I MPROVING   S ECONDARY  T ASK  E FFICIENCY   A S  A N  I NDIRECT  M EANS  T O  I NCREASE   P RIMARY  T ASK  O UTPUT   I N...
I Would  Like To  Begin By Requesting An Indulgence From You...   <ul><li>Not surprising for a retired professor from a sm...
Fundamental Proposition #1... <ul><li>1.  Desired Organizational Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~  e.g., Increased Rev...
<ul><li>Individual Or Collective Employee Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Leads To  Proposition # 2:  … </li></ul>2 .  The Bypro...
<ul><ul><li>The Fundamental Cornerstone Of Desired Work Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3a.  Getting Enough Of The Right A...
4.  Interventions  …   <ul><ul><li>Will Be Most Effective When They  Target & Improve   These Right  ‘Outcome-Critical’  B...
Early On, “We” Outlined… <ul><ul><li>A  General Way Of Thinking About The Targeting Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
B.  Selecting  One Or More ... <ul><ul><li>Of These  To Be The Focus  Of Improvement Efforts… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
6. Individual Results Almost Always <ul><ul><li>Depend On The Emission Of  Multiple Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales...
~ Acquiring/Qualifying Prospects   As Potential Customers <ul><li>~  Achieving One Or More Meetings   </li></ul><ul><li>`V...
Almost Always, Targeting… <ul><li>Involves  Selection Of One   Or A Subset  Of These Behavior Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
These ‘Kinds’ Of Behaviors = “ Special Status ” <ul><li>All Are Part Of A  PRIMARY SEQUENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That Is....
Possible Analogues: <ul><li>“ Great” Lectures = More Likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Delivered From Prepared & Recently Re...
In These Examples,   The Relationship Between Prized Accomplishment & Selected Target <ul><li>Are In Direct Line/Sequence ...
<ul><li>Visible , Expected </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial , Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Foremost , </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious , <...
Admittedly, The Intended Result ~  e.g.,   The Customer’s Decision To Buy ~  … <ul><ul><li>Depends On Additional Agreement...
~ Order Fulfillment <ul><li>~  Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>~ Follow-Up Actions , Etc. … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None Of ...
Other   Examples Of Secondary Task Behaviors <ul><li>Completing Call Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Timely Input Of Client Prod...
Secondary Behaviors & Teaching ?  Better Lectures &… <ul><li>Journal Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorial Help / Additio...
Possible  Synonyms  For “Secondary” Behaviors <ul><li>Indirect , </li></ul><ul><li>Support , </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitativ...
Secondary Behaviors  Also Have  Special Status <ul><li>They Do Not Contribute To The End Result In Same Way As Primary Beh...
That Is… <ul><li>The Performance Of One Type Usually   Precludes   The Concurrent   Occurrence Of The Other … </li></ul><u...
Time Devoted To Execution Of ... <ul><ul><li>Secondary Task Behaviors Can  Limit Time Available   For Occurrences Of Prima...
Yet,  Most Common OBM Targeting Strategy  By Far … <ul><li>Has Been To   Select Primary Behaviors For Intervention  As Mea...
Possible Assumptions Underlying This Strategy <ul><li>1.   Task-Related Behaviors That Are  NOT  In ‘Direct’ Sequence With...
<ul><li>~  Important  Mandatory  Secondary Tasks Exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>& Where … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~  Their Per...
Present Study = An Opportunity… <ul><ul><li>To Explore More Fully Role Of Secondary Task  (ST)  Performances In Contributi...
The Organization <ul><li>Upper Midwest Distribution Firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Primary Outcome Was To Secure As Many O...
Warehouses Were... <ul><ul><ul><li>Located Throughout Continent  in order to  Reduce Delivery Time   (Shades Of JIT) </li>...
Each TMR given <ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul><...
Secondary Tasks Included … <ul><li>Order Fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Follow-Up ...
TMRs Spent Far More Time Than Needed Completing Post-Sales Tasks <ul><ul><li>Left Too Little Time For Critical Pre-Sale Pr...
Instead Of Exclusively Focusing On Call Initiation  (A PT Behavior)   …   <ul><li>Present Study Involved Interventions Aim...
