Introduction to the Criminal Justice System

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  • Introduction to the Criminal Justice System

    1. 1. Introduction to the Criminal Justice System
    2. 2. Who am I??? <ul><li>Dr. Art Jipson, </li></ul><ul><li>Ph.D.,Sociology and Criminology. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling Green State University. </li></ul><ul><li>My studies emphasized conflict, </li></ul><ul><li>crime, social inequality, and </li></ul><ul><li>political sociology. I minored in </li></ul><ul><li>sociological theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral Dissertation entitled: </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory Democracy: An </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the Drive for </li></ul><ul><li>Teamster Democracy, 1970 – </li></ul><ul><li>1993 . </li></ul>
    3. 3. Recent Work <ul><li>Research on White Racial Extremism </li></ul><ul><li>Research on the Use and Meaning of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Research on the Ford Pinto Case </li></ul><ul><li>Research on White Collar, Fraud, & Corp Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Research on Correctional Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Research on Roadside Memorials </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is a sociological perspective toward crime? Crime is a social phenomenon Therefore, Fraud is a social phenomenon
    5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the two most common models of how society determines which acts are criminal. </li></ul><ul><li>Define crime and the different types of crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between the formal and informal criminal justice process. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the layers of the “wedding cake” model. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast the different models. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the CJS approach Fraud </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is crime <ul><li>A phenom enon of Society </li></ul><ul><li>Each society decides what conduct is criminal </li></ul><ul><li>Society also determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjudication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punishment </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What is crime? <ul><li>It it’s simplest definition, crime is any specific act prohibited by law for which society has provided a formally sanctioned punishment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This can include the failure of a person to perform an act specifically required by law. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Crime is not new <ul><li>1849 California Gold Rush </li></ul><ul><li>89,000 Miners </li></ul><ul><li>20% dead in first six months (mostly homicide) </li></ul><ul><li>Crime rate led to the creation of one of the first state prisons. </li></ul>
    9. 9. San Quentin Prison one of the first prisons ever constructed in the US
    10. 10. Crime does not always make sense: Odd laws <ul><li>Minnesota: </li></ul><ul><li>--It is illegal to tease skunks. </li></ul><ul><li>--Every man in Brainerd is required by law to grow a beard. </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan: </li></ul><ul><li>--A state law stipulates that a woman's hair legally belongs to her husband. </li></ul><ul><li>--Under state law, dentists are officially classified as &quot;mechanics.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--In Clawson, it is legal for a man to &quot;sleep with his pigs, cows, horses, goats, and chickens.&quot; </li></ul>
    11. 11. The theme of the criminal justice system: Balancing the concern for individual rights with the need for public order.
    12. 12. Does the CJS Over-criminalize? <ul><li>Story of the cursing canoist… </li></ul><ul><li>Curfews… </li></ul>
    13. 13. What is crime <ul><li>Before the criminal justice system can function we must first define what is: </li></ul>Crime
    14. 14. What is crime? <ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><li>Burglary </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Larceny </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Vehicle Theft </li></ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul>
    15. 15. It is also <ul><li>Sneaking into a movie theater </li></ul><ul><li>Taking towels from a hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal parking </li></ul><ul><li>Littering </li></ul><ul><li>Skateboarding in unlawful areas </li></ul><ul><li>Jaywalking </li></ul><ul><li>Speeding </li></ul>
    16. 16. Criminal Offenses require: <ul><li>1. Harm </li></ul><ul><li>2. Legality </li></ul><ul><li>3. Actus reus = action </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mens rea = intent </li></ul><ul><li>5. Causation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Concurrence </li></ul><ul><li>7. Punishment </li></ul>
    17. 17. Ohio Revised Code <ul><li>A crime or public offense is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it and to which is annexed, upon conviction, either of the following punishments: </li></ul><ul><li>Death or </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Fine </li></ul><ul><li>Removal from office </li></ul><ul><li>Disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit in this state </li></ul>
    18. 18. Crime simply… A crime or public offense is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it.
