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    • ASAI American Student Achievement Institute Speaker Notes School-Community Screening TWO MILLION MINUTES Editing: Presenters are encouraged to edit slides as necessary to fit individual presentation styles. Timing: Most of the fifty-three slides in this presentation are designed to be on the screen for less than a minute. In many cases, the slide will be presented for just a few seconds. Slides 1-33 Slides 1-38 should be presented before the 2MM screening. They should take approximately twenty minutes to present. Slides 35-53 Slides 40-61 should be shown after 2MM and should take approximately forty minutes to present, including discussion. Number Discussion Slide 1 Script: Thank you for joining us this morning / evening / afternoon. We are TWO MILLION MINUTES pleased to have educators, students, teachers, parents, business A School-Community Discussion representatives, and community members come together to view Two Million Minutes, a film that compares and contrasts how students in India, China, and the United States spend their time during high school. After the film, we will discuss its content and implications for our K-12 students, school, and community. 1 In any four-year period, a person lives approximately two million minutes. While every minute of a child’s life is important, the two million minutes during high school are crucial to the child’s future educational opportunities, career options and standard of living. How our young people collectively spend their two million minutes has long term economic consequences for our community and America. Note: Project this opening slide as people come into the room. 2 Script: Before we begin, let’s take a minute to consider some of our FOUNDATIONAL BELIEFS community’s foundational beliefs. The purpose of education is to prepare students to be: We believe the purpose of education is to prepare students to become  Successful learners in 1) successful learners, 2) responsible citizens, and 3) productive postsecondary education members of a global economy.  Responsible citizens  Productive members of a global economy 2 1
    • 3 Script: We believe that schools are capable of changing and that they must FOUNDATIONAL BELIEFS change on a regular basis if they are going to prepare students to Schools: succeed in an ever-changing society.  Are capable of changing. Note: Some people believe that changing the U.S. educational system is next  Must change on a regular basis if they are going to to impossible. These people tend to feel discouraged and have little prepare students for success in an ever-changing global energy for change. This slide establishes our positive belief that economy schools are capable of changing in order to better meet the needs of 3 students, and that they must on a regular basis if they’re going to help students be prepared for a changing society. 4 Script: We believe that teachers care about their students, and want their FOUNDATIONAL BELIEFS students to achieve at a high level. Teachers: Notes: Slides 4-6 make two points:  Care about their students  Want their students to achieve at a high level  Teachers, parents, and community members are all good people who care about students and want them to achieve at a high level. Letting people know that they are valued in the beginning of the 4 film will cut down on resistance.  Teachers, parents, and community members have a common mission. This is important because transforming student learning in a community (e.g. changing the culture of the community) involves change on everyone’s part. Each person much ask what they can do to be part of the solution, rather than pointing fingers at each other for creating the problem. 5 Script: We believe that parents 1) care about their children, and 2) want their FOUNDATIONAL BELIEFS children to achieve at a high level. Parents: Notes: See Slide 4  Care about their children.  Want their children to achieve at a high level. 5 6 Script: We believe that community members 1) care about the community’s FOUNDATIONAL BELIEFS children, and 2) want the community’s children to achieve at a high Community members: level.  Care about the community’s children. Notes: See Slide 4  Want the community’s children to achieve at a high level. 6 Script: In addition to our foundational beliefs, let’s take a quick look at 7 “outsourcing” to help us understand why it is so important to consider how U.S. students spend their time in high school. Global Economy  Outsourcing 7 2
