be evaluated according to standard, individual skills and capabilities should be evaluated according to standard criteria, making possible the supplying of skilled workers as well as providing acriteria, making possible the supplying of skilled workers as well as providing a direction for human resources development institutions.direction for human resources development institutions. •• SecondSecond, the qualification system must provide a link between the supply and, the qualification system must provide a link between the supply and demand of skilled workers, facilitating the smooth flow of labor force.demand of skilled workers, facilitating the smooth flow of labor force. •• FourthFourth, qualified and skilled workers can be secured and further utilized,, qualified and skilled workers can be secured and further utilized, contributing to increased productivity and industrial development.contributing to increased productivity and industrial development. •• ThirdThird, it acts as a guideline regarding employment, pay, promotion to individuals, it acts as a guideline regarding employment, pay, promotion to individuals and standards for human resources management, especially in an industrialand standards for human resources management, especially in an industrial society.society.
  • 11. 11 2. Enactment of National Technical2. Enactment of National Technical QualificationQualification Establishment Direction of Qualification ItemsEstablishment Direction of Qualification Items •• At the time of the enactment of the NTQ Act, the main consideration was given toAt the time of the enactment of the NTQ Act, the main consideration was given to skills related to heavy industry, such as machinery, metal, chemical engineering,skills related to heavy industry, such as machinery, metal, chemical engineering, etc. since the basic principle was put to economic development through theetc. since the basic principle was put to economic development through the support of heavy industry.support of heavy industry.
  • 12. 12 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem NationalNational TechnicalTechnical QualificationQualification TechnicalTechnical GroupGroup ServiceService GroupGroup ProfessionalProfessional EngineerEngineer EngineerEngineer IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer CraftsmanCraftsman MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman AdministrativeAdministrative ManagementManagement ProfessionalProfessional BusinessBusiness OtherOther ServiceService Class IIClass II Class IIIClass III Class IClass I Class IIClass II MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer CraftsmanCraftsman Class IClass I Classification of National Technical QualificationClassification of National Technical Qualification
  • 13. 13 GradeGrade Occupation CategoryOccupation Category TotalTotal ProfessionProfession alal EngineerEngineer MasterMaster CraftsmaCraftsma nn EngineeEnginee rr IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer CraftsmaCraftsma nn 1. Machinery1. Machinery 2. Metal2. Metal 3. Chemical Engineering3. Chemical Engineering and Ceramicsand Ceramics 4. Electricity4. Electricity 5. Electronics5. Electronics 107107 4444 1515 1818 1414 99 66 22 55 33 99 66 11 11 11 1414 99 22 44 33 2626 77 33 55 44 4949 1616 77 33 33 6. Communication6. Communication 7. Shipbuilding7. Shipbuilding 8. Aeronautics8. Aeronautics 9. Civil Engineering9. Civil Engineering 10. Construction10. Construction 2020 66 88 3030 3232 11 11 1111 44 11 -- -- -- 22 55 11 11 55 33 66 11 11 55 66 77 33 44 99 1717 11. Textiles11. Textiles 12. Mining12. Mining 13. Information Processing13. Information Processing 14. Land Development14. Land Development 15. Agriculture and15. Agriculture and ForestryForestry 2121 1717 77 1212 3939 44 33 22 44 66 -- -- -- -- 11 33 33 22 44 1111 77 33 22 22 99 77 88 11 22 1212 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem (Continued)(Continued) Number of Qualification Items in Technical Group of NTQSNumber of Qualification Items in Technical Group of NTQS
  • 14. 14 GradeGrade Occupation CategoryOccupation Category TotalTotal ProfessionProfession alal EngineerEngineer MasterMaster CraftsmaCraftsma nn EngineeEnginee rr IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer CraftsmaCraftsma nn 16. Ocean and Fisheries16. Ocean and Fisheries 17. Industrial Design17. Industrial Design 18. Energy18. Energy 19. Safety Management19. Safety Management 20. Environment20. Environment 2323 1010 55 2323 2020 44 11 22 88 66 -- -- -- 11 -- 99 33 22 77 88 66 33 11 66 55 44 33 -- 11 11 21. Applied Industry21. Applied Industry 22. Transportation22. Transportation 23. Pottery23. Pottery 3131 33 1616 55 11 -- -- -- 11 99 11 -- 77 11 11 1010 -- 1414 TotalTotal 521521 9090 2424 109109 117117 181181 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Number of Qualification Items in Technical Group of NTQSNumber of Qualification Items in Technical Group of NTQS Source : Guidebook for national technical qualification testing(2005). HRD service of KoreaSource : Guidebook for national technical qualification testing(2005). HRD service of Korea
  • 15. 15 OccupationOccupation categorycategory ItemItem ClassClass NumberNumber AdministrativeAdministrative ManagementManagement Word ProcessingWord Processing 1-3 geup1-3 geup 33 Korean ShorthandKorean Shorthand 1-3 geup1-3 geup 33 Secretarial WorkSecretarial Work 1-3 geup1-3 geup 33 Computer ApplicabilityComputer Applicability 1-3 geup1-3 geup 33 ProfessionalProfessional BusinessBusiness Computer AccountingComputer Accounting 1-3 geup1-3 geup 33 Job CounselorJob Counselor 1-2 geup1-2 geup 22 Social Survey AnalystSocial Survey Analyst 1-2 geup1-2 geup 22 Electronic CommerceElectronic Commerce 1-2 geup1-2 geup 22 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Number of Qualification items in Service Group of NTQSNumber of Qualification items in Service Group of NTQS • “• “geup” : stands for the meaning of “grade” in Koreangeup” : stands for the meaning of “grade” in Korean
  • 16. 16 11 Multi-media ContentsMulti-media Contents Manufacturing ExpertManufacturing Expert 11Game Graphic ExpertGame Graphic Expert 3232TotalTotal 11Game Programming ExpertGame Programming Expert 11Game Planning ExpertGame Planning Expert ProfessionalProfessional BusinessBusiness 221-2 geup1-2 geupConvention plannerConvention planner 221-2 geup1-2 geup Consumer ProfessionalConsumer Professional ConsultantConsultant 221-2 geup1-2 geup Clinical(Experimental)Clinical(Experimental) PsychologistPsychologist 11Telemarketing ManagerTelemarketing Manager NumberNumberClassClassItemItem OccupationOccupation categorycategory 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Number of Qualification items in Service Group of NTQSNumber of Qualification items in Service Group of NTQS • “• “geup” : stands for the meaning of “grade” in Koreangeup” : stands for the meaning of “grade” in Korean
  • 17. 17 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Number of Qualification items in Service Group(other service) of NTQSNumber of Qualification items in Service Group(other service) of NTQS GradeGrade Occupation CategoryOccupation Category MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer CraftsmanCraftsman NumberNumber FoodsFoods CookingCooking BakingBaking CookingCooking (Korean Cooking(Korean Cooking Western CookingWestern Cooking Chinese CookingChinese Cooking Japanese CookingJapanese Cooking Swellfish Cooking)Swellfish Cooking) Korean CookingKorean Cooking Western CookingWestern Cooking Chinese CookingChinese Cooking Japanese CookingJapanese Cooking Swellfish CookingSwellfish Cooking Confectionary CookingConfectionary Cooking PastryPastry BartenderBartender 1515 SanitationSanitation BarberBarber BeauticianBeautician BarberBarber BeauticianBeautician LaundryLaundry 55 TotalTotal 44 55 1111 2020