    19. 19. As society becomes more complex, so do our laws and CJS <ul><li>In 1990, California became the first state to enact a specific stalking law. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Types of Offenses <ul><li>Crimes are classified by the seriousness of the offenses as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>A felony is the most serious offense, for which the offender may be sentenced to state prison or death. </li></ul><ul><li>Felonies generally include violent crimes, sex offenses, and many types of drug and property violations. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Types of Offenses <ul><li>A misdemeanor is a less serious offense for which the offender may be sentenced to probation, county jail, a fine, or some combination of the three. </li></ul><ul><li>Misdemeanors generally include crimes such as assault and battery, petty theft, and public drunkenness. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Types of Offenses <ul><li>An infraction is the least serious offense and is generally punishable by a fine. Many motor vehicle violations are considered infractions. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Types of Crime <ul><li>Violent Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Property Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Public Order Crime </li></ul><ul><li>High-Tech Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Crime </li></ul><ul><li>White-collar Crime </li></ul>
    24. 24. Major Categories of Violent Crime <ul><li>Murder, or unlawful killing of a human being </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual assault or rape </li></ul><ul><li>Assault and Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul>
    25. 25. What Stands between the Criminal and the People?
    26. 26. What Stands Between the Criminal and the People? Criminal Justice System
    27. 27. Components of the Criminal Justice System Components of Criminal Justice Police Courts Corrections The Criminal Justice System
    28. 28. Criminal case processing. Source: Adapted from U.S. Dept. of Justice
    29. 29. The Criminal Justice System: Purpose and Goals <ul><li>To control crime </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent crime </li></ul><ul><li>To provide and maintain justice </li></ul>
    30. 30. Criminal Justice Funnel Of 1,000 crimes that are committed Only 5 juveniles and 18 adults are incarcerated
    31. 31. Structure of the Criminal Justice System <ul><li>Police </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Law Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Law Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Law Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosecutors and Defenders </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Structure of the Criminal Justice System <ul><li>Corrections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incarceration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Based Corrections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parole </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The Criminal Justice System: Size and Expense <ul><li>55,000 different public agencies </li></ul><ul><li>$147 billion annual budget </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 million employees </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 police agencies </li></ul><ul><li>17,000 courts </li></ul>
    34. 34. The Criminal Justice System: Size and Expense <ul><li>8,000 prosecutorial agencies </li></ul><ul><li>5,700 correctional institutions </li></ul><ul><li>3,500 probation and parole departments </li></ul><ul><li>15 million arrests per year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million for felonies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Correctional population of 2 million </li></ul><ul><li>Additional 4 million on probation or parole </li></ul>
    35. 35. The Criminal Justice System: Size and Expense <ul><li>Law Enforcement employs over 1 million sworn personnel, not counting civilian employees </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections employs over 717,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Court systems employ 455,000 </li></ul><ul><li>It costs $70,000 to build a jail or prison cell </li></ul><ul><li>It costs $25,000 a year to house an inmate </li></ul>
    36. 36. Department of Homeland Security <ul><li>The newest federal criminal justice agency was created by President George W. Bush on November 25, 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Headed by Tom Ridge </li></ul>
    37. 37. Role of the Police <ul><li>Protect lives and property </li></ul><ul><li>The only criminal justice component that deals with persons not charged with a crime. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Role of the Police <ul><li>Duties are becoming more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Greater use of discretion </li></ul><ul><li>If possible use alternatives other than arrest. </li></ul><ul><li>When necessary arrest law violators </li></ul>
    39. 39. Role of the Police <ul><li>Felony arrests require probable or reasonable cause </li></ul><ul><li>Misdemeanor arrests may be made if act is “in-presence” of officer </li></ul>
    40. 40. Role of the Courts <ul><li>To seek truth & obtain justice </li></ul><ul><li>To adjudicate & sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>municipal courts* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superior courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appellate courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supreme court </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Role of the Courts <ul><li>Plea Bargain accepted in 90% of criminal cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Also referred to as Bargain Justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecution and defense form “adversary system” of justice </li></ul>
