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  • Customer Relationship Management A Databased Approach V. Kumar Werner J. Reinartz Instructor’s Presentation Slides
  • Chapter 11 Campaign Management
  • Topics Discussed
    • Campaign Management Process
    • Campaign Planning and Development
    • Campaign Execution
    • Analysis & Control
    • Campaign Feedback
  • Campaign
    • A series of interconnected promotional efforts designed to achieve precise marketing goals
    • Composed of one or more promotions, each of which is an initiative or a device designed to attract the customers’ interest
    • Aimed at prospects or existing customers
    • Usually undertaken within a defined timeframe
  • Campaign Management Stages
    • Planning:
      • Strategic process by which decisions are taken
      • Definition of the purposes and objectives of the campaign
    • Development:
      • Tactical process that takes care of creating the offer, choosing the creating support and design, choosing the media and selecting the customer names
    • Execution:
      • Operational process of running the campaign in the media chosen and controlling all related aspects
    • Analysis:
      • Evaluation process of the campaign results in light of the original objectives
  • Campaign Management Process Setting objectives & Strategies Identifying customer segments Developing commu- nication strategy Developing the offer Campaign Budget Testing Implementation & Coordination Measuring campaign results Monitoring & fine-tuning Response Analysis Profile Analysis Campaign Management Campaign Planning & Development Campaign Execution Analysis & Control
  • Campaign Planning and Development
    • Setting objectives and strategies
      • Categories:
        • Market penetration (increase usage or market share)
        • Market extension (find new user groups or enter new segments)
        • Product development (new products or services)
        • Diversification (find new markets and products, discover new strategies)
      • Examination of different marketing strategies in place:
        • Product strategy
        • Pricing strategy
        • Distribution strategy
        • Promotion strategy
  • Defining the Campaign Strategy
    • Who to target?
      • Retention strategy: focusing on existing customers
      • Acquisition strategy : concentrating on getting new customers
      • Mixed strategy between retention-acquisition: targeting existing and new customers at the same time
      • Ideally the company should target its most profitable customers (often done through LTV and/or RFM analysis)
  • Retention Strategy
    • Develop loyalty from the existing customers, via a
    • strong relationship or via superior quality or service
    • Develop tailor made products for the needs of existing customer profiles
    • Sell additional products to existing customers (cross-selling)
    • Sell a superior product (with more features or additional services) to customers who already use similar products (up-selling)
    • Merchandise different brands from different categories to the same customer (cross-merchandising)
  • Customer Acquisition Strategy
    • If company wants to sell the same product to new customers: target “prospects” based on the profile and behavior model of existing customers
    • If company wants to offer different products to new customers: develop new markets
  • Customer Retention and Acquisition Strategies Allocate resources between existing and new customers
    • Retention Strategy:
    • Keep existing customers
    • Market decisions:
    • -Segment your customers by
    • lifetime value
      • Retain your best customers
      • Develop one-to-one marketing
    • Product/Service decisions:
      • Develop relationship marketing
      • Retain your clients with superior
      • quality service
      • Develop tailor-made products
      • Cross-sell and up-sell
      • Cross-merchandise
    • Acquisition Strategy:
    • Attract new customers
    • Market decisions:
      • Target the customers based on
      • the model of existing customers
      • -Develop new markets
    • Product decisions:
      • Highlight your price/ product offer
      • Have a clear positioning on the
      • market
      • Develop attractive branding
      • Give incentives to add initial
      • value to the new customer
  • Identifying Customer Segments
    • Customer segments: Homogenous groups of individuals that have similar tastes, want and needs with respect to the company’s products or services
    • Groups: Existing customers, prospects and defectors
    • Identification by:
      • Purchase behavior
        • Recorded in the CRM database
        • Allows the marketer to segment by product need and by Life Time Value
      • Profile data
        • Relate the individual customer to his or her response to past campaigns
        • Allows implementation of a ROI-driven marketing
        • Identifies tastes, needs and preferences of customer
        • Can be used to target new customers accurately
  • Developing the Communication Strategy
    • Marketing communications (marcom): Targeted interactions between company and its customers and prospects, using one or more media
    • Can use a single approach (e.g. a direct mail) or combine several approaches (e.g. direct mail with advertising in television, radio and newspapers)
    • Integrated marketing communications (IMC): management and organization of all marketing communication tools (media, messages, promotions and channels)