  • 18. 18 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Certification Criteria in NTQS according to GradeCertification Criteria in NTQS according to Grade GradeGrade Certification CriteriaCertification Criteria Professional EngineerProfessional Engineer Whether or not the applicant has the ability to plan, research, design, analyze,Whether or not the applicant has the ability to plan, research, design, analyze, test, operate, construct, evaluate or guide and supervise these activities basedtest, operate, construct, evaluate or guide and supervise these activities based on a high level of expert knowledge and field experienceon a high level of expert knowledge and field experience Master CraftsmanMaster Craftsman Whether or not the applicant has plenty of experience and skills in order toWhether or not the applicant has plenty of experience and skills in order to supervise, guide other workers, carry out on-site training, and act as a linksupervise, guide other workers, carry out on-site training, and act as a link between the management and production workersbetween the management and production workers EngineerEngineer Whether or not the applicant has the ability to carry out skilled tasks such asWhether or not the applicant has the ability to carry out skilled tasks such as design, base construction, and analysis based on engineering knowledge.design, base construction, and analysis based on engineering knowledge. Industrial EngineerIndustrial Engineer Whether or not the applicant has the ability to carry out multi-skill tasks basedWhether or not the applicant has the ability to carry out multi-skill tasks based on basic technical knowledge or experienceon basic technical knowledge or experience CraftsmanCraftsman Whether or not the applicant has the ability to carry out task managementWhether or not the applicant has the ability to carry out task management duties such as produce, manufacture, operate, repair, and inspectduties such as produce, manufacture, operate, repair, and inspect
  • 19. 19 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem xample of Certification Criteria for Administrative Management (Service Grouxample of Certification Criteria for Administrative Management (Service Grou NameName GradeGrade Certification CriteriaCertification Criteria WordWord ProcessingProcessing 11 geupgeup Possessing expert-level word processing skills and the ability to carry out relatedPossessing expert-level word processing skills and the ability to carry out related duties with efficiency and accuracyduties with efficiency and accuracy 22 geupgeup Possessing intermediate-level word processing skills and the ability to carry outPossessing intermediate-level word processing skills and the ability to carry out related duties with efficiency and accuracyrelated duties with efficiency and accuracy 33 geupgeup Possessing beginner-level word processing skills and the ability to carry outPossessing beginner-level word processing skills and the ability to carry out related duties with efficiency and accuracyrelated duties with efficiency and accuracy ComputerComputer ApplicabilitApplicabilit yy AndAnd AccountingAccounting 11 geupgeup Possessing expert-level computer skills and the ability to carry out related dutiesPossessing expert-level computer skills and the ability to carry out related duties with efficiency and accuracywith efficiency and accuracy 22 geupgeup Possessing intermediate-level computer skills and the ability to carry out relatedPossessing intermediate-level computer skills and the ability to carry out related duties with efficiency and accuracyduties with efficiency and accuracy 33 geupgeup Possessing beginner-level computer skills and the ability to carry out relatedPossessing beginner-level computer skills and the ability to carry out related duties with efficiency and accuracyduties with efficiency and accuracy
  • 20. 20 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Eligibility for National Technical QualificationEligibility for National Technical Qualification - Engineer- Engineer ++ 4 years4 years** - University graduate- University graduate ++ 7 years7 years** - Practical Experience ;- Practical Experience ; 11 years11 years ProfessionalProfessional EngineerEngineer MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman - Industrial Engineer- Industrial Engineer ++ 6 years6 years** - Craftsman- Craftsman ++ 8 years8 years** - Practical Experience ;- Practical Experience ; 11 years11 years EngineerEngineer - Industrial Engineer- Industrial Engineer ++ 1 year1 year** - University graduate- University graduate - Practical Experience ;- Practical Experience ; 4 years4 years - Craftsman- Craftsman ++ 1 year1 year** - Junior College graduate- Junior College graduate - Practical Experience ;- Practical Experience ; 2 years2 years IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer CraftsmanCraftsman No LimitationNo Limitation
  • 21. 21 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Testing Procedures of Technical GroupTesting Procedures of Technical Group QualificationQualification TypeType Testing ProcedureTesting Procedure Written Exam.Written Exam. Practical Exam. or InterviewPractical Exam. or Interview ProfessionalProfessional EngineerEngineer Short answers or essayShort answers or essay InterviewInterview MasterMaster CraftsmanCraftsman Multiple choiceMultiple choice (1 answer out of 4 choices)(1 answer out of 4 choices) Practical exam.+Practical exam.+ Written exam.Written exam. EngineerEngineer Multiple choiceMultiple choice (1 answer out of 4 choices)(1 answer out of 4 choices) Practical exam.+Practical exam.+ Written exam.Written exam. IndustrialIndustrial EngineerEngineer Multiple choiceMultiple choice (1 answer out of 4 choices)(1 answer out of 4 choices) Practical exam.+Practical exam.+ Written exam.Written exam. CraftsmanCraftsman Multiple choiceMultiple choice (1 answer out of 4 choices)(1 answer out of 4 choices) Practical exam.Practical exam.
  • 22. 22 3. Structure of National Technical Qualification3. Structure of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem Testing Procedures of Service GroupTesting Procedures of Service Group Qualification itemQualification item Testing ProcedureTesting Procedure ShorthandShorthand Practical exam.Practical exam. SecretarySecretary Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam. Word ProcessingWord Processing Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam. Computer applicabilityComputer applicability Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam. Computer accountingComputer accounting Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam. Job counselorJob counselor Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam. Social survey marketSocial survey market Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam. Electric commerceElectric commerce Written exam. → Practical exam.Written exam. → Practical exam.
  • 23. 23 4. Administration of4. Administration of CertificationCertification Operating System of NTQSOperating System of NTQS Ministry of LaborMinistry of Labor Overall Management of Qualification SystemOverall Management of Qualification System - Operation of NTQS Review Commission- Operation of NTQS Review Commission - Making Plans for administration of- Making Plans for administration of qualification exam.qualification exam. - Administration of laws and qualification- Administration of laws and qualification systemsystem 19 Ministries in Government19 Ministries in Government Utilization of Qualification AcquirersUtilization of Qualification Acquirers - Application of qualification - related lawsApplication of qualification - related laws - Implementation of disciplinary action- Implementation of disciplinary action (for example, the cancellation of(for example, the cancellation of qualification)qualification) Administrative InstitutionAdministrative Institution (HRD Korea, KCCI)(HRD Korea, KCCI) Implementation and AdministrationImplementation and Administration of Qualification Testingof Qualification Testing - Formulation of Exam. Question- Formulation of Exam. Question - Implementation of exams- Implementation of exams - Registration and its maintenance- Registration and its maintenance
  • 24. 24 4. Administration of4. Administration of CertificationCertification Functions on the Ministry of LaborFunctions on the Ministry of Labor he Ministry of Labor is the main authority that deals with the NTQS and implements polhe Ministry of Labor is the main authority that deals with the NTQS and implements pol egarding its operation and adjustments in co-operation with other government departmeegarding its operation and adjustments in co-operation with other government departme <Main Functions><Main Functions> •• creating and abolishing qualification categories and exam. subjects,deciding oncreating and abolishing qualification categories and exam. subjects,deciding on the application requirementsthe application requirements •• deciding on various standards, such as certification feesdeciding on various standards, such as certification fees •• confirming administration plans of the qualification examsconfirming administration plans of the qualification exams •• operating and finding ways to improve the NTQS, such as promoting preferentialoperating and finding ways to improve the NTQS, such as promoting preferential treatment for certificate holders, improving the qualification administration system.treatment for certificate holders, improving the qualification administration system.