    • 8 Script: To begin with, there are two basic types of jobs: TWO TYPES OF JOBS 1) Low skill, repetitive jobs 1. Low-skill, repetitive 2) High skill, inventive, continually changing jobs 2. High-skill, inventive 8 9 Script: Outsourcing occurs when a firm subcontracts a business function to an outside supplier. OUTSOURCING Outsourcing occurs when a firm subcontracts a business function to an outside supplier. 9 10 Script: If you were the CEO of a company, what would you consider when thinking about outsourcing? If you were the CEO, what would you consider when thinking about outsourcing? You would probably think about:  Worker availability Worker Availability Worker Wage  Worker wage Worker Education  Worker education. 10 11 Script: Let’s consider worker availability and wage requirements. Worker Availability and Wage Requirements 9 12 Script: If we’re looking for low-wage workers, we would probably need to look outside of the U.S. For example, the hourly wage of a manufacturing LOW-SKILL WORKFORCE Manufacturing worker in India is only 25 cents per hour – far less than the average Hourly Wage Availability manufacturing wage of $17.20 in the U.S. U.S. 17.20 90 percent of the world’s workers live Mexico 2.10 in countries where the China .65 Another consideration is that 90 percent of the world’s workers live in India .25 average wage is less than $1.00 per hour. India, China, and other countries where the average wage is less than Source: Sung Won Sohn, Executive Vice President and Chief Economist, Wells Source: Population Reference at Columbia University, New York, NY $1.00 per hour. Fargo, 2003 / Canamex, 2005 12 13 Script: Next, let’s consider high-skill workers. As you can see from this slide, HIGH-SKILL WORKFORCE the wage for high-skill jobs in India is considerably less than that paid to U.S. India workers in the U.S. Therefore, it might be a good business decision to Software Engineer $ 66,100 $10,000 send your high-skill jobs to other countries. Mechanical Engineer $ 55,600 $ 5,900 IT Manager $ 55,000 $ 8,500 Accountant $ 41,000 $ 5,000 Source: International Labour Organization and the Paaras Group, 2004 13 3
    • 14 Script: Another item to consider is the basic education level of the workforce. Worker Education 12 15 Script: Students in the United States tend to be taught academic content that EDUCATION SYSTEMS will prepare them for college, while students in other countries tend to Content be taught content that will prepare them for the workforce. U.S.* Other Countries** English – 4 years U.S. PLUS Algebra I Technical Reading Algebra II Computers Geometry Note: The U.S. courses on the left side of the table are those described by the U.S. History World History Statistics and Probability Logic American Diploma Project as being the courses that will prepare Economics Measurement U.S. Government Systems Biology students for both college and the workforce. It should be noted that Chemistry Physics •Source: American Diploma Project, Achieve, Inc., 2007 many states require far less than these courses for a high school ** Source: Willard R. Daggett,, International Center for Leadership in Education 11 diploma. You may want to add a third column to this table for your local high school’s graduation requirements. Participants should again see a mismatch between the knowledge and skills that U.S. high schools tend to offer and those needed for successes in a global economy. 16 Script: In addition to differences in the content that’s taught, teachers in EDUCATION SYSTEMS different countries ask students to do different types of tasks with the Student Tasks content. In the United States, many teachers simply ask students to U.S. Other Countries write their knowledge on worksheets and quizzes. In other countries, Memorize facts for Research & Analyze worksheets and Apply Knowledge quizzes. teachers ask students to use their knowledge to conduct research,  between disciplines  to solve real-world analyze situations, and solve real-world problems. problems  predictable  non-predictable Note: It should be noted that many U.S. schools are making progress in this Source: Willard R. Daggett,, International Center for Leadership in Education 12 area. Project-based learning and career academics are examples of instructional models in which students use what they have learned to solve real-world problems. Many schools are also asking teachers to be mindful of “levels of cognition” when designing lesson plans. However, far to many U.S. schools ask students to simply memorize facts for worksheets and quizzes. 17 Script: Based on what we have just discussed, if you were the CEO of a company, where would you send your company’s work? If you were the CEO, where would send your company’s work? 17 18 Script: Where would you send your low-skill jobs? IF YOU WERE THE C.E.O., where would you send your LOW-skills jobs? Probably not to the U.S. X 4
    • 19 Script: Where would you send your high-skills jobs? IF YOU WERE THE C.E.O., where would you send your HIGH-skills jobs? Probably not to the U.S. X 20 Script: If you were the CEO, what jobs would you keep in the U.S.? IF YOU WERE THE C.E.O., what jobs would you keep in the U.S.? While it can be a good business decision to send low and high skill jobs to other countries, there are some jobs that you would want to keep in the U.S. if you were the CEO because these jobs:  1. Require workers to interact with customers in the U.S. 2. Require workers to interact daily with suppliers in the U.S. 3. Require workers to have unique knowledge of the U.S. market. 