    42. 42. Is this your idea of Corrections? <ul><li>It is also home arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Community supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Probation </li></ul><ul><li>Parole </li></ul><ul><li>And lastly, Confinement </li></ul>
    43. 43. Discretion <ul><li>Discretion permits justice officials at all levels to make decisions that will keep the system operating </li></ul>
    44. 44. Discretionary Decisions <ul><li>Criminal justice officials must make decisions every day concerning their duties </li></ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To enforce the law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate specific crimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search people or buildings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrest or detain people </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Discretionary Decisions <ul><li>Prosecutors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File charges against suspects brought to them by the police </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drop cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce charges </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Discretionary Decisions <ul><li>Judges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set conditions for pre-trial release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept pleas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dismiss charges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impose sentences </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Discretionary Decisions <ul><li>Correctional Officials </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assign convicts to prison or jail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punish prisoners who misbehave </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward prisoners who behave well </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Structure of the Criminal Justice System
    49. 49. Crime in the United States
    50. 50. Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today <ul><li>Three Strikes You’re Out </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in the crime rate </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crime as a political issue </li></ul><ul><li>Tougher sentencing laws </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of parole in some states </li></ul><ul><li>Increased vigilance given to drug cases </li></ul>
    51. 51. Prison and Jail Populations in the United States <ul><li>Figure 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Prison and Jail Populations in the United States, 1985 - 2000 </li></ul>
    52. 52. Thinking about trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today <ul><li>Women in prison are growing faster than any other group! </li></ul><ul><li>Is this due to more female criminality or differences in how they are treated, or both? </li></ul>
    53. 53. Other Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today <ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Media Distortion of Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>False perception of a crime epidemic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggestion that crime rates are increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impression that most crime is violent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White Collar and Corporate Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esp. Fraud </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Fraud <ul><li>Jason Scott finished his tax return. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything was in order except his withholding amount. </li></ul><ul><li>For some reason, the federal income tax withholdings on his final paycheck was $5 higher than on his W-2 form. </li></ul><ul><li>What did he discover? </li></ul>
    55. 55. Case <ul><li>Most of the 1,500 company employees had a $5 discrepancy between their reported withholdings and the actual amount withheld. </li></ul><ul><li>The W-2 of Don Hawkins, one of the programmers in charge of the payroll system, showed that thousands of dollars more in withholding had been reported to the IRS than had been withheld from his paycheck. </li></ul>
    56. 56. The Fraud Process Most frauds involve three steps. The theft of something The conversion to cash The concealment
    57. 57. Why Fraud Occurs Researchers have compared the psychological and demographic characteristics of three groups of people: White-collar criminals Violent criminals General public Few differences Significant differences
    58. 58. Why Fraud Occurs <ul><li>What are some common characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>of fraud perpetrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Most spend their illegal income rather than invest or save it. </li></ul><ul><li>Once they begin the fraud, it is very hard for them to stop. </li></ul><ul><li>They usually begin to rely on the extra income </li></ul>