  • 25. 25 4. Administration of4. Administration of CertificationCertification Implementation Flowchart of TestingImplementation Flowchart of Testing Planning of qualification exam. (Authorized by Minister of Labour)Planning of qualification exam. (Authorized by Minister of Labour) Public announcementPublic announcement Distribution and collection of exam. applicationsDistribution and collection of exam. applications Formulation of exam.questionsFormulation of exam.questions Printing of exam. questionsPrinting of exam. questions Written testWritten test Securing exam. venueSecuring exam. venue Appointment of exam.Appointment of exam. supervisorssupervisors Exam.Exam. GradingGrading Announcement ofAnnouncement of qualifiersqualifiers Practical testPractical test Securing exam.venueSecuring exam.venue Registration of practicalRegistration of practical exam. applicantsexam. applicants Appointment of exam.Appointment of exam. supervisorssupervisors Purchase of materialPurchase of material necessary for cetificationnecessary for cetification Exam.Exam. GradingGrading Announcement of qualifiersAnnouncement of qualifiers RegistrationRegistration RegistrationRegistration Item BankItem Bank (Excluding Professional(Excluding Professional Engineer)Engineer)
  • 26. 26 QualificationQualification gradegrade No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) Average passAverage pass rate(%)rate(%) ProfessionalProfessional engineerengineer 261,729261,729 27,19727,197 10.410.4 Master craftsmanMaster craftsman 47,30247,302 8,9678,967 19.019.0 EngineerEngineer 4,871,9364,871,936 832,428832,428 17.117.1 Industrial engineerIndustrial engineer 6,383,9796,383,979 964,223964,223 15.115.1 CraftsmanCraftsman 24,894,94024,894,940 6,002,6576,002,657 24.124.1 ProfessionalProfessional businessbusiness 92,46792,467 7,6097,609 8.28.2 TotalTotal 36,552,35336,552,353 7,843,0817,843,081 21.521.5 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Average Pass RateTotal Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Average Pass Rate according to Grade, including professional business, from 1974 to 2004according to Grade, including professional business, from 1974 to 2004 Professional business is not included in national technical qualification gradeProfessional business is not included in national technical qualification grade
  • 27. 27 QualificationQualification gradegrade No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) pass rate(%)pass rate(%) ProfessionalProfessional engineerengineer 15,63915,639 1,1671,167 7.57.5 Master craftsmanMaster craftsman 9,4309,430 1,4581,458 15.515.5 EngineerEngineer 379,102379,102 87,25387,253 23.023.0 Industrial engineerIndustrial engineer 324,184324,184 70,42170,421 21.721.7 CraftsmanCraftsman 1,052,9701,052,970 340,487340,487 32.332.3 ProfessionalProfessional businessbusiness 15,47915,479 1,8101,810 11.711.7 TotalTotal 1,796,8041,796,804 502,596502,596 30.030.0 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass RateTotal Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate according to Grade, including professional business, in 2004according to Grade, including professional business, in 2004
  • 28. 28 QualificationQualification gradegrade No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) pass rate(%)pass rate(%) ProfessionalProfessional engineerengineer 14,63214,632 1,2211,221 8.38.3 Master craftsmanMaster craftsman 6,4016,401 3,8013,801 59.459.4 EngineerEngineer 298,480298,480 121,400121,400 40.740.7 Industrial engineerIndustrial engineer 265,564265,564 110,630110,630 41.741.7 CraftsmanCraftsman 650,650650,650 337,495337,495 51.951.9 ProfessionalProfessional businessbusiness 11,02711,027 6,9936,993 63.463.4 TotalTotal 1,246,7541,246,754 581,540581,540 46.646.6 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass RateTotal Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate for Written Test according to Grade, including professional business, in 2004for Written Test according to Grade, including professional business, in 2004
  • 29. 29 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass RateTotal Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate for Practical Test according to Grade, including professional business, in 2004for Practical Test according to Grade, including professional business, in 2004 23.223.21,8101,8107,8137,813 ProfessionalProfessional businessbusiness 55.255.287,25387,253158,007158,007EngineerEngineer 24.024.01,4581,4586,0866,086Master craftsmanMaster craftsman 56.656.670,42170,421124,513124,513Industrial engineerIndustrial engineer 57.957.91,1671,1672,1072,107 ProfessionalProfessional engineerengineer 56.456.4502,596502,596891,862891,862TotalTotal 57.457.4340,487340,487593,336593,336CraftsmanCraftsman pass rate(%)pass rate(%)No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) QualificationQualification gradegrade
  • 30. 30 10.0(2002-2004)10.0(2002-2004)1,0721,07210,66010,660Electronic CommerceElectronic Commerce OperatorOperator 5.0(1998-2004)5.0(1998-2004)1,6801,68033,63833,638Secretarial WorkSecretarial Work 33.4(2000-2004)33.4(2000-2004)60,80560,805182,038182,038Computer AccountingComputer Accounting OperatorOperator 27.0(1999-2004)27.0(1999-2004)661,557661,5572,429,2402,429,240 ComputerComputer ApplicabilityApplicability 9.8(2000-2004)9.8(2000-2004)11,92211,922122,055122,055 ElectronicElectronic Commerce ExpertCommerce Expert 26.1(1992-2004)26.1(1992-2004)3,913,4113,913,41115,005,43515,005,435Word processingWord processing 26.126.14,653,3534,653,35317,811,19917,811,199TotalTotal 10.3(1998-2004)10.3(1998-2004)2,9062,90628,13328,133Korean ShorthandKorean Shorthand Average pass rate(%)Average pass rate(%) Period(yr)Period(yr) No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) Qualification itemQualification item 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Average Pass Rate,Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Average Pass Rate, Which Results were produced by KCCI, from 1992 to 2004Which Results were produced by KCCI, from 1992 to 2004
  • 31. 31 14.014.04194192,9932,993Electronic CommerceElectronic Commerce OperatorOperator 1.01.059595,5915,591Secretarial WorkSecretarial Work 49.749.710,65410,65421,44121,441Computer AccountingComputer Accounting OperatorOperator 30.330.3119,334119,334394,484394,484 ComputerComputer ApplicabilityApplicability 9.99.96106106,1876,187 ElectronicElectronic Commerce ExpertCommerce Expert 41.041.0400,346400,346977,046977,046Word processingWord processing 37.737.7531,652531,6521,409,1441,409,144TotalTotal 16.416.42302301,4021,402Korean ShorthandKorean Shorthand pass rate(%)pass rate(%)No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) Qualification itemQualification item 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate,Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate, Which Results were produced by KCCI in 2004Which Results were produced by KCCI in 2004