    • CRM database system: stores information about customer and prospect preferences, allows firm to focus marketing activities toward specific targets - effective use of IMC
  • Communication Strategies Focus in encouraging end customers and consumers to demand goods and services Pull promotional strategy Focus a promotional effort in manufacturers of goods and services to encourage the trade channel members to stock, promote and sell its products Push Promotional strategy Based on the view that an important element of the creative theme is to convey info Informational strategy Attempts to invoke involvement and emotion, with a powerful message. Affective or emotional strategy Attempts to recall events or feelings by evoking meanings, experiences, thoughts or aspirations that are relevant to target audiences Resonance Strategy Relies on development of mental or psychological associations through the use of signs, symbols and images. Brand image strategy Emphasizes superiority of the brand based on a unique feature or benefit. Unique selling proposition (USP) A generic claim is made about the superiority of the company’s brand Pre-emptive strategy No distinction between brands. Emphasis on category need rather than brand awareness (example: Promotions for a product category) Generic strategy Description Strategy
  • Communication Strategies (contd.) Source: “ Pickton David, Broderick Amanda , “Integrated Marketing Communications”, Financial Times/ Prentice-Hall , 2001 Positioning by cultural reference, where the brand is clearly associated with a particular culture, country, religion, ethnic group or sense of heritage or tradition Cultural positioning Brands promoted with understanding of relative competitive position for the target audience Positioning against a competitor Rather than competing with another brand, a brand or product category might be positioned against another product category. The competitive focus is placed on substitutes Positioning with respect to product category Focuses on the requirements of target customers and consumers Positioning by product user Segmentation and targeting can be carried out based on usage occasion Positioning by use or application Positioning can be sought in high price/high quality, prestige positions, low price/acceptable quality positions Positioning by price/quality Brand is perceived to be better than others in features emphasized by Marketing communications Positioning by attribute, product characteristic or consumer benefit Positioning strategies
  • Retention and Acquisition Media
    • Direct Mail:
    • Mailings:
          • Single-product
          • Multi-product
      • - Miscellaneous
      • - - Birthday cards
          • Thank-you notes
          • Invitations
    • Enclosures:
          • Statements
          • Parcels
    • Telemarketing:
          • Outbound
          • Inbound
    • Catalogues
    • Newspapers / bulletins
    • TV: - Direct response TV (DRTV) - TV spots
        • Home shopping channels
        • Digital TV
    • Radio: - Direct response radio (DRR)
    • - Radio spots
    • Telemarketing:
        • Outbound
        • Inbound
    • Print Media :
        • Press / newspapers
        • Magazines
        • Insert
    • Direct mail :
        • Mailings
        • Inserts
    • Internet
    • Exhibitions / field marketing
    Retention Media Acquisition Media
  • Minicase: Pro-Mark- Example of Media-mix for an Acquisition and Retention Strategy
    • $10-million drumstick maker in Houston; developed database with info. on
    • end-users by pursuing print media strategy in different specialized magazines
    • Advertising/marketing campaign strategies :
      • Recruiting test-marketers:
        • Ad offering free product samples in return for customer feedback
        • Respondents' names entered into a database, each received a catalog with sample
        • Achieved 100% response rate
      • Profiling end users
        • Ran a simple black-and-white ad asking readers to nominate them to be selected as the "Not Yet Famous Drummer”
        • Contest doubled Pro-Mark's database of names .
      • Promoting new products
        • To promote new autographed drumsticks, coupon allowing readers to buy them for $5 and enter a contest to win a chance to meet Abbruzzese in person
  • Developing the Offer
    • Offering the customer some kind of incentive that will induce him/her to buy or to ask the company for more information
    • Ranges from a free product sample to price-related incentives or an item providing information on the firm
    • Objectives should be to attract new customers or members, obtain repeated business from existing customers, reactivate lapsed customers, produce sales leads or acquire new customers
    • Record estimate of campaign costs and profitability in the CRM system - used as a “model” to fine-tune the campaign results
  • Developing the Offer (contd.)
    • Questions on campaign costs and profitability :
      • What is the product positioning?
      • What is the price?
      • What is the length of commitment?
      • What are the payment terms?
      • What are the risk reduction mechanisms?
      • How much can they afford to spend on the incentive?
      • Which promotion type should be used as an incentive?
      • What should be the promotional package?
      • Which promotional media should be used?
      • Does it involve one-stage or several stages?
