Nonviolent Crime and Criminals Chapter 6
Substance Related Crimes and Criminals
Introduction <ul><li>Crimes committed to gain access to narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes committed to resolve drug relat...
Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Definition of substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors affecting connectio...
Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Drug crime relationship explanations and treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non cau...
Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Walter’s integrated model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive and opportunity </li><...
Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Walter’s integrated model cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation and maintenance...
Alcohol Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Personality traits correlated to criminal behavior while intoxicated </li></u...
Drug Dealing <ul><li>Highest arrest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Harshest penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood characterist...
Drug Dealing <ul><li>Drug dealer profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell as alternative to low paying job or unemployment </li>...
Drug and Crime Involved Women <ul><li>Female drug offenders tend to come from families where drug dependence and criminal ...
Legal Aspects of Substance Related Crime <ul><li>Debate over whether alcohol/drug addictions are disabling illnesses or de...
Treatment Opportunities <ul><li>Some states offer treatment programs for addicts </li></ul><ul><li>Small percentage of dru...
Organized Crime
Money Laundering <ul><li>Evolving universal definition of money laundering </li></ul><ul><li>Current wide ranging definiti...
Money Laundering <ul><li>Essential activities to money laundering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Gambling/Loan Sharking/Numbers Running <ul><li>Monetary proceeds received second only to illegal drug sale and distributio...
Racketeering <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes but not limited to murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, emb...
White Collar Crime
Defining White Collar Crime <ul><li>Edwin Sutherland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime committed by respectable person of high s...
Embezzlement <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of goods that one had been entrusted with by another </li></ul...
SEC Violations – Insider Trading <ul><li>Misperception of insider trading definition </li></ul><ul><li>Insiders with tradi...
SEC Violations – Securities Fraud <ul><li>Securities and commodities fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sale, transfer, or pu...
Fraud
Internet Fraud <ul><li>Five general types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auction and retail schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Busi...
Telemarketing Fraud <ul><li>False promises made offering goods or services, requesting investments or asking for charitabl...
Telemarketing Fraud <ul><li>Varying telemarketing schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Identity Theft and Identity Fraud <ul><li>Loose definition </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Personal informatio...
Other types of Fraud <ul><li>Health care fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submission of false claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Offenders and Victims <ul><li>Victim characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone – especially if careless </li></ul></ul>...
Internet Crime
Electronically Generated Child Pornography <ul><li>Definition of crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowingly mailing/transportin...
Cyberstalking <ul><li>Use of the internet to harass victims  </li></ul><ul><li>Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search chat...
Stalking
Background Information <ul><li>Common elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted behavioral intrusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Love obsessional stalker <ul><li>Celebrity stalking </li></ul><ul><li>Offender profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental illne...
Erotomanic stalker <ul><li>Delusional thought patterns convince the offender he/she is truly loved by the victim </li></ul...
Stalker profile/motivations <ul><li>Antisocial personality disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More violent stalkers </li></ul>...
Predispositional Theories <ul><li>Disturbances in early attachment relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Recent loss in adulthoo...
Sexual Harassment
Developments in the Law <ul><li>Not addressed until 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Two prong test to determine a hostile work envi...
Sexual Harassment: Types, Models and Modalities  <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Modalities <ul><li>Verbal Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Visual hrassment </li></ul>
Mental health concerns  <ul><li>Victims suffer from anger, depression, anxiety and substance use/abuse </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Property Crimes
Theft <ul><li>Larceny theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful taking, carrying leading or riding away of property from the po...
Theft <ul><li>Unemployment has a positive impact on commission of property crimes  </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment Property...
Arson <ul><li>Willful and malicious burning of property </li></ul><ul><li>Essential components to designate an act as arso...
Arson <ul><li>Types of arson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial arsonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three or more fire setti...
Motivations – John Douglas <ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Crim...
Profiles – Holmes and Holmes  <ul><li>White males </li></ul><ul><li>Between ages of 16 and 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor acade...