  • 32. 32 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass RateTotal Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate for Written test, Which Results were produced by KCCI in 2004for Written test, Which Results were produced by KCCI in 2004 58.758.71,7581,7582,9932,993Electronic CommerceElectronic Commerce OperatorOperator 52.652.62,9412,9415,5915,591Secretarial WorkSecretarial Work 39.639.68,4988,49821,44121,441Computer AccountingComputer Accounting OperatorOperator 40.840.8161,042161,042394,484394,484 ComputerComputer ApplicabilityApplicability 14.714.79129126,1876,187 ElectronicElectronic Commerce ExpertCommerce Expert 53.053.0517,455517,455977,046977,046Word processingWord processing 49.249.2692,606692,6061,409,1441,409,144TotalTotal ------Korean ShorthandKorean Shorthand pass rate(%)pass rate(%)No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) Qualification itemQualification item
  • 33. 33 33.333.34194191,2591,259Electronic CommerceElectronic Commerce OperatorOperator 29.129.15959203203Secretarial WorkSecretarial Work 55.455.410,65410,65419,22019,220Computer AccountingComputer Accounting OperatorOperator 58.058.0119,334119,334205,693205,693 ComputerComputer ApplicabilityApplicability 59.359.36106101,0281,028 ElectronicElectronic Commerce ExpertCommerce Expert 58.458.4400,346400,346685,670685,670Word processingWord processing 58.158.1531,652531,652914,475914,475TotalTotal 16.416.42302301,4021,402Korean ShorthandKorean Shorthand pass rate(%)pass rate(%)No. Of successful candidate(persons)No. Of successful candidate(persons) No. ofNo. of candidate(persons)candidate(persons) Qualification itemQualification item 5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical5. Analysis on Test Results of National Technical QualificationQualification Total Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass RateTotal Number of Candidates and Successful Candidates, and Pass Rate for Practical Test, Which Results were produced by KCCI in 2004for Practical Test, Which Results were produced by KCCI in 2004
  • 34. 34 6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical QualificationQualification Credit bank systemCredit bank system 1. Background and Outline1. Background and Outline •• Credit bank system is one of the ways to fulfill the desires of people who pursueCredit bank system is one of the ways to fulfill the desires of people who pursue lifelong learning.lifelong learning. •• In a credit bank system, credits obtained through earning certificates recognized by theIn a credit bank system, credits obtained through earning certificates recognized by the government.government. •• The credits secured via these channels also can be accumulated for an academicThe credits secured via these channels also can be accumulated for an academic credential and a diploma.credential and a diploma. •• The credit bank system was stipulated inThe credit bank system was stipulated in 「「 the Act on the Recognition ofthe Act on the Recognition of CreditsCredits 」」 , established in 1998., established in 1998.
  • 35. 35 6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical QualificationQualification 2. Credit Recognition for Technical2. Credit Recognition for Technical GroupGroup •• Professional Engineers are given 45 credits.Professional Engineers are given 45 credits. •• Master Craftsmen are given 39 credits.Master Craftsmen are given 39 credits. •• Engineers (formerly Class I Engineers) are given 30 credits.Engineers (formerly Class I Engineers) are given 30 credits. •• Industrial Engineers (formerly Class II Engineers, Multi-skilled Engineers, Class IIndustrial Engineers (formerly Class II Engineers, Multi-skilled Engineers, Class I Craftsmen) are given 24 credits.Craftsmen) are given 24 credits. 3. Credit Recognition for Service3. Credit Recognition for Service GroupGroup •• Level 1 Word Processing is given 12 credits.Level 1 Word Processing is given 12 credits. •• Level 2 Secretarial Work is given 4 credits.Level 2 Secretarial Work is given 4 credits.
  • 36. 36 6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical QualificationQualification •• Level 1 Computer Applicability, Level 1 Computer Accounting are given 18 credits.Level 1 Computer Applicability, Level 1 Computer Accounting are given 18 credits. •• Level 2 Computer Applicability, Level 2 Computer Accounting are given 8 credits.Level 2 Computer Applicability, Level 2 Computer Accounting are given 8 credits. •• Level 1 Electronic Commerce, Level 1 Job Counselor, Level 1 Social Survey AnalystLevel 1 Electronic Commerce, Level 1 Job Counselor, Level 1 Social Survey Analyst are given 45 credits.are given 45 credits. •• Level 2 Electronic Commerce, Level 2 Job Counselor, Level 2 Social Survey Analyst areLevel 2 Electronic Commerce, Level 2 Job Counselor, Level 2 Social Survey Analyst are given 30 credits.given 30 credits.
  • 37. 37 6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical6. Credit Bank System for Holders of National Technical QualificationQualification Number of Degrees Awarded by Credit BankNumber of Degrees Awarded by Credit Bank 2,4792,479 1,8071,807 672672 20012001 34,26934,2699,5209,5208,2438,2434,5884,5881,0201,020Total(person)Total(person) 15,10615,1064,8404,8405,3455,3453,1383,138766766Two-years associate Bachelor’s degreeTwo-years associate Bachelor’s degree 19,16319,1634,6804,6802,8982,8981,4501,450254254Bachelor’s DegreeBachelor’s Degree TotalTotal2004.2004.200320032002200220002000 Total number of degrees have been included No. of 1999 and first half of 2005Total number of degrees have been included No. of 1999 and first half of 2005 -1999 : Bachelor’s degree(25 persons), Two-years associate Bachelor’s degree(9 persons)1999 : Bachelor’s degree(25 persons), Two-years associate Bachelor’s degree(9 persons) -First half of 2005 : Bachelor’s degree(5,127 persons), Two-years associate Bachelor’s degree(3,258 persons)First half of 2005 : Bachelor’s degree(5,127 persons), Two-years associate Bachelor’s degree(3,258 persons) Source : Korean Educational Development Institution(2005). internal dataSource : Korean Educational Development Institution(2005). internal data
  • 38. 38 7. Authorization of Private Qualification by7. Authorization of Private Qualification by GovernmentGovernment Definition of Private QualificationDefinition of Private Qualification •• Private qualification refers to a system of qualification administered and operated by thePrivate qualification refers to a system of qualification administered and operated by the private sector, including non-governmental private organizations and individuals.private sector, including non-governmental private organizations and individuals. National Authorization System of Private QualificationNational Authorization System of Private Qualification •• In order to activate the private qualification system, the Korean government enacted theIn order to activate the private qualification system, the Korean government enacted the 「「 Basic Qualification ActBasic Qualification Act 」」 on March 27, 1997.on March 27, 1997. •• The task of evaluating applications of private qualifications for government authorizationThe task of evaluating applications of private qualifications for government authorization which started in full-scale in 1999 was undertaken by the Korea Research Institute ofwhich started in full-scale in 1999 was undertaken by the Korea Research Institute of Vocational Education and Training(KRIVET).Vocational Education and Training(KRIVET).