    59. 59. Why Fraud Occurs <ul><li>Perpetrators of computer fraud tend to be younger and possess more computer knowledge, experience, and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Some computer fraud perpetrators are more motivated by curiosity and the challenge of “beating the system.” </li></ul><ul><li>Others commit fraud to gain stature among others in the computer community. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Why Fraud Occurs <ul><li>Three conditions are necessary for fraud to occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pressure or motive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An opportunity = opportunity structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rationalization </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Preventing and Detecting Fraud <ul><li>Law enforcement officials and the courts are so busy with violent crimes that they have little time for fraud cases. </li></ul><ul><li>It is difficult, costly, and time consuming to investigate. </li></ul><ul><li>Many law enforcement officials, lawyers, and judges lack the computer skills needed to investigate, prosecute, and evaluate computer crimes. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Preventing and Detecting Computer Fraud <ul><ul><li>Most fraud cases go unreported and unprosecuted. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many cases of fraud are as yet undetected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges of applying traditional law enforcement techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companies are reluctant to report fraud </li></ul></ul></ul>
    63. 63. CJS Methods and Data <ul><li>How do we acquire data on the commission of crimes? </li></ul>
    64. 64. Crime Data <ul><li>Related to preventing and detecting fraud and other crimes is the important question of how we gather information and data about these crimes! </li></ul>
    65. 65. Who do we ask? <ul><li>Data on crime can come from any of four sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the offender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each of these has advantages and disadvantages. Detail follows. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) (Ask the police) <ul><li>Prepared by the FBI at the national level and by many state crime commissions (including Ohio's) so as to be compatible with the FBI. The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program, which began in 1929, collects information about crimes reported to the police. </li></ul><ul><li>Part I (or type I) Offenses: Eight severe crimes that form the crime rate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical order of the list is important; most severe crimes are listed before those deemed less severe. </li></ul></ul>
    67. 67. Homicide <ul><li>Murder. The unlawful killing with malice aforethought. </li></ul><ul><li>Manslaughter. The unlawful killing without malice aforethought. </li></ul><ul><li>Death by Negligence. Death due to negligence of a person other than the victim; occurs at a time other than during the commission of an unlawful act. </li></ul><ul><li>Felony/Murder Doctrine: If death occurs during or because of an unlawful act, murder charges will be brought if that act was a felony and manslaughter charges will be brought if that act was a misdemeanor. </li></ul>
    68. 68. Violent Crime rates
    69. 69. Rape/Sexual Assault (Excludes rape-murders) <ul><li>Rape by force. The &quot;carnal knowledge&quot; of a female by force against her will. Excludes statutory rape and other sex offenses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a sexist element here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently states have reconsidered this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assault to rape. Assaults and attempts to rape. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Rape rates declined after 1991
    71. 71. Robbery <ul><li>Robbery defined - the forcible taking of property from another against that person's will. Robbery is larceny plus assault ! (Category excludes robberies in which a rape or a homicide is present.) </li></ul><ul><li>Armed robbery. Any object is employed to force compliance or threaten it. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Arm robbery. No weapon is used, but physical means of violence are present. Includes muggings, etc. </li></ul>
    72. 72. Robbery rates declined from 1994 through 2002 and then stabilized.
    73. 73. Felony Assault <ul><li>Felony Assault - the attempt or threat to do physical injury to another with unlawful force. At the felony level, victim must suffer--or be in danger of suffering--great bodily harm. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Excludes assaults with intent to rape, rob, or kill.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gun or other firearm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knife or other cutting instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other dangerous weapon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands, fists, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. Assault rates have declined since 1994
    75. 75. Burglary <ul><li>Burglary - the unlawful entry or attempted forcible entry of any structure to commit a felony or larceny. (Excludes any burglary in which a crime against person is also involved.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcible entry. Includes the use of a master key or concealment inside followed by breaking out (i.e., forcible exit). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful entry (without force) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted forcible entry </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. After many years of declining, burglary rates have stabilized.
    77. 77. Larceny <ul><li>Larceny - the unlawful taking of another's property with the intent to deprive him or her of ownership. (Excludes any larceny involving a crime against person. Also excludes larcenies involving a burglary. Also excludes larcenies of motor vehicles.) </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: &quot;Larceny&quot; and &quot;theft&quot; are synonyms! </li></ul>
    78. 78. Property crime rates have decreased
    79. 79. Most of us will experience Larceny <ul><li>Larceny--over half of all property crimes </li></ul><ul><li>70% of all personal victimizations; range from petty acts to commercial crime </li></ul>
    80. 80. Motor Vehicle Theft <ul><li>Motor Vehicle Theft - larceny or attempted larceny of an automobile. </li></ul>
    81. 81. After declining since 1992, motor vehicle theft rates leveled off after 2000.