Prostitution
Why women engage in prostitution <ul><li>No consistent profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To acquire money for drug habit </li>...
Impact on Women’s Lives <ul><li>Emotional damage resulting from stigmatizing factors such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negativ...
Impact on Women’s Lives <ul><li>Financial independence </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual power </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reliance </li...
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Nonviolent Crime and Criminals Chapter 6

  1. 1. Nonviolent Crime and Criminals Chapter 6
  2. 2. Substance Related Crimes and Criminals
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Crimes committed to gain access to narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes committed to resolve drug related disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral reaction to mind altering influence of drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased sense of grandiosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable conduct stimulated </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Definition of substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors affecting connection between drug use and crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacological effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violence associated with drug use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs effect brain function and perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent and nonviolent crimes committed to obtain illegal substances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes committed to maintain dependence and avoid withdrawal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One involved in selling drugs seeks justice for unpaid debts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Drug crime relationship explanations and treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non causal, epiphenomenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs don’t cause crime and crime doesn’t cause drug use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat through psychoanalytic/behavioral therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unidirectional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime caused drug use and drug use causes crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat through twelve step programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs and crime are causes and effects of one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treat by establishing therapeutic communities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Walter’s integrated model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive and opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established through fear – fear of rejection by drug using peer group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear manifests when exposure to drug culture is great </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associations with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn to life of crime/drug use through dispositional/situational factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics of individual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual expectations of drug use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of associations in drug culture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Drug Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Walter’s integrated model cont. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation and maintenance of criminal lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predisposing variables – already at risk for drug involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family history of drug use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-existing tendency to act impulsively/aggressively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitating variables – introduction to drug use lifestyle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peer or intimate introduction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience with economic rewards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance variable – encouragement of sustained involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ready source of income and/or recreational activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Alcohol Related Crimes and Criminals <ul><li>Personality traits correlated to criminal behavior while intoxicated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation seekers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk takers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol intoxication and behavioral changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher risk taking – especially in men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to drive while intoxicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement in property damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High risk sexual behavior </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Drug Dealing <ul><li>Highest arrest rates </li></ul><ul><li>Harshest penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central location of community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical deterioration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social disorganization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predicting drug use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low income of community residents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low status of residents occupations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Drug Dealing <ul><li>Drug dealer profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell as alternative to low paying job or unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelmingly African-American/minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drug arrest practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrests in socially disorganized areas more accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrest practices in mid and upper class neighborhoods more difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police patrol disorganized neighborhoods more frequently and intensely </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Drug and Crime Involved Women <ul><li>Female drug offenders tend to come from families where drug dependence and criminal behavior are common </li></ul><ul><li>Positive non criminal and non drug using relationships help females in rehabilitation to discontinue drug use </li></ul><ul><li>Females who enter drug treatment become dependent on social and family support </li></ul>
  12. 12. Legal Aspects of Substance Related Crime <ul><li>Debate over whether alcohol/drug addictions are disabling illnesses or deliberate acts of misconduct </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished mental capacity not appropriate defense when intoxication is voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary intoxication – one can rely on diminished capacity defense </li></ul><ul><li>Substance induced disorders can be claimed as diminished capacity in face of criminal charges </li></ul>
  13. 13. Treatment Opportunities <ul><li>Some states offer treatment programs for addicts </li></ul><ul><li>Small percentage of drug users receive needed treatment/rehabilitation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organized Crime
  15. 15. Money Laundering <ul><li>Evolving universal definition of money laundering </li></ul><ul><li>Current wide ranging definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concealing the existence of income, then disguising it to make it appear legitimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of taking proceeds of criminal activity and making them appear legal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of making funds derived from illicit activity appear legitimate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal drug traffickers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal arms dealers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Money Laundering <ul><li>Essential activities to money laundering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing illicitly derived money into a non illicit form and then placing that money into a legitimate financial system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of these funds to conceal illicit funds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reintroduction of the money into a legitimate financial economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Gambling/Loan Sharking/Numbers Running <ul><li>Monetary proceeds received second only to illegal drug sale and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Bookmaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking bets on sporting events – bookies get interest on losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loan Sharking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bookies