  • Offer Options “ Member gets member” Automatic shipment Free trial Samples Premiums “ You have been specially chosen” Payment options Price incentives Money back guarantee Bounce-back Deluxe edition Multiple product offer Multiple discount offers Contests and sweepstakes Early bird offer
  • Campaign Budget Calculation: Methods Pre-set Budgeting
    • Determine a given year’s marketing expenditure on the basis of what
    • they spent the year before
    • Advantages:
      • Follow a more or less steady expenditure flow
    • Disadvantages:
      • Last year’s sales not considered, marketing considered as an expense rather than an investment to boost sales
  • Budget Calculation Budgeting for an allowable marketing cost (AMC)
      • Determine the amount that can be spent on campaign marketing activities,
      • while preserving the required profit margin
      • Potential expenditure is given priority according to its forecast for return on
      • investment
      • Obtained by subtracting the costs (cost of goods + distribution costs) and
      • the required profit margin from the total sales value
    • Advantages:
      • No pre-set limit to the campaign budget unless a constraint of cash-flow is
      • imposed, the company can controls costs
    • Disadvantages:
      • Many activities are hard to accurately forecast and some activities may not
      • payback in a given year
  • Budget Calculation B udgeting with the competitive parity method
    • Equating budget allocation with those of competitors
    • Advantages:
      • Emphasis is on competitor intelligence
    • Disadvantages:
      • Very difficult to be precise as to who the competitors are and what are
      • their relative sizes
      • Different marketing communication strategies for market leaders and for market followers and budgeting based on parity may not work
      • Cannot satisfactorily take into account sudden changes in the competitive activity or objectives or even the company’s own objectives
  • Budget Calculation Budgeting with the objective and task method
    • Determining marketing objectives and the marketing communications tasks needed to achieve them
    • Budget set by calculating costs of the communication tasks
    • Advantages:
      • Resources expended are limited to the objectives
    • Disadvantages:
      • Implementation difficult because it is not always easy to define the objectives and to quantify their implementation costs
      • Assumes that the relationship between objectives and tasks is
      • well known and understood
  • Budget Calculation Percentage of sales method
    • Fixed percentage of turnover allocated to marketing communications
    • Marketing communication expenditure directly linked to sales level
    • To determine the exact percentage that should be allocated, the company looks at competitor allocations and industry averages
    • To define the turnover the company can look at historic sales
    • Advantages:
      • Incorporates a series of alternatives and allocates costs to the objectives
    • Disadvantages
      • Difficult to determine the percentage of sales that must be allocated
      • Competitors may have a small advertising budget and concentrate their
      • budgets on the sales force, and this would be a deceiving benchmark
  • Budgeting with Key Performance Indicators Ratio of sales revenue to the campaign cost ROI = Sales Revenue / Total promotion expense Return on Investment (ROI) Calculated by comparing the number of buyers with number of responders to the campaign CR (%) = (number of buyers / number of responders) x 100 Conversion rate (CR) Ratio of total costs to enquiries that were converted into sales, net of returns and bad debts CPS = [Total promotion expense / (total orders- Returns and bad debts)] Cost per sale (CPS) Ratio of total campaign costs to total enquiries CPE = (Total promotion expense / total orders) Cost per enquiry (CPE) Ratio of total campaign costs to number of responses obtained CPR = (Total promotion expense / number of responses) Cost per response (CPR) Relates total cost of promotion with quantity produced. CPM = (Total promotion expense / Total quantity) x 1’000 Cost per thousand (CPM) Definition Formula Performance Measure
  • Key Performance Indicators for an Email Campaign $2 $18 $286 $100 $71 Cost per sale 2.5% 3.9% 2.0% 2.0% 1.2% Purchase Rate 10% N/A 3.5% 0.8% N/A Click through rate $5 $686 $200 $16 $850 Total $5 $270 N/A* $1 $270 Delivery N/A N/A $200 $15 $118 Media N/A $462 N/A N/A $462 Production CPM (cost per thousand) Email to house list Direct mail to house list Email to rented list Banner advertising Direct Mail to rented list Customer Retention Customer Acquisition
  • Budget Calculation
            • Lifetime Value
    • Allows the company to compare returns on alternative marketing expenditures
    • Allows comparison of return on expenditure from obtaining business from existing customers or from new ones
    • Advantages
      • Using CRM database information allows the company to predict cost of the campaign more accurately
      • Allocates resources between strategies because it allows comparison between the returns of alternative marketing campaigns
    • Disadvantages
      • Difficult to keep track of customer values because most companies lack transactional data from its customers
      • Sometimes the strategy that produces highest ROI does not provide the fastest return and therefore can be disregarded by faster strategies with lower ROI
  • Testing
    • Conducting a comparison between different ways of proceeding with a campaign
    • Test individual campaign elements, other elements remaining constant, and measure the resultant change in the performance of the campaign
    • Benefits of testing
      • Shows real behavior, as it provides a (close to) real environment in which behavior is validated
      • Augments and validates research
      • Stimulates creativity
      • Protects the company’s greatest asset (the customers): by using only small samples with each test can give customers the “proven offer”
      • Minimizes financial risk and avoids costly errors
      • Uncovers ways to reduce costs