  • 39. 39 7. Authorization of Private Qualification by7. Authorization of Private Qualification by GovernmentGovernment National Authorization Standards for Private Qualification •• FirstFirst, private qualification holders must have the appropriate skills that are in accordance, private qualification holders must have the appropriate skills that are in accordance with the fundamental directives of the qualification system as laid out inwith the fundamental directives of the qualification system as laid out in 「「 BasicBasic Qualification ActQualification Act 」」 •• SecondSecond, private qualification providers must also have had the results of implementing, private qualification providers must also have had the results of implementing three or more qualification testing that have been in effect for at least one year to this date.three or more qualification testing that have been in effect for at least one year to this date. •• ThirdThird, In the case of the presence of similar national qualification items,, In the case of the presence of similar national qualification items, the certification standards, subjects, and eligibility of the private qualifications mustthe certification standards, subjects, and eligibility of the private qualifications must be identical or at similar level to those of the national qualifications.be identical or at similar level to those of the national qualifications.
  • 40. 40 7. Authorization of Private Qualification by7. Authorization of Private Qualification by GovernmentGovernment referential Treatment for Workers with Authorized Private Qualification •• As provided for by the law stipulating the details of national qualification, workers withAs provided for by the law stipulating the details of national qualification, workers with authorized private certificate are to receive the same treatment as workers with nationalauthorized private certificate are to receive the same treatment as workers with national one.one. Execution Results of Authorization on Private Qualification •• 7 ministries had authorized 28 qualification items of about more 200 items of private7 ministries had authorized 28 qualification items of about more 200 items of private qualification in 2000.qualification in 2000. •• Government had put the expiry date to all authorized private qualification in the range ofGovernment had put the expiry date to all authorized private qualification in the range of 2∼5 years. Each authorized private institute being like to extend expiry date should take2∼5 years. Each authorized private institute being like to extend expiry date should take the recertification within these date.the recertification within these date. •• As of June. 2005, 50 private qualifications in 30 private institutes have receivedAs of June. 2005, 50 private qualifications in 30 private institutes have received recognition from 10 government offices. For example, hospital administrator,recognition from 10 government offices. For example, hospital administrator, administration manager, key manager, rural area heating equipment manager, plantadministration manager, key manager, rural area heating equipment manager, plant protector, potted plant manager, billboard manager, information protectionprotector, potted plant manager, billboard manager, information protection specialist, Chinese character ability, English conversation proficiency ability, etcspecialist, Chinese character ability, English conversation proficiency ability, etc
  • 41. 41 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer BackgroundBackground •• Under the leadership of the IEAust(Institute of Engineers, Australia), APEC HRDWG isUnder the leadership of the IEAust(Institute of Engineers, Australia), APEC HRDWG is working on measures to mutually recognize engineers of the APEC member countries.working on measures to mutually recognize engineers of the APEC member countries. •• 'The APEC Engineer project' dates back to May 1996 when the 1st APEC HRD Steering'The APEC Engineer project' dates back to May 1996 when the 1st APEC HRD Steering Committee was held in Sydney.Committee was held in Sydney. •• As of 2005, formal members of the APEC Engineer Coordination Committee are 11 in totalAs of 2005, formal members of the APEC Engineer Coordination Committee are 11 in total including Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, U.S.,including Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, U.S., Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand.Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. •• The current scope of the APEC Engineer Project covers 15 engineering disciplines such asThe current scope of the APEC Engineer Project covers 15 engineering disciplines such as civil, structure, geotechnical, electrical, mechanical, environmental, mining, industrial,civil, structure, geotechnical, electrical, mechanical, environmental, mining, industrial, chemical, information technology, biotechnology, building service engineering, petroleumchemical, information technology, biotechnology, building service engineering, petroleum engineering, aerospace engineering and, fire engineering. The scope is expected to expandengineering, aerospace engineering and, fire engineering. The scope is expected to expand to cover more engineering disciplines.to cover more engineering disciplines.
  • 42. 42 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer Criteria for APEC EngineerCriteria for APEC Engineer According to the SEA(Substantial Equivalence Agreement), engineers who have finished theAccording to the SEA(Substantial Equivalence Agreement), engineers who have finished the registration can start their practice in any country within APEC. The following is the detailedregistration can start their practice in any country within APEC. The following is the detailed qualifications to be registered as "APEC Engineer".qualifications to be registered as "APEC Engineer". •• FirstFirst, the candidate should be a graduate of educational courses in engineering at, the candidate should be a graduate of educational courses in engineering at recognized programs.recognized programs. •• SecondSecond, the candidate should prove he has enough field experience to work independently, the candidate should prove he has enough field experience to work independently •• ThirdThird, the candidate should have at least 7 years of field experience after college, the candidate should have at least 7 years of field experience after college graduationgraduation •• FourthFourth, the candidate should have at least 2 years of working in responsible engineering, the candidate should have at least 2 years of working in responsible engineering positions out of 7 years.positions out of 7 years. •• FifthFifth, the candidate should have been receiving quality training for continuing professional, the candidate should have been receiving quality training for continuing professional development.development.
  • 43. 43 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer Substantial Equivalence Framework(SEF)Substantial Equivalence Framework(SEF) Activity by/through independentActivity by/through independent Authorised Body for APEC EngineerAuthorised Body for APEC Engineer RegisterRegister Accreditation/Recognition of EngineerAccreditation/Recognition of Engineer programprogram Qualifying Experience IndividualQualifying Experience Individual Assessments Established by HomeAssessments Established by Home EconomyEconomy Individual AssessmentsIndividual Assessments Individual AssessmentsIndividual Assessments Assessment of Continued Practice andAssessment of Continued Practice and Continuing Professional EducationContinuing Professional Education Mutual Recognition of EngineeringMutual Recognition of Engineering Education and Advanced LevelEducation and Advanced Level ExperienceExperience APEC Engineer Registry(MonitoringAPEC Engineer Registry(Monitoring Committee, Independent AuthorisedCommittee, Independent Authorised Designated Professional Body)Designated Professional Body) Completed an Accredited/RecognisedCompleted an Accredited/Recognised Engineering ProgramEngineering Program Eligible for Independent practiceEligible for Independent practice Total of at least 7 years practicalTotal of at least 7 years practical experience since graduationexperience since graduation 2 years Resposible Charge of2 years Resposible Charge of Significant Engineering Work(in theSignificant Engineering Work(in the course of 7 yrs practical experience)course of 7 yrs practical experience) Continuing Professional DevelopmentContinuing Professional Development at Satisfactory Levelat Satisfactory Level APEC EngineerAPEC Engineer Secondary EducationSecondary Education DiplomaDiploma
  • 44. 44 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer Mutual Exemption AgreementMutual Exemption Agreement •• Once the SEA gets settled down, it would be necessary to establish the MEA(MutualOnce the SEA gets settled down, it would be necessary to establish the MEA(Mutual Exemption Agreement).Exemption Agreement). •• As the MEA is more related to the actual practice by engineers in the foreign countries,As the MEA is more related to the actual practice by engineers in the foreign countries, the MEA will require tedious negotiations and compromises among member countries.the MEA will require tedious negotiations and compromises among member countries. •• At the moment, in principle, Australia and Singapore agreed to allow APEC Engineers toAt the moment, in principle, Australia and Singapore agreed to allow APEC Engineers to practice in their territories by signing the Free Trade Agreement.practice in their territories by signing the Free Trade Agreement. •• In addition, Australia and Japan had signed on MRA in 3 disciplines, but not includedIn addition, Australia and Japan had signed on MRA in 3 disciplines, but not included civil and structure engineering.civil and structure engineering. •• Likewise, Korea has already started discussion on the bilateral agreement with JapanLikewise, Korea has already started discussion on the bilateral agreement with Japan in civil and structure engineering.in civil and structure engineering.