Actually, A “Bit” More Complicated <ul><li>‘ Freeing’ Up Time  Does Not Guarantee  That Employees Spontaneously Will  Devo...
More Time  Due To Efficient ST Performances Instead Could Result In More … <ul><li>Gossiping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extende...
Project Designed To Evaluate  Predictions  That… <ul><li>1.   Free Time Could Be Increased By Deploying Interventions That...
This, In Turn, Should Result In… <ul><li>3.   More Daily Calls &… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accordingly, In … </li></ul></ul><...
Increased Numbers Of Calls Really Meant <ul><li>More Daily  ‘Cold’  Dialings / Calls   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd  Aut...
3  Challenges  To Our Plan <ul><li>1.   Identification Of All Potentially Legitimate ST Activities & </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
3.  Development Of 2 nd  Measure That <ul><li>If Changed,   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibly Capitalized On Freed Time By  “...
The Focus Group <ul><li>Select TMRs & The RSMs  I dentified All Activities   That Might Be Needed For   </li></ul><ul><ul>...
List Thereafter Repeatedly... <ul><ul><li>Combined, Refined & Pruned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R ESULT :  </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Challenge # 2 : Development Of A Measure That... <ul><li>A.   Credibly Reflected ST Performance  & </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B...
RESULT: <ul><li>“ ST” A CTIVITIES   C HECKLIST .…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he Tracking Instrument </li></ul></ul></ul>...
3-Step Scoring Procedure
Step 1 :  From The ST Activities List... <ul><ul><li>“ Earned S econdary T ask T ime ” ( EST)  = Number Of Times Each Acti...
Step 3 :  Calculating  S econdary  T ask  E fficiency  (STE) <ul><ul><li>STE  = { EST /( WT  +  EST )} X 100 </li></ul></u...
An Example <ul><li>Worksheet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Time  (7 h)  = 25,200 s  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break Time  ...
2 Crosscheck Procedures <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TMRs Tallied On Daily ST Activity List </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1.  RS...
Challenge # 3 : 2nd Measure To... <ul><li>Guide Appropriate Usage Of “Freed Time” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e., To Direct Ef...
Summary Of The Measures <ul><li>STE </li></ul><ul><li>CCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Measures That Referenced Accomplishme...
<ul><li>OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Order Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Order Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><...
Project Overview:  2 Phases <ul><ul><li>Acquisition & Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquisition :  11 1/2  m </li></u...
Phase-1 Design <ul><li>Baseline ,  then </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 1   ( ST Behaviors: Intro To Checklist + Self Tal...
Region Variable = NS   Average Secondary Task Efficiency (% STE )
Baseline Information <ul><li>ST List Similar To One Already In Use … Thus, No Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fresh” ST...
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
Intervention # 1 :   ST-Behavior   ( 30d) What/Why/Requirements? <ul><li>‘ Component’ Of BTC : Communicating, Defining, Di...
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
Intervention # 2:  ST-Measures   (14 d)   -  2 nd   Component Of BTC <ul><li>New Checklist With Times Inscribed Next To Ea...
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
Intervention # 3: STE  Performance Posting   (53 d) <ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located At End Of Aisle Behin...
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
??
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
Intervention # 4:  CCE Posting   (27 d) <ul><li>Separate Graph,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U...
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
--- Task Clarification --- 1 st  & Last 5 Data Points
Intervention # 5:  Unplanned Intervention (17 d) <ul><li>New Market </li></ul><ul><li>New Script </li></ul><ul><li>New Cat...
--- Task Clarification ---
 
--- Task Clarification ---
--- Task Clarification ---
Intervention # 6:  Performance Development  –  2 Stages   (39 + 57d) :   <ul><ul><li>Introduced To Counter Downward Trend ...
RSMs Scored Tapes Until ...   <ul><li>Protocols Identical To Those Developed By PIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Achieved 90%...
--39 d --
 
 
 
Stage 2   (57 d): <ul><li>Systematic Application On Daily Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To TMRs Whose Scores Unimproved </li...
-- 57 d -- -- Task Clarification --
 
 
 
Intervention  #  7:  Weekly Sales Reviews (30 d) <ul><li>Individual RSM/TMR Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss Weekly ...