  • Variables for Testing
    • Key variable: the target audience - in the form of a list of targeted customers and prospects
    • Offer variables - prices, incentives, proposition
    • The format - physical shape, the “feel”, and the size
    • The creative element - the appeal, the tone, and the message
    • The media and/or the timing
  • Performance Measures Tested to Predict Campaign Results
    • Response to the campaign, in percentage
      • The number of responses obtained divided by the total number of customers selected will give the response rate, in percentage
      • Response rate serves as an indicator of the success that the particular campaign being tested can achieve
    • Campaign profitability
      • Performance results allows an estimate for the revenues of the real campaign
      • Total campaign costs (expenses of preparing the campaign, testing costs plus cost of running the campaign) deducted from the revenues, gives a prediction for the profitability of the campaign
  • Testing in Different Media
    • Direct Mail
      • Direct marketer controls every aspect of the campaign, including the timing and the budget
      • Testing of all elements possible
    • Telemarketing
      • In one call session, promotion of a particular product or service,
      • testing a different script or promotion, etc possible
    • Press and Inserts: not as easy and inexpensive as others
      • Split-run testing (different versions in different magazines)
      • A/B splits (alternative copies in same publications)
      • Cross-over test (different elements changed in different messages and rerun with same audience)
  • Potential Problems in Testing
    • Performing several tests with the same set of customers
    • Limited time validity: since customer preferences change over time, conclusions drawn from tests often short-lived
    • Testing the same things all over again
    • Optimizing a particular campaign driving the testing rather than having a successful marketing program
  • Campaign Execution
    • Operational process by which a campaign is implemented
    • Implementation and coordination
      • The campaign program
      • The campaign schedule
      • The activity schedule
    • Monitoring and fine-tuning
      • Revision of planning based on enquiry or orders performance alone.
      • Adjustment of the media selection
      • Undertaking corrective action if the campaign included a first sequence
      • of creative and offer testing
  • Causes of Campaign Failures
    • When marketing planning is undertaken at a functional level and does not integrate with other functional areas of the company
    • Separating the responsibilities of operational marketing and strategic marketing planning, leading to a divergence of short and long term objectives
    • Concern over short-term results at the operational level will make the company less competitive in the long term
    • Top management not taking an active role in marketing planning
    • If the degree of formalization of campaign management is not adapted to the diversity of operations within the company and its size
  • Analysis and Control
    • Evaluates campaign results in light of original objectives and determines campaign level of success or failure
    • Measuring campaign results
      • Comparing the CPM, CPS, ROI, and the CR with the budgeted KIP
      • Back-end performance analysis
        • Direct mailing: statement of profit or loss for the campaign promotion
        • For a loyalty program: allowable marketing cost and break-even
        • Contribution: Campaign costs deducted from the gross margin and resulting value divided by the number of new customers
        • New customer lifetime value and attrition rate
      • Return on Promotion (ROP)
      • ROP = [(Contribution – Cost per order) / Cost per order] x 100
  • Analysis and Control (contd.)
    • Response analysis
      • Calculates the campaign results up-to-date, projects its final results, as responses, inquiries and leads, and analyzes these results
      • Can be performed with customer and market segments, product lines, campaigns, offers and promotions, media or advertising agencies
      • Responses recorded in CRM database should be summarized by time, i.e., by arrival date
      • Results can be analyzed as soon as the first campaign responses are known and eventually can correct the campaign progression
  • Profile Analysis
    • Used to define and compare the profile of campaign responders with the actual profile of the company’s customers and prospects
    • Allows marketers to verify if the initial targeted profile actually corresponds with the responder’s profiles, i.e., if the customer segments were well targeted
    • Should be performed at different stages of the campaign
    • Considers the input (generally geographic, demographic or psychographic) and clusters names into groups with similar tastes and preferences
    • Statistical techniques as automatic interaction detection (AID) and chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) also used in analysis
  • Campaign Feedback
    • Record all relevant data about campaign planning, implementation and results
    • Model relationships between data gathered, the controllable variables and campaign results
    • Apply this knowledge to future campaigns
  • Summary
    • A successful campaign management process comprises of planning, development, execution and analysis
    • When pursuing a customer retention strategy, ideally the company should target its most profitable customers (via LTV and/or RFM analyses)
    • The CRM database plays a central role in customer segmentation process by providing information on customer behaviors and profiles, channel preferences and brand awareness
    • Making a campaign budget should be a balance between measurement, financial calculations, competitive analysis and good judgment
    • Testing can accurately predict performance measures like response to the campaign in percentage and campaign profitability
    • Campaign analysis can be done using campaign key performance indicators, by using back end performance analysis, or profile and response analysis