    82. 82. Arson <ul><li>Arson is the willful destruction of property; most cases of arson involve insurance fraud or failure to take safety measures (costs for society are into billions). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal (or unlawful) destruction of property through fire or incendiary device (bomb!). </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. These Eight Types are the crime rate <ul><li>Anytime the phrase &quot;crime rate&quot; is used in official publications or in newspaper reports, it refers only to the aggregate of the above UCR Part I Index offenses. </li></ul>
    84. 84. Problems with UCR: <ul><li>Problems with reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Victim may not report the offense to police for fear of reprisals from the assailant. </li></ul><ul><li>Assailant may be a friend or relative of the victim; the victim may decide not to cause trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Victim may define the crime as trivial and not worth the time or effort to report it. </li></ul><ul><li>Victim may not want the publicity that could go along with reporting the offense. </li></ul><ul><li>Victim may define the police as ineffective and thus reporting the offense would do no good. </li></ul>
    85. 85. Problems with police professionalism <ul><li>Reform orientation of a police department affects the crime rate; the fewer crimes you ignore, the higher the crime rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Side issues may affect the crime rate; the more crimes you ignore, the lower the crime rate. A Georgia officer: &quot;It burns me up that New York City doesn't report larcenies to the FBI unless they involve $3000 or more; they think complete recording would lower tourism and affect their economy. Meanwhile, we report every theft of $1.35 from a gas station.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Increased professionalism and resources in police leads to an increase simply because more crimes are seen </li></ul><ul><li>May be politically biased; in order to get a budget increase, police may be operating under arrest quotas in order to ensure that the crime rate goes up. </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC PROBLEM: WHEN CRIME RATE GOES UP, YOU DON'T HAVE ANY IDEA WHETHER IT'S RISING BECAUSE CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR IS ON THE INCREASE OR BECAUSE POLICE ARE DOING A BETTER JOB OF CATCHING--AND RECORDING--OFFENDERS. </li></ul>
    86. 86. Problems with the UCR structure <ul><li>Hierarchy rule: if more than one offense is committed in a particular incident, only the most serious offense is recorded in the UCR. For example, an assault/rape/murder is recorded only as a murder for UCR purposes. The less severe offenses are ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation by local police and sheriff's offices is totally voluntary. Data are thus not complete. Data may thus also be biased. </li></ul><ul><li>Many important crimes, and their impact on people in the U.S., are totally ignored by the UCR Part I index. </li></ul>
    87. 87. NIBRS <ul><li>In 1982, BJS and the FBI sponsored a study of the UCR Program with the objective of revising it to meet law enforcement needs into the 21st century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 5-year redesign effort to provide more comprehensive and detailed crime statistics resulted in the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) which collects data on each reported crime incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The UCR Program is currently being expanded to NIBRS. Current UCR is a summary-based system; it collects little more than the total number of incidents in each crime category without detail about the incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Will shift to incident-based reporting; for each incident will collect detail on when it occurred, the kind of weapon used (if any), the type and value of property stolen or damaged, the age, sex, and race of both victim and offender, the relationship between the offender and the victim (if any), whether an arrest was made, etc. </li></ul>
    88. 88. NIBRS <ul><li>Will also get rid of &quot;hierarchy rule&quot;; if more than one crime was committed in a single incident, all will be reported under the enhanced UCR. If an incident includes a kidnapping, rape, and murder, only the most serious (murder) would be reported on the current UCR; enhanced will list all three offenses in the incident. </li></ul><ul><li>Will include far more offenses than the traditional UCR and get away from the heavy focus on street crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Will be divided into Group A (more severe) and Group B (less severe) offenses. Data will be collected on Group A offenses for all incidents known to the police. Data will be collected for Group B incidents only if an arrest is made. </li></ul>
    89. 89. Comparing NIBRS Counts with NIBRS Converted to Summary UCR <ul><li>Homicide - no difference </li></ul><ul><li>Assault - NIBRS slightly higher </li></ul><ul><li>Burglary - NIBRS may be lower or higher </li></ul><ul><li>MVT - NIBRS can be substantially higher </li></ul><ul><li>Larceny - NIBRS can be substantially higher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2000 </li></ul></ul>
    90. 90. Offender-Based Transaction Statistics (OBTS) (Ask the courts) <ul><li>Tries to answer the question: &quot;When people get arrested, what happens to them?&quot; Studies the justice system as a flowing process rather than as a static snapshot. </li></ul><ul><li>Offender-based system. Contains one record per offender . (UCR, at least in its current form, contains one record per charged offense.) </li></ul><ul><li>In theory, gives us the ability to &quot;track&quot; a given offender through the system in multiple encounters. Each offender has an ID. It's encrypted, and the data are therefore confidential--but it should be unique to each offender across offenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Back-end statistical reporting. Record is generated for an individual when his/her case is disposed and sentenced . This record contains historical info arrest, trial, and sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>(UCR, in contrast, is front-end. Contains only arrest-centered data because the record is generated at the beginning of the process.) </li></ul>
