The New Technology of Crime Law and Social Control

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  • 1. The New Technology of Crime Law and Social Control* *Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Los Angeles, CA. November 2, 2006
  • 2. The New Technology of Crime Prevention • Hard Technology • Soft Technology • CCTV • Threat Assessment • Street Lighting Instruments • Citizen Protection Devices • Bullying ID Protocol (e.g. mace, tasers) • Sex Offender Registration • Metal Detectors • Risk Assessment prior to involuntary civil • Ignition Interlock Systems commitment (drunk drivers) • Profiling
  • 3. The New Technology of Policing • Hard Technology • Soft Technology • Improved police protection • Crime mapping (hot spots) (vests, cars) • Crime analysis (e.g. • Improved/new weapons COMPSTAT) • Less than lethal force • Computers in squad cars • Criminal history data • Hands free patrol car control systems enhancement (Project 54) • Info sharing within CJS • Offender and citizen ID’s via and private sector biometrics/fingerprints
  • 4. The New Technology of Law and Courts • Hard Technology • Soft Technology • The high tech courtroom • Case flow mgmnt systems (computers, video, cameras, design features • Radio frequency of buildings) identification technology • Weapon detection devices • Data warehousing • Video conferencing • Automation of court • Electronic court records documents • Problem-oriented courts • Drug testing at pretrial satge
  • 5. The New Technology of Institutional Corrections • Hard Technology • Soft Technology • Contraband detection devices • Use of simulations as training • Duress alarm systems tools (mock riots) • Language translation devices • Facial Recognition software • Remote monitoring • New inmate classification • Perimeter screening systems (external/internal) • Less than lethal force in prison • Within prison crime analysis (hot spots; high rate offenders) • Prison design • Info sharing with police, • Expanded use of segregation community, victims, and units community-based corrections (reentry)
  • 6. The New Technology of Community Corrections • Hard Technology • Soft Technology • GPS, language • New classification translators devices for sex, drugs, • Breathalyzers, instant and MI offenders drug tests • New workload • Polygraph tests software • Laptops for line staff • Info sharing with community, police, • GPS for staff location treatment providers
  • 7. Three Critical Issues to Consider 1. Will new technology applications in criminal justice result in the replacement of ‘people’ with ‘things’? 2. Will technological advancements in the area of offender control minimize the possibilities for individual & community change? 3. What are the long term consequences of privatization of key technology related CJ system functions?
  • 8. The New Technology of Crime • The Impact of Technology on Criminality – Schlegel & Cohen • 3 Distinct Opportunity Structures – Crime at work – Crime as work – Crime after work
  • 9. The New Technology of Crime AT Work : Some Examples • Embezzlement • Money Laundering/Financial Frauds • Credit Card Fraud by Employees • Corporate Espionage (via bots, email monitoring, pretexting • Theft/Sale of Private, Confidential, Personal Data • The Spreading of Viruses & Malicious Codes (to gain competitive advantage)
  • 10. The New Technology of Crime AS Work: Some Examples • Internet Fraud Schemes: Nigerian letter, online auctions, drug/health frauds, lottery frauds, revictimization frauds • Telemarketing Fraud Schemes: Investments, promotions, sales • Identity Theft • Credit Card/Check Fraud • Phishing (for Profit) • Internet Sex Crimes • Sale of Private, Confidential, Personal Data • Internet Piracy • Theft of Computers, Computer Software, Internet Access
  • 11. The New Technology of Crime AFTER Work • Internet Sex Crimes (Sex tourism, child pornography, child predators/solicitation) • Internet Hate Crimes • Internet Stalking • Cyber-Terrorism • Spreading Viruses and Malicious Codes • Hacking/Illegal Access to Data
  • 12. Technology, Crime Control, & the Private Sector in the 21st Century – Rebovich & Martino •Addresses private sector contributions to the prevention of computer based crimes and identity theft •What are the consequences for crime control & the public when the private sector is increasingly responsible for historically public sector systems?