21 Script: Now that you’ve considered what you might do as a CEO, let’s consider what is actually happening in today’s global economy. Outsourcing Reality 21 22 Script: Outsourcing started with textiles and shoes in the 1960’s and 1970’s LOW-SKILL WORKFORCE due to the low cost of labor in other countries. Outsourcing later Outsourcing expanded to manufacturing areas as transportation and communication U.S. companies began outsourcing in the 1960’s because of the low cost of labor. As between countries improved. Today, the auto parts are also transportation and communications improved so did the outsourcing of manufacturing jobs. outsourced by the auto industry.  Textiles  Televisions  Shoes  Stereos  Radios  VCRs  Toys  Auto parts 22 23 Script: With improved communication and standardized software packages, HIGH-SKILL WORKFORCE U.S. firms can now easily outsource high-skill jobs including: Outsourcing The reduction of communication costs and  Customer services the standardization of software packages have now made it possible to easily  Telemarketing outsource high-skill jobs. Document management  Customer services  Medical transcription   Telemarketing  Document management  Tax preparation  Financial services  Medical transcription  Tax preparation 23  Financial services 24 Script: Two well-known CEOs have this to say about outsourcing: HIGH-SKILL WORKFORCE Outsourcing “Everything that you can send down a wire is up for grabs.” WHAT CEO’S SAY: -- CEO, Infosys Technologies (India) Everything you can send down a wire is up for grabs. Nandan Nilekani, CEO, Infosys Technologies, India “There is no job that is America’s God-given right anymore.” There is no job that is America’s God-given right anymore. -- Former CEO, Hewlett-Packard (U.S.). Carly Fiorina, Former CEO, Hewlett-Packard, U.S.A. So as we watch the film, please understanding that many jobs are not 24 bound to any one country. 5
    • 25 Script: Finally, let’s consider why Robert Compton made the film. Why did Robert Compton make this film? 18 Script: Robert Compton, the Creator and Executive Director of Two Million 26 Minutes, has twenty years experience as a venture capitalist and ROBERT COMPTON entrepreneur with significant business global experience. In recent  Investments in India and China.  Very impressed with Indian and years, he has spent considerable time in India and China – investing in Chinese workers  Visited the schools where they were educated new companies.  Shocked “Global education standards have passed us by. We are being passed Compton was very impressed with the employees who worked for him by in the two largest countries with the two fastest growing economies in in those countries and decided to go visit the K-12 schools where his the world . . . India and China.” Indian and Chinese employees received their educations. As he 26 explains, what he saw “shocked” him. Students in the Indian and Chinese schools were 2-3 years ahead of their peers in prestigious private schools in the U.S. Compton is concerned that global education standards have passed by the U.S and are now being set by India and China, the two largest countries with the two fastest growing economies in the world. Knowing that U.S. teachers, parents, and community members are not able to visit India and China, Compton made 2MM to help U.S. teachers understand how students in India and China spend their time during high school. 27 Script: What will you see in the film? What will you see in this film? 20 28 Script: You will not see solutions in this film. However, after watching 2MM, we will discuss the film’s implications for our school and community. We may also decide after watching the film to actively begin changing our school and community. SOLUTIONS Note: As a reminder, the purpose of this screening of 2MM is to create a local urgency for change. Later discussions (if your community decides it needs to implement changes) will focus on 1) what needs to change, 21 and 2) the actions you will implement to address those needs. 29 Script: You will hear from several experts. The “experts” are professors, policy TWO MILLION MINUTES makers, government officials, and CEOs who have various views about Experts global economics and education. Higher Education Policy Makers Government Agencies High-Tech Companies Non-Profit Organizations 22 6
    • 30 Script: You will also see data in the film. The data will help you understand TWO MILLION MINUTES how students from various parts of the world spend their time and what Data the degree to which they are learning. 1 4 8 9 How do students spend their time? What do they learn? 25 31 Script: You will hear from six students in the film, see them in class, and meet TWO MILLION MINUTES their families. The six students in the film were selected because they Students are all high-achieving students. They are not meant to represent all students in their countries. India China United States 24 32 Script: The three high schools in the film were selected because they are “high High Schools in the Film achieving” schools. The school in China is a large school where almost CHINA INDIA U.S.A. all of the students go on to a four-year college. A for-profit school was Name Nanyang Model HS St. Paul’s English School Carmel HS selected in India because in India, one third of the schools are for-profit Location Government Shanghai Bangalore Carmel, Indiana institutions. The U.S. school is a large high school ranked in the top Yes No * Yes School Enrollment 1,600 300 (K-12) 4,000 five percent nationally for academics. 