    91. 91. Differences <ul><li>OBTS shows fewer felonies than does the UCR. OBTS is likely to be the more accurate. Police fill out the UCR--if they think something looks like a felony, they record it as one. </li></ul><ul><li>OBTS is filled out be prosecuters--who know what a felony is and whether they think a conviction is likely if any particular offense is charged as a felony. </li></ul><ul><li>Coming to be seen as a major analysis tool of the future. Allen Barnes, Statistical Analysis Center, Anchorage: &quot;They even do it in Nebraska, of all places.&quot; </li></ul>
    92. 92. Problems with OBTS <ul><li>Includes only felony dispositions. No misdemeanors. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on internal state law in each state. Since state law is not uniform, different states will treat a particular offense differently. May be a felony in one state and a misdemeanor (or not illegal) in another. </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary as to participation. Only 18 states currently have OBTS systems. And not all of those report within the national guidelines. </li></ul>
    93. 93. More problems OBTS <ul><li>ID encrypting is performed differently in different states, so it's not possible to track offenders across state systems. (Pennsylvania encrypts ID's differently for each incident , so you can't even track them within PA. Which shoots down one of the major goals of the system.) </li></ul><ul><li>ID encrypting is not perfect. It's based on the name given to the court. &quot;John Smith&quot; and &quot;John A. Smith&quot; would be encrypted differently even if they're the same person at two different encounters. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, &quot;John Smith&quot; would be encrypted the same even if they were two different people. </li></ul><ul><li>Record includes information from arrest to disposition but does not include appeal info. If sentence is later reduced or overturned, OBTS will not show the change. </li></ul>
    94. 94. National Criminal Victimization Survey (NCVS) (Ask the victim) <ul><li>Until 12/91 known as the &quot;National Crime Survey&quot; (NCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample survey. We don't know who all the victims are, but if we take a large enough random sample of all people in the population, we'll end up with a sample of victims. </li></ul><ul><li>National survey is conducted through ISR at the University of Michigan. Includes broad national sample plus intensive samples of largest major metropolitan areas. (it a stratified random sample.) </li></ul><ul><li>Any individual respondent is included for seven consecutive six-month waves. (it a perpetual panel.) </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are phrased so as to describe offenses in common language rather than legal language. </li></ul>
    95. 95. Directions for NCVS <ul><li>READ TO RESPONDENT: “Now I am going to ask you about any crimes that may have been inflicted on you in the last 12 months.” </li></ul><ul><li>72. During the last 12 months, did anyone break into your home or apartment and steal something? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Was the crime reported to the police? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Why was the crime not reported to the police? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Were you satisfied or not satisfied with the manner in which the complaint was handled after it was reported to the police? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Where did the burglar enter your home or apartment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. What time of day did the burglary occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F. What, if anything, was stolen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G. Was the stolen property recovered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H. If all or part of your stolen property was recovered, who recovered it </li></ul></ul>
    96. 96. Problems with victimization data <ul><li>Victim may not choose to be a respondent for the survey at all. Bias comes in here because refusal rates in sample surveys are especially high in low-income, high-crime areas of a city. Also if you are a victim, you may be less inclined to answer the question than if you are not . This leads to under estimation of victimization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim may not report the incident to the interviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the assailant was a friend or relative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because it was considered unimportant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because the victim forgot about it when asked during the survey </li></ul></ul>
    97. 97. Surveys <ul><li>Surveys typically exclude from their samples any potential victim under the age of 18 (or whatever &quot;floor age&quot; is in use for that particular survey) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys typically exclude crimes against commercial establishments, since people are the respondents. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys typically exclude transients, commuters, and tourists--all of whom have the potential to be victimized, but all of whom are difficult to locate under a typical sample survey design. </li></ul><ul><li>Once an address is selected for the panel, that address's residents are interviewed for seven waves. </li></ul>
    98. 98. Unit of Analysis <ul><li>Unit of analysis is actually the address, not the individual. So if somebody moves, the NCVS just keeps on interviewing at that address. </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood of a significant fraction of a panel sample moving within three years is very great. So even if you do find transients with this design, they turn out not to be necessarily the same transients at each point of interview. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a methodological problem if the NCVS is used to describe cross-time change. Not a problem if you treat it as cross-sectional. </li></ul>