  • 13. The New Technology of Criminal Justice • Crime Prevention • Policing • Courts • Institutional • Community Corrections Corrections
  • 14. The New Technology of Crime Prevention • What is Crime Prevention? • ‘Activities’ vs. ‘Outcomes’ • Reduction of ‘Risk Factors’ vs. Growth in ‘Protective Factors’
  • 15. ‘Hard’ Technology of Crime Prevention – Welsh & Farrington • Key Focus : Two technologies with known effects : CCTV and Improved Street Lighting • Key Issues: Can these UK-based successes be translated to the US?
  • 16. Crime Prevention & ‘Soft’ Technology – A. Harris & Lurigio • Key Focus: 1. Risk Assessment (sex offenders and mentally ill offenders 2. Threat Assessment (school violence & terrorism) • Key Issue: What is the appropriate balance between considerations of ‘risk’ and ‘stakes’?
  • 17. The New Technology of Policing : ‘Hard” Technology Applications - Hummer • Key Focus: 1.Non-Lethal Weaponry 2. Non-Electric Immobilizing Devices 3. Technology to Reduce the Number of Vehicular Pursuits 4. Technology to Improve Officer Safety - Key Issues: - 1. ‘Militarization’ of Police - 2. Evidence-Based review of the effectiveness of hard technology applications
  • 18. ‘Soft’ Technology and Policing – C. Harris • Key Focus: 1. Data Collection & Management 2. Data- Driven Police Strategies • Key Issues: 1. Will advances in data utilization revolutionize or simply enhance traditional practices?
  • 19. The Courts and Hard Technology: Applying Technological Solutions to Legal Issues - Bellone • Key Focus : Implementation of technological innovations in courtroom settings& throughout key decision points in the court process (e.g. pretrial preparation & jury deliberations) • Key Issues: 1. Little knowledge of ‘what works’ in hard technology for courts 2. Is slow pace of such innovations warranted?
  • 20. The Courts and ‘Soft’ Technology - Corbett • Key focus: Current Implementations – automated court record systems, on-line access to case information, electronic court documents, & data warehouses • Key Issues: 1. One-third of all IT projects for courts are cancelled before completion 2. A fraction of IT projects are completed on time and under budget 3. Most IT projects cost nearly twice as much as projected
  • 21. ‘Hard’ Technology of Institutional Corrections - Stowell • Key Focus: 1. Facility Monitoring 2. Inmate/Officer Interactions 3. High Risk Inmate Control • Key Issues: Inmate numbers increasing and budgets decreasing equates to hard choices in applications of technology to offender control vs. offender treatment
  • 22. ‘Soft’ Technology & Institutional Corrections – Byrne & Lurigio • Key Focus: 1. New techniques for classification of inmates & subsequent offender location decisions 2. New offender monitoring strategies 3. Problem-Oriented conflict resolution strategies 4. Information sharing within CJ system 5. Risk assessment in reentry initiatives 6. Performance Measurement systems • Key Issues: How can the various forms of ‘soft’ technology be revised to emphasize the goal of offender change rather than short term offender control?
  • 23. Applications of ‘Hard’ Technology to Community Corrections – P. Harris • Key Focus: 1. Electronic Monitoring of offenders on active supervision 2. New drug testing technology 3. Technologies for alcohol-involved offenders 4. Technologies for managing sex offenders 5. Automated reporting systems • Key Issues: • The continuing debate between advocates of control and proponents of treatment-oriented community corrections strtegies 1. The consequences of privtization of certain community corrections functions
  • 24. Community Corrections & ‘Soft’ Technology – Pattavina & Taxman • Key Focus: 1. New generation of classification instruments in community corrections 2. New approaches to offender treatment based on Risk Need Responsivity model 3. New case management information technology 4. New approaches to information sharing, crime mapping, & the assessment of risk level of offenders • Key Issues: Advances in ‘soft’ technology have resulted in more control over offenders but have these same advances undermined attempts to change individual behavior?
  • 25. Concluding Comments • The Limits of Technology • We need to consider the unintended consequences of our ongoing quest for technological solutions for social problems • We need to find ways to use technology to reinforce moral performance at both the institutional and individual levels