lend money to gambler with high interest rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numbers Running </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to “daily number” of state lotteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper and better pay offs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caters to and facilitated by poor urbanites </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Racketeering <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes but not limited to murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, embezzlement, bribery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have to commit to be charged (co-conspirator) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor racketeering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal infiltration into labor unions for personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims are members of labor unions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money taken off the top of cash transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreported, tax free income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bankruptcy fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partner with legitimate business establishments to commit fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized crime syndicates obtain money/merchandise without the bank’s knowledge and legitimate business files bankruptcy </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. White Collar Crime
  20. 20. Defining White Collar Crime <ul><li>Edwin Sutherland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime committed by respectable person of high social status in the course of their occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too general </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Donald Gibbons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of business rules to benefit legitimate enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not account for fraud and embezzlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinnard & Quinney </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non violent infractions of legal codes within an otherwise legitimate enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Congressional Subcommittee on Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal act committed by nonphysical means and concealment to obtain money/property or personal/business advantage </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Embezzlement <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of goods that one had been entrusted with by another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminal profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often highly educated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known to the person from whom they are stealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be the model employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulative and scheming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic hardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufactured economic needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To compensate for health care or treatment needs </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. SEC Violations – Insider Trading <ul><li>Misperception of insider trading definition </li></ul><ul><li>Insiders with trading restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directors/owners/officers that have decision making authority affecting the entire organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Illegal insider trading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information not made public used for personal profit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No clear definition of what comprises insider information </li></ul>
  23. 23. SEC Violations – Securities Fraud <ul><li>Securities and commodities fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sale, transfer, or purchase of securities or money interests in business activities of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Boiler-room” operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to promote sales of fraudulent securities or to acquire charitable donations from unknowing donators </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Fraud
  25. 25. Internet Fraud <ul><li>Five general types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auction and retail schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business opportunity schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity theft and fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit card schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acts to prevent spammers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Fraud and Abuse Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications Privacy Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious fines </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Telemarketing Fraud <ul><li>False promises made offering goods or services, requesting investments or asking for charitable donations </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiating fraud from legitimate enterprises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of illegitimate enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make the scheme seem to be a charitable cause worthy of payment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining immediate payment – before victim can inspect value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devising a perception of validity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reloading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fraudulent operations re approaches those victims it has been successful in scheming in the past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely that tracking will occur if the victim and the illegitimate business are in separate states. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Telemarketing Fraud <ul><li>Varying telemarketing schemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit card schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lottery schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazine/prize promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit repair and loan schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment/business opportunity schemes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Identity Theft and Identity Fraud <ul><li>Loose definition </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Personal information obtained and used by offenders </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder surfing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dumpster diving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998 law – Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act </li></ul>
  29. 29. Other types of Fraud <ul><li>Health care fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submission of false claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment or receipt of bribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self referrals </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Offenders and Victims <ul><li>Victim characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone – especially if careless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly more vulnerable to financial fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of internet fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Careless in disclosing personal data while online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agree to pay advance fees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of identity theft and fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely trusting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disclose personal information to others (known and unknown) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of telemarketing fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of fraudulent behavior in past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Names purchased from lead brokers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Offenders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivated by money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low recidivism rate </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Internet Crime
  32. 32. Electronically Generated Child Pornography <ul><li>Definition of crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowingly mailing/transporting any child pornography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Child pornography prevention act (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>What computer generated child pornography can lead to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedophiles use images to whet deviant appetites and lure children into sexually explicit activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desensitizes viewers into a pathology of sexual abuse/exploitation of children </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Cyberstalking <ul><li>Use of the internet to harass victims </li></ul><ul><li>Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search chat rooms for vulnerable individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spy on a person’s online activities anonymously </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Stalking