  • 45. 45 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer Mutual Equivalence Framework(MEF)Mutual Equivalence Framework(MEF) Adjustments as required byAdjustments as required by host jurisdictionhost jurisdiction Code knowledgeCode knowledge Law/Ethics ofLaw/Ethics of JurisdictionJurisdiction Customs & PracticesCustoms & Practices Liability ProtectionLiability Protection Host JurisdictionHost Jurisdiction Permit to PracticePermit to Practice (Sponsored)(Sponsored) Host JurisdictionHost Jurisdiction Permit (License) toPermit (License) to PracticePractice (Independent)(Independent) APECAPEC EngineerEngineer
  • 46. 46 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer Results on Selection of APEC EngineerResults on Selection of APEC Engineer •• Korea had established Korea APEC Engineer Monitoring Committee and APEC EngineerKorea had established Korea APEC Engineer Monitoring Committee and APEC Engineer Register. These organizations are essential to conducting works in relation to the APECRegister. These organizations are essential to conducting works in relation to the APEC Engineer.Engineer. •• As of 2005, the number of APEC Engineer registration in Korea will reach to 1,101As of 2005, the number of APEC Engineer registration in Korea will reach to 1,101 persons.persons. - Registered APEC Engineers are 554 persons- Registered APEC Engineers are 554 persons - APEC Engineers will register in near future become 547 persons- APEC Engineers will register in near future become 547 persons
  • 47. 47 8. APEC8. APEC EngineerEngineer Future DirectionsFuture Directions •• In the future, mutual recognition of professional engineers is expected to accelerate withinIn the future, mutual recognition of professional engineers is expected to accelerate within the frameworks of the WTO and the GATS. Korean government has pursued a policy ofthe frameworks of the WTO and the GATS. Korean government has pursued a policy of active participation in the APEC.active participation in the APEC. •• For Korea, export industry is essential for its survival and is the only solution through whichFor Korea, export industry is essential for its survival and is the only solution through which we can cope with economic difficulties. In order to export goods and plants that arewe can cope with economic difficulties. In order to export goods and plants that are globally competitive and to maintain a stable level in winning overseas constructionglobally competitive and to maintain a stable level in winning overseas construction projects, it is critical to ensure globally recognized qualifications of the Korean engineers.projects, it is critical to ensure globally recognized qualifications of the Korean engineers. •• In this context, it is necessary to develop a national skill standards enacting the system forIn this context, it is necessary to develop a national skill standards enacting the system for skill standards.skill standards. •• Once the system is established, it is also necessary to upgrade requirements for theOnce the system is established, it is also necessary to upgrade requirements for the examination as well as the contents, levels, and forms of the qualification examination toexamination as well as the contents, levels, and forms of the qualification examination to those of the advanced countries.those of the advanced countries. •• In addition, it is important to improve the quality of engineering education in Korea to theIn addition, it is important to improve the quality of engineering education in Korea to the world class through more accreditation. For this purpose, it is necessary to accelerateworld class through more accreditation. For this purpose, it is necessary to accelerate some of the activities that have already started in a very systematic way.some of the activities that have already started in a very systematic way.
  • 48. 48 9. Mutual Recognition of IT9. Mutual Recognition of IT QualificationsQualifications Mutual Recognition of IT Qualifications between Korea and JapanMutual Recognition of IT Qualifications between Korea and Japan •• In September 2000, the two leaders of Korea and Japan adopted a "Declaration on ITIn September 2000, the two leaders of Korea and Japan adopted a "Declaration on IT Cooperation Initiative," in which they agreed on 8 agenda including co-operations onCooperation Initiative," in which they agreed on 8 agenda including co-operations on e-commerce and exchange of IT manpower.e-commerce and exchange of IT manpower. •• As of July 2001, based on one of the 8 cooperation agenda, "Cooperation on Promoting ITAs of July 2001, based on one of the 8 cooperation agenda, "Cooperation on Promoting IT Manpower Exchange," the two countries are working on measures to mutually recognizeManpower Exchange," the two countries are working on measures to mutually recognize IT qualifications.IT qualifications. •• In April 2001, the Korean delegation visited the JITEC(Japan Information TechnologyIn April 2001, the Korean delegation visited the JITEC(Japan Information Technology Engineers Examination Center), a prime organization administering national IT examinations,Engineers Examination Center), a prime organization administering national IT examinations, and had working-level discussions with its Japanese counterparts on how to pursue mutualand had working-level discussions with its Japanese counterparts on how to pursue mutual recognition of IT qualifications.recognition of IT qualifications. •• MOU(Memorandum Of Understanding) was made by HRD Korea and JITEC under beingMOU(Memorandum Of Understanding) was made by HRD Korea and JITEC under being authorized by both countries’ governments for 2 IT qualification itemsauthorized by both countries’ governments for 2 IT qualification items
  • 49. 49 he Significance on Mutual Recognition of IT Qualifications between Korea and Japanhe Significance on Mutual Recognition of IT Qualifications between Korea and Japan •• First, it is the first event in the history of Korea that Korea's national qualifications areFirst, it is the first event in the history of Korea that Korea's national qualifications are officially recognized based on the mutual recognition agreement.officially recognized based on the mutual recognition agreement. •• Second, given that this agreement is with Japan, one of the most advanced countries,Second, given that this agreement is with Japan, one of the most advanced countries, the contents of the agreement will positively affect agreements on mutual recognition ofthe contents of the agreement will positively affect agreements on mutual recognition of qualifications which Korea will sign in the future.qualifications which Korea will sign in the future. •• Third, the mutual recognition of qualifications with Japan, who has already restructuredThird, the mutual recognition of qualifications with Japan, who has already restructured its IT qualifications system and standards to be aligned with the internal standards,its IT qualifications system and standards to be aligned with the internal standards, will provide an opportunity for Korea to better position its national qualifications systemwill provide an opportunity for Korea to better position its national qualifications system in the international society and to even export its qualification system to the third worldin the international society and to even export its qualification system to the third world countries.countries. •• Fourth, it will lay the foundation for the proper treatment of the Korean IT engineers whenFourth, it will lay the foundation for the proper treatment of the Korean IT engineers when they are exported. On the other hand, it will also help Korea develop national standardsthey are exported. On the other hand, it will also help Korea develop national standards that can attract foreign talents who can support Korea's development of the high techthat can attract foreign talents who can support Korea's development of the high tech industries.industries. 9. Mutual Recognition of IT9. Mutual Recognition of IT QualificationsQualifications
  • 50. 50 10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification SystemSystem 1.1. Building articulation system among education and training system,Building articulation system among education and training system, qualification system, and workqualification system, and work •• Establishing Korean Skills StandardEstablishing Korean Skills Standard •• Developing Korean Qualification FrameworkDeveloping Korean Qualification Framework 2.2. Reinforcing of overall coordinating function to conduct qualification-Reinforcing of overall coordinating function to conduct qualification- relatedrelated policies effectivelypolicies effectively •• Preparing principal plan for managing and operating qualification system for 5 yrsPreparing principal plan for managing and operating qualification system for 5 yrs •• Establishing the committee for qualification policy, which will take responsibilities toEstablishing the committee for qualification policy, which will take responsibilities to review principal policies connected to qualification systemreview principal policies connected to qualification system