--- Task Clarification ---
 
--- Task Clarification ---
--- Task Clarification ---
 
Correlations, Correlations Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST  Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance D...
Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST  Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Mai...
Correlations, Correlations <ul><li>Predictions:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation Size & Controllable Factors </li></ul>...
Correlations, Correlations <ul><li>X r  = .84  STE Vs. Dialings </li></ul><ul><li>X r  = .84  Dialings Vs. Calls </li></ul...
Phase 2 : Maintenance Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST  Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Develo...
Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST  Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Mai...
Quotas Met  During This Period Quotas NOT Met During Final Months Project Discontinued
OBM Net Paper “Promises” <ul><li>Feedback Gains Seemed To Vary Inversely With BTC Gains </li></ul><ul><li>BTC Effects Agai...
Top-Down Ambivalence & Praise <ul><li>Praise Seemingly Critical For…   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fullest </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
1. ‘Equivalence’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Compensation & Praise Rely On Same Mechanism –  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giving One Obvia...
2. ‘Overstated-Worth’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Praise Will Be  Taken By Recipient As Evidence Of  An Elevation In Their Overall W...
3. ‘Complacency’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Recognition For Good Performance  Calls Attention To Its Above-Average Nature , Thus  A...
4. ‘Overgeneralization’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Praise For  Particular Performance   Mistaken As Tacit Appreciation For   Other ...
5. ‘Manipulation’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Planned Mgr. Praise Is  Exploitative & Artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfai...
6. ‘Reinforcement Insufficiency’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Dispensing Praise Impossible In Environments Where Personal Recognition...
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IMPROVING SECONDARY TASK EFFICIENCY AS AN INDIRECT MEANS TO ...

  1. 1. I MPROVING S ECONDARY T ASK E FFICIENCY A S A N I NDIRECT M EANS T O I NCREASE P RIMARY T ASK O UTPUT I N A C OMPLEX O UT -B OUND T ELEMARKETING J OB D. Chris Anderson, Charles R. Crowell, Kari Tolzman McArthur, & Alan Van
  2. 2. I Would Like To Begin By Requesting An Indulgence From You... <ul><li>Not surprising for a retired professor from a small, Midwest Catholic University… </li></ul><ul><li>To Introduce The Presentation Through A “Set” Of (Perhaps Mundane) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propositions , Implications , & Deductions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Fundamental Proposition #1... <ul><li>1. Desired Organizational Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ e.g., Increased Revenues / Enhanced Profitability ~ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem From Individual & Group Work Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout The Company </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These, In Turn Are … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Outcomes Accomplishments Behaviors
  4. 4. <ul><li>Individual Or Collective Employee Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Leads To Proposition # 2: … </li></ul>2 . The Byproducts Of... ~ I.e., Individual Results &/Or Group Accomplishments ~ Outcomes Accomplishments Behaviors
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>The Fundamental Cornerstone Of Desired Work Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3a. Getting Enough Of The Right Activities From Employees = Critical Prerequisite To Attainment Of Prized Results </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accordingly, Proposition 3 : </li></ul></ul></ul>3. Human Behavior Is... “ Behavior” Is An Organization’s Most Precious Commodity Whichever “They” May Be?