    99. 99. Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) (Ask the offender) <ul><li>DUF data are collected in booking facilities in selected cities throughout the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Program began in the borough of Manhattan in 1987. By 1991 there are now 23 sites involved… now 38! </li></ul>
    100. 100. National Youth Study (NYS) (Ask the offender) <ul><li>Self-report study. Instead of objective data, we're going to ask folks what they've done--whether or not the police have heard about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Main NYS runs through IBS at University of Colorado; other smaller samples may be taken elsewhere for other purposes (Boys Town Followup, for example--unconnected to NYS, but used NYS methodology and some of their questions) </li></ul><ul><li>NYS itself is a panel study; same questions asked of same respondents at repeated points in time, generally two-year intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Survey, either sample or purposeful </li></ul>
    101. 101. Disadvantages of self-report studies <ul><li>Usual disadvantages of surveys are relevant </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, respondent is being asked to admit to things that are illegal; may not want to admit them. </li></ul><ul><li>Truthfulness is a critical issue. Respondents may choose to lie about things they did in violation of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality of the data is critical, since respondents may well admit to offenses in the survey that they haven't actually been arrested for. Should not even dream of doing this kind of study without being granted a confidentiality certificate by the federal government; provides you as a researcher with protection in case you are asked by police to reveal your data in court. Ethics says you can't reveal your data; certificate, if it has been granted, says you probably won't go to jail for standing on your ethical position. You hope. </li></ul>
    102. 102. Information on the Crime Rate <ul><li>What do the sources that we ask tell us about crime? </li></ul>
    103. 103. Fraud <ul><li>Now, lets move on to Fraud… </li></ul>
    104. 104. Data on Fraud <ul><li>How do we know when fraud occurs? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whistle blowers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insiders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Accounts (stock information) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Does this sound like good data sources to you? </li></ul>
    105. 105. High Cost of Fraud <ul><li>Unfortunately, the government collects almost no data on the toll taken by corporate crimes, even though there are annual reports on street crime from the FBI and the National Crime Victimization Survey.  </li></ul>
    106. 106. Arrests and Fraud <ul><li>In 1997, the total estimated arrests (based on all reporting agencies and estimates for unreported areas) included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>414,600 arrests for fraud; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120,100 arrests for forgery and counterfeiting; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17,400 arrests for embezzlement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and 155,300 arrests for buying, receiving, and possessing stolen property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Federal Bureau of Investigation. (released November 22, 1998). Crime in the United States, Uniform Crime Reports, 1997 , p. 222. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    107. 107. Investigations <ul><li>As of 1997, a total of 8,512 cases of financial institution fraud were being investigated by the U.S. Department of Justice. Of these, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,859 involved reported losses of $100,000 or more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. (1998). Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1997 . Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    108. 108. Telemarketing Scams <ul><li>Overall, the top five telemarketing scams reported to the National Fraud Information Center (established in 1992 by the nonprofit National Consumers League) in 1997 were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) prizes/sweepstakes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) advance fee loans; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) work-at-home plans; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) pay-per-call services; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) slamming (consumers tricked into switching their phone service to another carrier without their knowledge or consent). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(National Fraud Information Center. (1998). Washington, DC: National Consumers League.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    109. 109. Are we all affected? <ul><li>The results of a nationwide study of fraud conducted by the National Institute of Justice found that 58 percent of survey respondents reported having experienced a fraud victimization or an attempted fraud victimization. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Titus, R., Heinzelmann, F., & Boyle, J. (1995, August). &quot;The Anatomy of Fraud: Report of a Nationwide Survey.&quot; National Institute of Justice Journal . Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    110. 110. Effects from Fraud <ul><li>Projected losses to telemarketing and direct personal marketing fraud schemes alone figure to be more than $40 billion annually. </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that as little as 15 percent of fraud victims report cases of fraud to the police or other law enforcement agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the latest survey by the American Bankers Association, check fraud accounts for losses of at least $815 million a year, or more than 12 times the $65 million taken in bank robberies annually. ( San Jose Mercury News , Wednesday, January 2, 1996.) </li></ul>
