Speaking, bicycling, multiplication by 7s, urinary control, taste of oranges, balancing when standing, anxiety associated with public speaking, smell of bananas, the appearance of your face, your mothers name, first day of school………………
“ it is not possible to demonstrate the isolated localization of a memory trace anywhere in the nervous system. Limited regions may be essential for learning or retention of a particular activity, but the engram is represented throughout the region” (1950)
EQUIPOTENTIALITY – all parts of the cortex contribute equally to complex behaviors such as learning: any part of the cortex can substitute for any other
MASS ACTION – the cortex works as a whole, and the more cortex the better
Infantile amnesia – inability to remember events from early infancy or early childhood
Fugue state – transient disturbance of consciousness in which a person performs purposeful acts but has no conscious recollection of those actions
Transient Global Amnesia – short-lived neurologic disturbance characterized by memory loss (usually loss of old memories and an inability to form new memories) most often caused by ischemia (interruption of blood flow to the brain; usually due to constriction or obstruction in blood vessels)
Do you remember one training session that you gave? Something that may have happened, a specific incident?
Well for example I always recommended that people take customer service first. And I always had people come up with four things about themselves, three that were true and one that was false. Not necessarily in that order.
But this was something ongoing, so every training session you would tell people this, right?
I’m getting the impression that you have a really good memory for all the training that you’ve done but you don’t seem to be able to come up with a specific talk that maybe stands out in your mind for any reason? Would you agree with that?
Oh yes well I always trained customer service.
So there was no talk that maybe something went wrong or something strange happened?
On one occasion, he stood at the door of his bedroom frustrated by his inability to recall how to turn on the lights. He remarked “I must be crazy. I’ve done this in my life, and now I can’t remember how to do it!”
Huntington’s Chorea – mirror drawing task
4. What About The Neural Basis of Implicit Memories?
Information about the CS and US is transmitted to amygdala (12 regions – lateral amygdala)
Information is transmitted from amygdala to the behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine response control systems located in the brainstem.
5. Fear Conditioning – Where is it in the Brain? Auditory Cortex Thalamus Amygdala MGv MGm Behavior ANS HPS CS (10 kHz tone) MGv- ventral medial geniculate nucleus MGm- medial medial geniculate nucleus
Auditory Cortex Thalamus Amygdala MGv MGm 5. Fear Conditioning – What Happens if Amygdala is Lesioned? CS (10 kHz tone)
Auditory Cortex Thalamus Amygdala MGv MGm 5. Fear Conditioning – What Happens if MG of Thalamus is Lesioned? CS (10 kHz tone)
Auditory Cortex Thalamus Amygdala MGv MGm 5. Fear Conditioning – What Happens if Auditory Cortex is Lesioned? CS (10 kHz tone)
Rats sometimes exhibit fear responses when they are returned to the chamber in which the tone and shock were paired, or a chamber in which shocks occur alone
This is an example of contextual fear conditioning
5. What Structure Mediates Contextual Fear Conditioning? Amygdala Hippocampus Fear Reaction Contextual Stimulus (the look of the room, location, etc.)
5. Is Hippocampus Important for Spatial Learning and Memory? Operant Conditioning Approach Internalized cognitive map Dependent measure: Latency to find platform Page 494
5. Hippocampus Spatial Learning and Memory Lesions of the hippocampus cause deficits in spatial learning Animals fail to show improvement over time – “no memory of location in space” Intact rats show rapid improvement over trials Page 494
5. Hippocampus Spatial Learning and Memory birds that store food in different locations have relatively larger hippocampi Page 506
Protein synthesis is important – Cycloxemide (protein synthesis inhibitor) blocks memory formation
Glutamate plays an important role in LTP
Two glutamate receptors: NMDA and AMPA
Postsynaptic neuron more “sensitive”
6. Cellular Basis of Learning and Memory LTP Changes in The Synapse Pages 181-182
If NMDA receptors are important, could organisms learn faster and have better memory if they have more NMDA receptors? How can we increase the number of NMDA receptors? 6. Cellular Basis of Learning and Memory