Introduction to Information Management
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Introduction to Information Management






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Introduction to Information Management Introduction to Information Management Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Information Management Dr Sherif Kamel Department of Management School of Business, Economics and Communication
  • Information – “Concept”
    • … Information as a fact
    • … Information as a tool
    • … Information as a way of living
    • … Information as a society
    • Information Technology (IT)
    • Information Systems (IS)
    • Information (Digital) Economy
    • Information Society
    • Information Highway (Superhighway)
    • Information Forecast
    Types of Information Information Systems Information Technology
  • Information Systems (IS) v Information Technology (IT)
    • Variations in the definitions
    • Growing impact of communication leading to ICT
    Management Information Systems (MIS) Information Systems Management (ISM) Business Information Technology (BIT) Business Information Systems (BIS)
  • How Different People….?
    • perceive information
    • interpret information
    • use information
    • acquire information
    • disseminate information
  • Information Definitions
    • There are too many definitions for information
    • Information as a definition ranges from narrow and uninformative to broad and unspecific
    • There is a need to differentiate between…
    Data Information Knowledge
  • The Age of Access
    • Markets are giving way to networks
    • Everything is becoming a part of the service economy
    • Access becoming a way of life
    Customer Customer =
  • Definition
    • Information is knowledge communicated concerning…
    Fact Issue Incident Subject Event
  • It is all about…
    • Information dissemination (intelligence, communication)
    • Knowledge acquisition (through investigation, instruction, studies)
    • Exchange of information
    • Input-Processing-Output
    • Information-Decision Life Cycle
  • Information, Data and Knowledge
    • Information is processed, analyzed or investigated data
    • Information is knowledge derived from data
    • Information is data placed within a context
    • Information is the amount of uncertainty reduced when a message is received
    • Information is a difference that makes a difference
  • Information and Different Disciplines Psychology Management Science Organizational Behavior Mathematics
  • Information Systems (IS) – Sub Systems
    • Management Support Systems (MSS)
      • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
        • Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)
      • Expert Systems (ES)
        • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
      • Executive Information/Support Systems (EIS/ESS)
      • Enterprise Information Systems (EIS)
      • Data Base Management Systems (DBMS)
    • Office Automation Systems (OAS)
  • Information for Business
    • Status/forecasts
    • Type (qualitative/quantitative)
    • Market trends/projections
    • Decision making
    • Channels (direct/Indirect)
    • Communication (formal/informal)
    • Technical/managerial
  • Characteristics of Information
    • Pertinent (relevant)
      • Must relate to business at hand and to matters important to the individual and help realize objectives
    • Timely
      • Should be timely to realize maximum effect to its context of application
    • Accurate
      • Should be extremely accurate to be able to predict the future
    • Reduced Uncertainty
      • Involves a difference that makes a difference
    • Element of surprise
      • Informing something that was not known before
  • MIS definition
    • The effective design, delivery and use of information systems in organizations
    • Development and implementation of information systems in organizations
    Peter Keen Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Organizational Components of IS People Databases Departments and Units Information Systems and Procedures Activities and Projects
  • IS levels in the Organization
    • Organizations are composed of information systems at different levels entailing various levels of systems analysis and design
      • Top management (senior/executive) level
      • Middle (tactical) level
      • Operational (first-line) level
  • Types of Information Systems Personal Information Systems (Example – Sales)
    • Sales representatives assigned to specific products or geographical areas should not be operating independently; they need to coordinate their efforts to avoid duplications
    • Assign customers to sales representatives through follow-up calls and scheduled contacts
    Personal Information Systems
  • Types of Information Systems Workgroup Information Systems (Example – Telemarketing)
    • Telemarketing with prospective customers need to be well coordinated to avoid duplications
    • One-to-one marketing versus broadcast marketing
    • Working on shifts and rotation basis
    Workgroup Information Systems
  • Types of Information Systems Enterprise Information Systems (Example – University)
    • Revenue generation system integrates the revenue generation activities of all departments across the enterprise
    • Information flows across different departments pending security levels
    • It includes a variety of interrelated systems according to the organization’s activities
    Enterprise Information Systems
  • It is important to note that…
    • Information systems are effective if only they facilitate the goals and objectives of the people who use them, this could be observed by the degree of facilitation realized in…
      • Planning
      • Organizing
      • Controlling
  • Information Systems Ethics
    • Copyright issues
    • Misuse of information/information systems
    • Use of organizational resources for personal issues
    • Non-conformity with information systems security measures
    • Passing IS accessibility levels without permission
  • Technological Transformations Timeline
    • 1951 – computers were used in business (UK)
    • 1960s – network concepts started to rise
    • 1975 – first mass-production of computers
    • 1978 – first spreadsheet program (VisiCalc)
    • 1979 – first word processing program (WordStar)
    • 1984 – Macintosh
    • 1989 – Emergence of electronic mail
    • 1990s – growth of the world wide web
    • Late 1990s – mobile technology arrives
  • It all started in 1838
    • On 6 January, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph system (New Jersey)
      • It used electric impulses to transmit encoded messages over a wire
      • Morse code (dots and dashes represented letters and numbers)
    • From Telegraph (1838)
      • To…Phone (Alexander Graham Bell-1876)
        • To…Facsimile (Alexander Bain-1843)
          • To…eMail (Ray Tomlinson-1970's)
    Electro Wireless Key
  • ICT4D
    • The telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication, the device is inherently of no value to us
    • Western Union internal memo, 1876
    • I think there is a world market for maybe five computers
    • Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
    • Computers in the future may weigh as little as 1.5 tons
      • Popular Mechanics, 1944
    • 640K ought to be enough for anybody
    • Bill Gates, 1981
    • But what . . . is it good for?
    • IBM Engineer commenting on the microchip , 1968
    • There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home
      • Ken Olson, Chairman and Founder of DEC, 1977
  • The World Today
    • Economics
      • Productivity is people-bound with more than 15% of senior management working during holidays, global implications over 1 trillion US dollars annually
    • Globalization
      • Competition around the clock through wireless connectivity – over 82 billion emails exchanged every 24 hours
    • Demographics
      • By 2008, only in the US, there will be over 6 million IS/IT related vacant jobs
    • Tourism
      • Over 60% reservations are done online, all eTickets starting January 2007
  • Capital Expenditure in IT
    • Worldwide businesses spend around 1 trillion US dollars per year on IT (software, hardware and services)
    • An additional 2 trillion US dollars are spent on telecommunication services
  • InformationWeek
  • CIO Insight
  • ClickZ