    111. 111. Effects again <ul><li>Contradictory to common belief, older people are less likely to be victims of fraud than younger people. Older people are, however, more likely to report economic crimes than their younger counterparts. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Titus, R., Heinzelmann, F., & Boyle, J. (1995, January). &quot;Victimization of Persons by Fraud.&quot; Crime and Delinquency, 41:1:58 . Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Of successful fraud attempts, respondents to a study conducted by the National Institute of Justice indicated that of those respondents who fell prey to a fraud scheme, 85 percent lost money or property; 20 percent suffered financial or personal credit problems; 14 percent suffered health or emotional problems directly related to their victimization; and 14 percent of fraud victims lost time from work. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Titus, R., Heinzelmann, F., & Boyle, J. (1995, January). &quot;Victimization of Persons by Fraud.&quot; Crime and Delinquency Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    112. 112. Where do we get our data? <ul><li>Free Corporate Fraud Hotline (Toll Free even) Initiated February 2003 by the FBI: 888-622-0117  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 calls logged within eight months.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Callers can be anonymous  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several new cases opened based on caller information  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several existing cases were enhanced  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public cooperation is essential </li></ul></ul>
    113. 113. FraudNET <ul><li>The purpose of the Government Accountability Office's FraudNET is to facilitate the reporting of allegations of fraud, waste, abuse, or mismanagement of federal funds. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to report such allegations, you may do so by filling out a FraudNET Form or by using one of these other methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send allegations via e-mail to [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Send a fax to FraudNet at 202-512-3086 </li></ul><ul><li>Write to: GAO FraudNET 441 G Street NW Washington, D.C. 20548 </li></ul>
    114. 114. FBI’s Website <ul><li>You can even report Fraud at the FBI website. </li></ul><ul><li>HELP US HELP YOU: REPORT FRAUD THROUGH WWW.IC3.GOV . That means Internet fraud schemes , common fraud schemes , and frauds that target senior citizens --and please be on your guard against them. </li></ul>
    115. 115. Computer Fraud <ul><li>The U.S. Department of Justice defines computer fraud as any illegal act for which knowledge of computer technology is essential for its perpetration, investigation, or prosecution. </li></ul><ul><li>What are examples of computer fraud? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unauthorized use, access, modification, copying, and destruction of software or data </li></ul></ul>
    116. 116. Computer Fraud and Abuse Techniques <ul><ul><li>Hacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet misinformation and terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic time bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masquerading or impersonation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password cracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piggybacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round-down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salami technique </li></ul></ul>
    117. 117. More Computer Fraud and Abuse Techniques <ul><ul><li>Software piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scavenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superzapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trap door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trojan horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul></ul>
    118. 118. Identity Theft <ul><li>FTC: Nearly one in eight U.S. adults fell victim to identity theft in the last five year. </li></ul><ul><li>Report says thieves cost $53 billion last year --- http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/ptech/09/04/id.crime/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Consumer Fraud Continues to Rise --- http:// www.ftc.gov /   </li></ul><ul><li>Annual FTC report says 47 percent of non-identity theft complaints were Internet-related in 2002. http://ecommerce.internet.com/news/news/article/0,,10375_1573071,00.html   </li></ul><ul><li>Identity theft complaints nearly doubled in 2002 as the fast-growing crime tops the government's list of consumer frauds --- http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,57359,00.html </li></ul><ul><li>The number of identity theft complaints rose from about 86,000 in 2001 to about 162,000 last year, the Federal Trade Commission said Wednesday. The figures come from a government database of 380,000 fraud complaints collected by the FTC, the FBI and scores of law enforcement and consumer groups. </li></ul>
    119. 119. Government Internet efforts http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/ Search for:  Hints ... Personalized information if you are a... 
    120. 120. Various sources for accessing Fraud Data <ul><li>FBI Corporate Fraud Hotline (Toll Free) 888-622-0177 FBI  http:// www.fbi.gov / </li></ul><ul><li>Commodity Futures Trading Commission   http:// www.sec.gov/answers/cftc.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Criminal Investigative Service  http:// www.dodig.osd.mil /INV/DCIS/ </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Labor  http:// www.dol.gov / </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Energy Regulatory Commission  http:// www.ferc.gov / </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Revenue Service  http:// www.irs.gov / </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of Securities Dealers  http:// www.nasd.com / </li></ul><ul><li>Postal Inspection Service  http:// www.usps.com/postalinspectors / </li></ul><ul><li>Securities and Exchange Commission  http:// www.sec.gov / </li></ul>
    121. 121. Thanks for listening!!! <ul><li>It has been a </li></ul><ul><li>pleasure to speak </li></ul><ul><li>with you about the </li></ul><ul><li>criminal justice </li></ul><ul><li>system! </li></ul>

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