  • 51. 51 3. Preparing quality control system of private3. Preparing quality control system of private qualificationqualification •• Setting up limited areas which private qualifications can’t be created and operatedSetting up limited areas which private qualifications can’t be created and operated •• Putting limitation not to be allowed to promote the falsification and exaggeration ofPutting limitation not to be allowed to promote the falsification and exaggeration of private qualificationsprivate qualifications 4. Reforming of the operational framework of national technical4. Reforming of the operational framework of national technical qualification systemqualification system •• Setting up areas which national technical qualification items can be only operated,Setting up areas which national technical qualification items can be only operated, that is, area directly connect to public life, health, and safety etcthat is, area directly connect to public life, health, and safety etc •• Supporting of activating private qualification marketSupporting of activating private qualification market •• Expanding the delegation of authority to implement national technical qualificationExpanding the delegation of authority to implement national technical qualification items to private institutesitems to private institutes 10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 52. 52 5. Establishing work-oriented qualification5. Establishing work-oriented qualification frameworkframework •• Improving the classification system of occupation category and grading system inImproving the classification system of occupation category and grading system in national technical qualificationnational technical qualification •• Refining professional qualification items by integrating between similar qualificationRefining professional qualification items by integrating between similar qualification itemsitems 10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification SystemSystem 6. Improving practicability of certification6. Improving practicability of certification •• Upgrading system for producing work-oriented questions for testingUpgrading system for producing work-oriented questions for testing •• Upgrading testing method and facilitiesUpgrading testing method and facilities •• Reducing exemption caseReducing exemption case
  • 53. 53 7. Enhancing applicability of national technical qualification in labour7. Enhancing applicability of national technical qualification in labour marketmarket •• Reintroducing continuing professional developmentReintroducing continuing professional development •• Providing useful information related to qualification and labour market to certificateProviding useful information related to qualification and labour market to certificate holdersholders 10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification10. Current Trends of Changing Qualification SystemSystem •• Facilitating international transferability(currency)Facilitating international transferability(currency)
  • 54. 54 Reforming Directions of National Technical QualificationReforming Directions of National Technical Qualification ItemsItems As isAs is To beTo be SystemSystem OccupationalOccupational CategoryCategory GradeGrade Range ofRange of CertificateCertificate EligibilityEligibility RigidRigid LimitedLimited ComplicatedComplicated NarrowNarrow Academic CareerAcademic Career FlexibleFlexible DiversifiedDiversified SimplifiedSimplified BroadBroad WorkplaceWorkplace ExperienceExperience 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification11. Reform of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem
  • 55. 55 ConceptualConceptual ElementsElements ContentsContents Practicability (application in workplace) To achieve employers’ recognition of qualifications in order to give clear signals to the labour market Applicability (usefulness in workplace or currency) To be adapted and applied qualifications to dynamic labour market Integration (transferability) To set up an effective qualification system in order to get rid of duplication and repetition in qualification contents, including academic and vocational quallifications It is important to maintain balance among conceptualIt is important to maintain balance among conceptual elementselements Conceptual Elements as Starting Points forConceptual Elements as Starting Points for Reforming Qualifications SystemReforming Qualifications System 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification11. Reform of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem
  • 56. 56 PracticabilityPracticability ApplicabilityApplicability IntegrationIntegration (What contents will be involved?)(What contents will be involved?) (How do we achieve portability?)(How do we achieve portability?) (How do we effectively operate the(How do we effectively operate the qualifications system?)qualifications system?) 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification11. Reform of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem
  • 57. 57 Practical elements Related to Conceptual ElementsPractical elements Related to Conceptual Elements ConceptualConceptual ElementsElements Contents on Practical ElementsContents on Practical Elements Practicability  Practicability of testing  Management of change to secure practicability - Qualification system - Qualification items - Awarding body Applicability  Domestic currency  International currency  Support for qualification holder  Dissemination of qualification information Integration  Integration of qualification system  Integration of management and operation - Management of qualification system - Management of qualification items 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification11. Reform of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem
  • 58. 58 Major Issues in National Technical QualificationMajor Issues in National Technical Qualification SystemSystem State-led management of changeState-led management of change Provider-orientated management (supply-driven qualificationProvider-orientated management (supply-driven qualification system)system) Operation of qualification system result in high cost and lowOperation of qualification system result in high cost and low efficiencyefficiency Vocational qualification system subordinated by academicVocational qualification system subordinated by academic careercareer Testing criteria heavily dependant on school curriculumTesting criteria heavily dependant on school curriculum Eligibility for qualification gives preferential treatments toEligibility for qualification gives preferential treatments to academic career over work-place experienceacademic career over work-place experience Testing focused on the pre-employed (new labour marketTesting focused on the pre-employed (new labour market entrants)entrants) Nonintervention for securing applicability in the labourNonintervention for securing applicability in the labour marketmarket 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification11. Reform of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem
  • 59. 59 Future Directions for the National TechnicalFuture Directions for the National Technical Qualifications SystemQualifications System ConceptualConceptual ElementsElements ContentsContents Practicability Testing System (The pre-employed seeking jobs → The employed desiring for skills upgrading) Management System of Change (State-led → participation of stakeholders such as companies, labour unions, industrial associations etc.) Applicability Establishment of Applicable Infrastructure for Qualification System • Periodic investigations & surveys on the level of qualification applicability • To set up a Data base for qualification • To prepare a testing system for skill upgrading • To refine systems related to ensure international currency Integration Qualifications System 11. Reform of National Technical Qualification11. Reform of National Technical Qualification SystemSystem
  • 60. 60 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem 1. Definitions of1. Definitions of QualificationQualification •• The requirements for an individual to enter, or progress within an occupation and/orThe requirements for an individual to enter, or progress within an occupation and/or •• An official record(certificate, diploma) of achievement which recognizes successfulAn official record(certificate, diploma) of achievement which recognizes successful completion of education and training, or satisfactory performance in a test or examinationcompletion of education and training, or satisfactory performance in a test or examination 2. Definition of2. Definition of CertificationCertification •• The process of issuing certificates or diplomas which formally recognize theThe process of issuing certificates or diplomas which formally recognize the achievements of an individualachievements of an individual •• To empower qualification holders to conduct their rolesTo empower qualification holders to conduct their roles