  6. 6. 4. Interventions … <ul><ul><li>Will Be Most Effective When They Target & Improve These Right ‘Outcome-Critical’ Behaviors … But Which Behaviors??? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Which Behaviors Qualify As “Right” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends On The Desired Outcome </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Early On, “We” Outlined… <ul><ul><li>A General Way Of Thinking About The Targeting Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Provided Some Specific Criteria To Guide It’s Selection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We Described Targeting As A Process Of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Identifying Which Behaviors ~ Out Of Potentially Large Number Of Worker Activities ~ Are Relevant To The Prized Goal & Then… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. B. Selecting One Or More ... <ul><ul><li>Of These To Be The Focus Of Improvement Efforts… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Disclaimer: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admittedly, Both Identification & Selection Complicated By The Kinds Of Temporal & Hierarchical Relationships That Exist Between An Outcome & The Various Behaviors Upon Which “It” May Depend … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This Is Tantamount To Acknowledging That... </li></ul>
  9. 9. 6. Individual Results Almost Always <ul><ul><li>Depend On The Emission Of Multiple Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales Outcomes = Good Examples Of This “Many-To-One” Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘Sale’ Usually Can Be Traced Back To Variety Of Behaviors Including … </li></ul>
  10. 10. ~ Acquiring/Qualifying Prospects As Potential Customers <ul><li>~ Achieving One Or More Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>`Via Telephone Or ‘In Person’ </li></ul><ul><li>~ Presenting / Discussing Certain Kinds Of Information During These Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>~ Offering Prospect Opportunity To Make A Buying Decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~ And So On </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Almost Always, Targeting… <ul><li>Involves Selection Of One Or A Subset Of These Behavior Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On The Presumption That… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving One Or More “Key” Action(s) Will Lead To More Of The Desired Organizational Result </li></ul>
  12. 12. These ‘Kinds’ Of Behaviors = “ Special Status ” <ul><li>All Are Part Of A PRIMARY SEQUENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That Is... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They Are Directly Responsible For Establishing The Conditions Necessary For The Desired Result </li></ul>
  13. 13. Possible Analogues: <ul><li>“ Great” Lectures = More Likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Delivered From Prepared & Recently Reviewed Notes, If Practiced, If Critiqued, If Interactive, If Contain Audio/Visual Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Useful Research Results More Probable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Derived From Behaviors Involved In Carefully Planning & Designing Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Fruitful” Therapy Sessions More Likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Preceded By Review Of Patient’s Case History </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. In These Examples, The Relationship Between Prized Accomplishment & Selected Target <ul><li>Are In Direct Line/Sequence With One Another </li></ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively Obvious </li></ul><ul><li>Baselines Believed To Be ‘Improve-able’ </li></ul><ul><li>Seemingly Pivotal To Success … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All Of Which Define … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RELEVANCE, Primary (?), Direct (?)… </li></ul>????????????????? Outcome Accomplishment
  15. 15. <ul><li>Visible , Expected </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial , Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Foremost , </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious , </li></ul><ul><li>Direct , </li></ul><ul><li>Essential/Pivotal , </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uptime ??? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not To Be Confused With Usage In Manufacturing Settings </li></ul></ul></ul>Possible Synonyms For “Primary” Targets
  16. 16. Admittedly, The Intended Result ~ e.g., The Customer’s Decision To Buy ~ … <ul><ul><li>Depends On Additional Agreement Behaviors NOT Fully Controllable By The SP … HOWEVER , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When A Sale Does Occur, It Can … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Precipitate Other, Secondary Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Example, Activities Involved In ... </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. ~ Order Fulfillment <ul><li>~ Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>~ Follow-Up Actions , Etc. … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None Of Which Contribute Directly To Sales In Same Way As Primary Behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Examples Of Secondary Task Behaviors <ul><li>Completing Call Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Timely Input Of Client Product Expectations To Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying Critical Information To Other Support Personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again, None Of These Activities Contribute Directly To Sales In Same Way As Primary Behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Secondary Behaviors & Teaching ? Better Lectures &… <ul><li>Journal Reading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorial Help / Additional Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection/Preparation Of Audio-Visual Supports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although Not In Direct Sequence Leading To Prized Outcome , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These Actions Support The Matriculation &/Or Perpetuation Of The Desired Performance(s) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Possible Synonyms For “Secondary” Behaviors <ul><li>Indirect , </li></ul><ul><li>Support , </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitative , </li></ul><ul><li>Mundane , </li></ul><ul><li>Non-visible , </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary , </li></ul><ul><li>Minor , </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative , </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique , &/Or … </li></ul><ul><li>Down- &/Or Off-time ??? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Secondary Behaviors Also Have Special Status <ul><li>They Do Not Contribute To The End Result In Same Way As Primary Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>This = Important Distinction Since </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary & Secondary Tasks Often Stand In Mutually Exclusive &/Or Reciprocal Relation To One Another </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. That Is… <ul><li>The Performance Of One Type Usually Precludes The Concurrent Occurrence Of The Other … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YET... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very Little Mention Of Them In The OBM Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Of Which Leads To A Deduction </li></ul></ul>When One Is ‘Happening,’ The Other Can’t
  23. 23. Time Devoted To Execution Of ... <ul><ul><li>Secondary Task Behaviors Can Limit Time Available For Occurrences Of Primary Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Inefficient Performances Of Secondary Task Activities May RETARD Primary Task Progress Significantly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thereby Depressing Opportunities For Desired Results </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Yet, Most Common OBM Targeting Strategy By Far … <ul><li>Has Been To Select Primary Behaviors For Intervention As Means Of Improving … </li></ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Service Efficiency/Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Throughput </li></ul>
  25. 25. Possible Assumptions Underlying This Strategy <ul><li>1. Task-Related Behaviors That Are NOT In ‘Direct’ Sequence With Outcomes Either Are Seen As Relatively Unimportant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Will Take Care Of Themselves In The Course Of Improving Primary Task Performance </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>~ Important Mandatory Secondary Tasks Exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>& Where … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~ Their Performances Do Not Automatically Improve As Primary Behavior Targets Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed … May Explain Why Targeting Primary Behaviors Sometimes Has Led To ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only Modest Improvement Or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even None At All </li></ul></ul>These Assumptions NOT Applicable In Situations Where … See Our OBMNet Paper
  27. 27. Present Study = An Opportunity… <ul><ul><li>To Explore More Fully Role Of Secondary Task (ST) Performances In Contributing To Overall Sales Success, E.g., PT Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Context: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Out-Bound TM Sales Environment Where Usual Primary Behaviors Exhibited By Reps (TMRs) Involved … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation & Conduct Of Out-Bound Sales Calls Interspersed With </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various Necessary Secondary Tasks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Organization <ul><li>Upper Midwest Distribution Firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Primary Outcome Was To Secure As Many Orders As Possible For Truck-Repair Parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome = 50% Sales Increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales Flat Prior 2 Yrs.; Co. Had Tried Many “Motivational” Strategies To Remedy </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Warehouses Were... <ul><ul><ul><li>Located Throughout Continent in order to Reduce Delivery Time (Shades Of JIT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Outside SP => Primary Responsibility For Large A ccounts (e.g., Ryder) … BUT … As Noted ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Thrust = TELEMARKETING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TM Department Divided By U.S. Regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staffed & Scheduled accordingly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Each TMR given <ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul><ul><li>Daily “Call” Sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Of 3 Call Types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desk/Booth </li></ul>
  31. 31. Secondary Tasks Included … <ul><li>Order Fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Follow-Up </li></ul><ul><li>A Careful Job Analysis + Preliminary Observations Suggested That … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Task Performance Was Especially Poor & Inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Result … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. TMRs Spent Far More Time Than Needed Completing Post-Sales Tasks <ul><ul><li>Left Too Little Time For Critical Pre-Sale Primary Behaviors … Especially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Call Initiation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus ... </li></ul>
  33. 33. Instead Of Exclusively Focusing On Call Initiation (A PT Behavior) … <ul><li>Present Study Involved Interventions Aimed Primarily At Secondary Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>This Permitted Determination Of Whether Primary Behaviors Would Increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Released From Inhibition Exerted By Inefficient Secondary Task Performances </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Actually, A “Bit” More Complicated <ul><li>‘ Freeing’ Up Time Does Not Guarantee That Employees Spontaneously Will Devote More Effort To Needed Primary Task (PT) Activities … </li></ul>
  35. 35. More Time Due To Efficient ST Performances Instead Could Result In More … <ul><li>Gossiping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized Calls …. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THUS … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Secondary Target Selected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased (Cold) Call Attempts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To Summarize: </li></ul>ST Behaviors PT Behavior(s) First Then Next
  36. 36. Project Designed To Evaluate Predictions That… <ul><li>1. Free Time Could Be Increased By Deploying Interventions That … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent On Timely Emission Of ST Activities That, In Turn, Should … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Allow For Effectiveness Of An Intervention Directed At Increasing Call Attempts (Dialings) </li></ul>