92% of its graduates go to a College Bound Most 92% four-year college. * 1/3 of all schools in India are for-profit 25 33 Script: You’ll hear about several colleges in the film. If you’re not familiar these Colleges in the Film - Competitiveness colleges, the data on this slide may help you understand their relative Percent competitiveness. In terms of applications accepted, the India Institute Percent SCHOOL International Accepted Accepted Purdue University * 85 % of Technology and Peking University are far more competitive than Indiana University * 70 % Purdue, Indiana University, and Yale. IIT, for example, receives Harvard * 10% Yale * 9% approximately 500,000 applications annually, and only accepts 5,000 of India Institute of Technology ** Peking University *** 1% 1% --- --- them = 1%. Harvard, in comparison, accepts 10% of its applicants. * Source: College Board, 2007 ** Source: Two Million Minutes *** Source Kyushu University Magazine, Summer 2005 26 34 Script: As you watch the film, please listen for the following remarks: Listen for these remarks: 27 35 Script: There is a battle being fought around the world for the future of the 2MM Remark global economy. There is a battle being fought around the world for the future of the global economy. Two Million Minutes 2007 28 7
    • 36 Script: Now you have the Indian and the Chinese on a level playing field with 2MM Remark the U.S. This has never happened before. Now you have the Indian and the Chinese on a level playing field with the U.S. This has never happened before. Vived Wadhwa Executive in Residence Duke University 2007 29 37 Script: You’ll hear one of the experts refer to the “quiet crisis.” She says, “This 2MM Remark is another moment when the world is shifting.” THE QUIET CRISIS: This is another moment when the world is shifting. Shirley Ann Jackson Former Chairman U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 2007 30 38 Script: As you watch this film, you might think of it as a scouting report. How TWO MILLION MINUTES are other countries preparing their students to compete with U.S. Scouting the Competition students for jobs in a global economy? 31 39 Script: And now to the film. TWO MILLION MINUTES 32 40 Script: This film gives us a lot to think about. To help us organize our discussion and look at 2MM from a variety of perspectives, let’s consider a few questions. GUIDED Note 1: 2MM tends to generate a considerable amount of discussion. As a DISCUSSION facilitator, the facilitator’s first challenge is to organize the discussion so it doesn’t head in random directions. The following slides will help organize the discussion in a purposeful manner. 33 Note 2: It’s important for you to watch and listen to the group’s tone at this point. If the tone sounds negative or hopeless, you’ll need to guide the group. Here are some suggestions for doing so: POSITIVE TONE: A second challenge for the facilitator is keeping the discussion on a positive note. Educators who have watched the film often report (and are observed) being defensive because they feel people are blaming them for students not learning at a more rigorous level. Educators who feel defensive may say, “Yeah but, in the United States . . .” The slides that were presented prior to the film and the discussion questions that follow should help keep resistance at a minimum. This is important because when people feel defensive, they usually are not able to reflect accurately on current practices or embrace new ideas. If participants do offer defensive comments, one approach is to let them 8
    • know that you agree with them, saying “You’re right. Educators in the U.S. do have some unique challenges. We’re going to list those challenges in a few minutes.” Another approach to resistance is to help everyone understand that raising student achievement is a community responsibility. Everyone has a role to play in raising student achievement.  Students help by coming to school every day motivated and ready to learn.  Teachers help by presenting rigorous content in an engaging manner that addresses all students learning styles.  Businesses help by 1) meeting with educators to help them understand the level of rigor is required for success in today’s global economy and 2) providing teachers with real-world applications for academic content.  Parents help by 1) conveying high expectations to their children, 2) monitoring school work, and 3) ensuring that academic and extracurricular activities are balanced in a manner that the parents find appropriate.  Everyone helps by making high academic achievement a high priority in the community. HOPEFUL TONE: The facilitator’s third challenge is to keep the discussion hopeful. Past viewers have reported that 2MM sometimes makes them feel hopeless with little energy to improve the situation. Facilitators can keep the tone hopeful and upbeat by reminding people, “The good news is that we have the right people at the table. We care about kids. We’re ready to role up our sleeves together to make a difference. We can make a difference.” 