  • 61. 61 4. Definitions of Vocational4. Definitions of Vocational QualificationQualification •• Qualifications directly connecting to select jobs and giving impacts to increase salaryQualifications directly connecting to select jobs and giving impacts to increase salary and promote etc. in workplaceand promote etc. in workplace •• To be influenced by assessment and evaluation systemsTo be influenced by assessment and evaluation systems 3. Interrelationships of Qualification3. Interrelationships of Qualification SystemSystem •• To link countries’ historical, economic and industrial development, their culture andTo link countries’ historical, economic and industrial development, their culture and education and training systemseducation and training systems •• To be bridge to link between education and training system and labour market throughTo be bridge to link between education and training system and labour market through screening whether people have capabilities or not, based on standardscreening whether people have capabilities or not, based on standard 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 62. 62 5. Firms’ Position on Vocational5. Firms’ Position on Vocational QualificationQualification •• They are not only consumers of vocational qualifications produced elsewhere but alsoThey are not only consumers of vocational qualifications produced elsewhere but also sites for the production of knowledge, Know-How and developments of learningsites for the production of knowledge, Know-How and developments of learning situationssituations •• Vocational qualification must correspond to their current needs and these requirementsVocational qualification must correspond to their current needs and these requirements are likely to be changing rapidly as results of new technologiesare likely to be changing rapidly as results of new technologies 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 63. 63 6. Difficulties of Assessment based on workplace skills6. Difficulties of Assessment based on workplace skills •• Where assessment is based on skills and knowledge acquired in education and trainingWhere assessment is based on skills and knowledge acquired in education and training institutes, quality assurance and the maintenance of standard over time is easier to manageinstitutes, quality assurance and the maintenance of standard over time is easier to manage •• Where some or all assessment is based on learning taking place on the jobs, relevanceWhere some or all assessment is based on learning taking place on the jobs, relevance with workplace skills is easier to achieve but there is inevitably some loss of reliability onwith workplace skills is easier to achieve but there is inevitably some loss of reliability on results of assessment, and quality assurance is more difficult and costlyresults of assessment, and quality assurance is more difficult and costly •• It is important to make realistic balance between relevant workplace skills on the oneIt is important to make realistic balance between relevant workplace skills on the one hand, and reliability and adequate quality assurance of assessment on the otherhand, and reliability and adequate quality assurance of assessment on the other 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 64. 64 7. Educational and Training institutes’ Position on Vocational7. Educational and Training institutes’ Position on Vocational QualificationQualification •• They have concentrated on providing transferable general skills instead of workplaceThey have concentrated on providing transferable general skills instead of workplace specific skills under considerations that specific skills are difficult to reconcile with thespecific skills under considerations that specific skills are difficult to reconcile with the requirements for the preparation of young people to seek jobsrequirements for the preparation of young people to seek jobs •• They are likely to have autonomy to give certificates to their students based on theirThey are likely to have autonomy to give certificates to their students based on their achievements in education and training institutesachievements in education and training institutes 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 65. 65 8. Paradox of Vocational8. Paradox of Vocational QualificationQualification •• Recognition on capabilities of vocational certificate holdersRecognition on capabilities of vocational certificate holders - Encouragement on lifelong learning- Encouragement on lifelong learning - Facilitation on seeking jobs or transformation from one jobs to another- Facilitation on seeking jobs or transformation from one jobs to another •• Discrimination between people of whether they success to get vocational certificates orDiscrimination between people of whether they success to get vocational certificates or notnot - Discouragement on lifelong learning- Discouragement on lifelong learning - Hindrance on seeking jobs or transforming from one jobs to another- Hindrance on seeking jobs or transforming from one jobs to another 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 66. 66 9. Ways of Assessment and Learning to Harmonize with lifelong9. Ways of Assessment and Learning to Harmonize with lifelong learninglearning •• Vocational Qualification based on the assessment of :Vocational Qualification based on the assessment of : - Candidates’ potential at present, not past knowledge, skills and competence- Candidates’ potential at present, not past knowledge, skills and competence - Process-related knowledge, skills and competence(for example, learning to learn and- Process-related knowledge, skills and competence(for example, learning to learn and take risks, and developing problem-solving skills, etc.) rather than contents-relatedtake risks, and developing problem-solving skills, etc.) rather than contents-related ones because skills will change more quickly than in the past, people at all levels willones because skills will change more quickly than in the past, people at all levels will need to be adaptable and open to changeneed to be adaptable and open to change •• Forms of learning and assessment accompanied by acquiring vocational certificatesForms of learning and assessment accompanied by acquiring vocational certificates should mainly adapt the self-directed learning and self-assessment method to encourageshould mainly adapt the self-directed learning and self-assessment method to encourage lifelong learning. Assessment, in this context, has roles not to frustrate but to facilitatelifelong learning. Assessment, in this context, has roles not to frustrate but to facilitate lifelong learning. Certainly assessment should rely on national standard.lifelong learning. Certainly assessment should rely on national standard. 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 67. 67 10. Future Roles of Vocational Qualification10. Future Roles of Vocational Qualification SystemSystem •• Vocational Qualifications need to be built into ladders of occupational as well asVocational Qualifications need to be built into ladders of occupational as well as educational progression. This means that dental mechanics could become dentists, andeducational progression. This means that dental mechanics could become dentists, and legal and accounting clerks could become lawyers and accountslegal and accounting clerks could become lawyers and accounts •• To do these roles, vocational qualification system should be design to motivate youngTo do these roles, vocational qualification system should be design to motivate young people by making learning and assessment activities more like real work and lesspeople by making learning and assessment activities more like real work and less like schoollike school •• Vocational Qualification system, in this context, should have characteristics, showingVocational Qualification system, in this context, should have characteristics, showing vertical relevance in each job and horizontal consistency on the level of carrying outvertical relevance in each job and horizontal consistency on the level of carrying out duties in various jobsduties in various jobs 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem
  • 68. 68 11. Recognition of Non-formal Learning in terms of Vocational11. Recognition of Non-formal Learning in terms of Vocational QualificationQualification •• The results of learning processes, what we call competences, are partly tacit andThe results of learning processes, what we call competences, are partly tacit and personal knowledge in their character. Competitiveness of companies and nations heavilypersonal knowledge in their character. Competitiveness of companies and nations heavily relies on intangible knowledge, skills and competences of individualsrelies on intangible knowledge, skills and competences of individuals •• In some case people are not even aware of being in possession of a competence. This isIn some case people are not even aware of being in possession of a competence. This is highly relevant to the task of identification, assessment and recognition of non-formalhighly relevant to the task of identification, assessment and recognition of non-formal learninglearning •• It is difficult to verbalize and delimit the single steps or rules intrinsic to a certainIt is difficult to verbalize and delimit the single steps or rules intrinsic to a certain competencecompetence * The term of non-formal learning encompasses informal learning which can be described as* The term of non-formal learning encompasses informal learning which can be described as unplanned learning in work situations and elsewhere, but also includes planned and explicitunplanned learning in work situations and elsewhere, but also includes planned and explicit approaches to learning introduced in work organizations and elsewhere, not recognized within theapproaches to learning introduced in work organizations and elsewhere, not recognized within the formal education and training systemformal education and training system 12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification12. Fundamental points in Designing Qualification SystemSystem