  35. 35. Background Information <ul><li>Common elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted behavioral intrusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit or explicit threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable fear is experienced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varying clinical definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessional following </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment is relatively new </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of stalking scarce until recently </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Love obsessional stalker <ul><li>Celebrity stalking </li></ul><ul><li>Offender profiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of successful intimate relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially maladjusted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiate correspondence with the victim and when they do not receive a response – frustration and anger </li></ul>
  37. 37. Erotomanic stalker <ul><li>Delusional thought patterns convince the offender he/she is truly loved by the victim </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators are usually female and rarely act in physically violent manner </li></ul><ul><li>Victims are typically men of high socio-economic status or celebrity status </li></ul>
  38. 38. Stalker profile/motivations <ul><li>Antisocial personality disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More violent stalkers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Borderline personality disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealistic sense of importance of relationship’s intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalks after being rejected after short term relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Histrionic personality disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionally dramatic stalkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers relationships more intimate than they are </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic personality disorder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on stalking fantasies to fulfill their own psychological emptiness </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Predispositional Theories <ul><li>Disturbances in early attachment relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Recent loss in adulthood acting as a triggering factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminated marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of a job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messy divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of a parent </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Sexual Harassment
  41. 41. Developments in the Law <ul><li>Not addressed until 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Two prong test to determine a hostile work environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonableness standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treating sexual harassment as outcome of a legal test that takes into consideration totality of circumstances in the workplace </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Sexual Harassment: Types, Models and Modalities <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor demanding sexual favors in exchange for tangible job benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee is a victim of unwelcome sexual conduct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broad based models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex role spillover theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency of men to invoke sex based stereotypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment is the result of an encouraging individual and situational factors </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Modalities <ul><li>Verbal Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Visual hrassment </li></ul>
  44. 44. Mental health concerns <ul><li>Victims suffer from anger, depression, anxiety and substance use/abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Poor coping mechanisms lead to more serious psychopathologies </li></ul><ul><li>Females experience higher levels of psychological distress than male victims </li></ul>
  45. 45. Property Crimes
  46. 46. Theft <ul><li>Larceny theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful taking, carrying leading or riding away of property from the possession of another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in more arrests for females and juveniles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Burglary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offenders lifestyles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know others who engage in deviance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to criminal activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of capable guardians </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Theft <ul><li>Unemployment has a positive impact on commission of property crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment Property Crimes </li></ul>
  48. 48. Arson <ul><li>Willful and malicious burning of property </li></ul><ul><li>Essential components to designate an act as arson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning of property or actual destruction of a target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of malice </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Arson <ul><li>Types of arson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial arsonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three or more fire setting incidents with cooling off periods between </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unpredictable and most serious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spree arsonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three or more fires at separate locations with no cooling off period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass arsonist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three or more fires at same location within a limited amount of time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Motivations – John Douglas <ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Crime concealment </li></ul><ul><li>profit </li></ul>
  51. 51. Profiles – Holmes and Holmes <ul><li>White males </li></ul><ul><li>Between ages of 16 and 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor academic adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal histories linked to delinquency </li></ul><ul><li>Repressed rage toward society </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings of inadequacy, inferiority and reclusive-ness </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol/drug use </li></ul>
  52. 52. Prostitution
  53. 53. Why women engage in prostitution <ul><li>No consistent profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To acquire money for drug habit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial provisions for minorities or those in lower classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of enduring childhood/life long patterns of abuse by men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of enduring childhood sexual abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of literal or psychological abandonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of run away behavior </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Impact on Women’s Lives <ul><li>Emotional damage resulting from stigmatizing factors such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative social attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control over work situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment from clients and the police </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased opportunities for violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations representing women in the sex industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Task Force on Prostitution - Women have right to determine how they use their bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US Prostitutes’ Collective – sex work is a class isue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHISPER – prostitutes are victims of a patriarchal structure </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Impact on Women’s Lives <ul><li>Financial independence </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual power </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of research </li></ul>

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