41 Script: To begin our discussion, think about the parents that you saw in the film from India and China. What do they feel their children deserve? PARENT REALITY Please begin your comments with, “Our children deserve . . .” What do parents in India and China believe their children deserve? “Our children deserve . . .” 34 42 Note: While the facilitator directs the discussion, a recorder should write a 3-5 From the perspective of Indian and Chinese parents: word summary of the person’s comment on the Power Point slide Our children deserve: • Write responses here • Write responses here provided (or a flip chart or overhead projector transparency). The purpose of this is two-fold: 1) Each speaker knows that their comment was heard, valued, and recorded (which reduces resistance), and 2) the 3-5 word summaries encourages speakers to keep their comments brief. 37 43 Script: Now think about the parents of the students from the United States. Also, think about your friends and neighbors who have children. If PARENT REALITY you’re a parent, think about yourself. What do U.S. parents believe What do parents in the their children deserve? Again, please start your comments with “Our U.S. believe their children deserve . . .” children deserve? “Our children deserve . . .” Note: Ask your recorder to write these responses as well. 35 9
    • 44 Note: See Slide 42 From the perspective of U.S. parents: Our children deserve: • Write responses here • Write responses here 39 45 Script: Let’s think about the teachers that we saw in the film. What challenges do U.S. teachers face when trying to educate high-achieving students? EDUCATION REALITY What challenges do U.S. teachers face when trying to educate students at a rigorous level? 36 46 Note1: See Slide 42 Challenges faced by U.S. teachers: • Write responses here • Write responses here Note 2: Most common responses:  U.S. teachers must educate all students.  U.S. culture values students who are well rounded.  U.S. students aren’t motivated, (e.g., not hungry for a higher standard of living, not aware of global economics). 41 47 Script: Now let’s look at the perspective of an employer in a global economy. Does it matter to a global employer if an applicant comes from a ECONOMIC REALITY country that educates all students? Does it matter to a global employer if an Note: Slides 42-44 should generate a quick “yes” or “no” answer. These applicant comes from a slides will help participants understand that: country that educates all students? 1. U.S. educators do have challenges that teachers in other countries 42 do not have. 2. U.S. students have to compete for jobs against students whose teachers do not have the same challenges as U.S. teachers. 3. If we are going to prepare U.S. students to compete for jobs in a global economy, we must make changes. 48 Script: Does it matter to a global employer if an applicant spent 20 hours a week on a hobby during high school? ECONOMIC REALITY Does it matter to a global employer if an applicant spent 20 hours a week on a hobby during high school? 38 10
    • 49 Script Does the degree to which the citizens of an applicant’s country are “hungry” to improve their standard of living matter to a global employer. ECONOMIC REALITY Does the degree to which the citizens of an applicant’s country are hungry to improve their standard of living matter to a global employer? 39 50 Script: According to Robert Compton, Executive Producer of Two Million ECONOMIC REALITY Minutes, these are the things that matter to global employers when Robert Compton Executive Producer, Two Million Minutes considering a potential employee. What matters to global employers  Have a high educational foundation is that potential employees:  Can use skills to master complex, technical tasks Have a high educational foundation Can use skills to master complex, technical tasks  Know how to learn Know how to learn Can adjust to change  Can adjust to change Will work at an efficient cost  Will work at an efficient cost 50 51 Script: According to a recent article in Education Week, these are the things ECONOMIC REALITY that are key to success in a global economy. What does ready mean in a global economy?  Academic Skills Academic Soft Habits Skills Skills of Mind  Soft Skills Informational reading Teamwork Analysis  Habits of the Mind Persuasive writing Oral presentation Work ethic Responsibility • Attendance Interpretation Precision & accuracy Problem solving Data analysis & stats • Punctuality Reasoning Math application • Time management Note: Read through a few of the descriptors for each to help participants understand what employers are looking for in each area. This should Source: Education Week, What Does Ready Mean? June 2007 45 help people begin understanding that the skills required for success in a global economy are often different from the knowledge and skills that are taught in U.S. schools. 52 Script: Another perspective to consider is the perspective of U.S. colleges. COLLEGE REALITY U.S. colleges do look for students who are well rounded. During the What do colleges evaluate? admissions process, college representatives consider a student’s College Admission Folder academic record, test scores, and recommendations. They also 1. Application 2. Academic Record consider the student’s “personal factor.” With regard to the personal 3. Standardized Test Scores 4. Recommendations factor, the National Association of College Admissions Counselors 5. Personal Factor (NACAC) explains that college applications “usually contain questions How students spend their free time. Sports, music, community service, hobbies, etc. that allow [students] to list or explain [their] activities, honors, and use Source: Parts of an Admission Folder, National Association of College Admissions Counselors, 2008 46 of “free time.” 53 Script: As we think about the global economy and outsourcing, the key KEY QUESTION question is, “What type of jobs do we want in our community for our young people?” What type of jobs do we want in our community for our young people? Note: It is anticipated that participants will indicate they would like the  High-skill, inventive jobs? community’s young people to have high-skill jobs.  Low-skill, repetitive jobs? 53 54 Script: Here’s the bottom line when considering all of these perspectives. THE BOTTOM LINE  If we If we:  care about our students,  care about our students, and  understand global economics, we can no longer do business as usual.  understand global economics,  We must We can no longer do business as usual.  do whatever it takes to help all students learn at a globally competitive standard. We must: 47  roll up our sleeves, and  do whatever it takes To help all students learn at a globally competitive standard. 11
    • 55 Script: Many U.S. schools (and their communities) have begun making the FACT changes necessary to enable all students to become both well-rounded Many U.S. elementary, middle, and academically prepared for a global economy. and high schools (and their communities) are making the changes necessary to enable all students to become both well-rounded and academically prepared for a global economy. 50 56 Script: Schools and communities that have started the process of improvement SELF STUDY tend to ask the following questions: 1. Do we have high enough expectations of our students? 2. Is the content that we teach rigorous 1. Do we have high enough expectations of our students? enough? 3. Are our students engaged in their learning? 2. Is the content that we teach rigorous enough? 4. Do teachers use classroom assessments to evaluate the success of their instructional strategies? 3. Are our students engaged in their learning? Based on Elements of High Achieving Schools, American Student Achievement Institute, 2007 48 4. Do teachers use classroom assessments to evaluate the success of their instructional strategies? 57 Script: 5. Do all students engage in “extra help” activities to help them learn SELF STUDY at a higher level? 5. Do all students engage in “extra help” activities to help them learn at a high level? 6. Do our student see the personal connection between what they 6. Do our students see the personal connection between what they learn at learn at school and their futures? school and their futures? 7. Do our students learn in an environment that supports learning? 7. Do our students learn in an environment that supports learning?  Disciplined environment  Adequate resources for all students  Disciplined environment  Appropriate balance of academic and other activities Based on Elements of High Achieving Schools, American Student Achievement Institute, 2007 49  Adequate resources for all students  Appropriate balance of academic and other activities 58 Script: Are there organizations around that can help us transform our school to WHO CAN HELP US? one that prepares students for college and a global economy? In Indiana: American Student Achievement Institute www.asainstitute.org 812-669-0006 Other states: U.S. Department of Education List of school reform models www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ ovae/pi/hs/reform.html 51 59 Script: What should our next step be? What should be our next steps? • Write responses here • Write responses here Note 1: Instead of presenting this as an open-ended question, you may want to present a next step for the group’s consideration. Note 2: If you are suggesting the formation of a study group or task force, or a follow-up meeting, be sure to have a sign-up sheet available. 52 60 Script: As we adjourn, we’d like to leave you with this statement from Margaret WE CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Mead, “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens Never doubt that a small group can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. -- Margaret Mead 53 12
    • 61 Note: Post this slide as the group adjourns. TWO MILLION MINUTES A Public Discussion Thank you for attending. 48 13