  37. 37. This, In Turn, Should Result In… <ul><li>3. More Daily Calls &… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accordingly, In … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. More Sales/TMR/Mo </li></ul><ul><li>N.B., TMRs Historically Completed All Prescheduled Client & Prime-Prospect Calls … So… </li></ul>
  38. 38. Increased Numbers Of Calls Really Meant <ul><li>More Daily ‘Cold’ Dialings / Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd Authorized Call Type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of 53 Persons Employed At Various Times Throughout Study, 33 Remained Constant For All Interventions (24 Mo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Age 30.12 Y </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Education = 13.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Length Of Co. Employment = 17 Mo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salaried – No Commissions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. 3 Challenges To Our Plan <ul><li>1. Identification Of All Potentially Legitimate ST Activities & </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Way To Know Whether/Not Each Emitted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Development Of A Credible Way Of Measuring The Efficiency With… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which These ST Activities Were Emitted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That Also Intervention Sensitive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. 3. Development Of 2 nd Measure That <ul><li>If Changed, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Credibly Capitalized On Freed Time By “Channeling” Effort Toward Emission Of More PT Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge # 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification Of All ST Activities </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Focus Group <ul><li>Select TMRs & The RSMs I dentified All Activities That Might Be Needed For </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing & Following Up On Each Call Type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resulted In Very Long List </li></ul>
  42. 42. List Thereafter Repeatedly... <ul><ul><li>Combined, Refined & Pruned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>R ESULT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52 “ST” Activities = Candidates For Legitimate Occurrence In Connection With The 3 Call Types </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Challenge # 2 : Development Of A Measure That... <ul><li>A. Credibly Reflected ST Performance & </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Was Intervention Sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus Group Next Estimated “ Fair Average Times ” For Each Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided Means To Convert Activity To Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disparities Handled By Averaging RSM & TMR Estimates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. RESULT: <ul><li>“ ST” A CTIVITIES C HECKLIST .…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T he Tracking Instrument </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underwent Several, Ongoing Refinements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. 3-Step Scoring Procedure
  46. 46. Step 1 : From The ST Activities List... <ul><ul><li>“ Earned S econdary T ask T ime ” ( EST) = Number Of Times Each Activity Emitted X Time Alotted & Totaled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7-h Work Period - ( EST + 20-m Break Time + Total Legitimate Phone Time ) = W asted T ime (WT) / TMR / Shift </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Step 3 : Calculating S econdary T ask E fficiency (STE) <ul><ul><li>STE = { EST /( WT + EST )} X 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>References Available Portion Of Given Shift That Was “Earned” By Emission Of Legitimate “Secondary” Activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>100% Meant That All Available Non-Phone Time Was Occupied By Legitimate S econdary- T ask A ctivities </li></ul>
  48. 48. An Example <ul><li>Worksheet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Time (7 h) = 25,200 s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break Time = 1,200 s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PT (supplied by computer) = 11,052 s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available Time = 12,948 s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checklist STT {(5,890 sec) / Available Non - PTT (12,948 sec) } x 100 = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45.49% S ECONDARY T ASK E FFICIENCY ( STE ) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. 2 Crosscheck Procedures <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TMRs Tallied On Daily ST Activity List </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1. RSMs Did 1500+ Crosschecks Of Sets 10 Randomly-Chosen Activities/TMR/wk </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement Ratios With TMR Self-Reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. Agreement Ratio = 89% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 7% Below 80% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 500 = 100% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. GM Crosschecked Scoring Of RSMs & STE Efficiency Calculations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>250 Over Study = < 1% Imperfect Agreement Ratios </li></ul></ul></ul>Unpredictable Crosschecks & Elimination Of Threat
  50. 50. Challenge # 3 : 2nd Measure To... <ul><li>Guide Appropriate Usage Of “Freed Time” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e., To Direct Efforts Toward Making More Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold Call Efficiency : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CCE = { CCC /( CCC + PCC )} X 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P otential C old C alls = WT/180 s </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Summary Of The Measures <ul><li>STE </li></ul><ul><li>CCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Measures That Referenced Accomplishments / Results & The Prized Organizational Outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialings </li></ul><ul><li>Completed Cold (& Total) Calls </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly Sales/TMR </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>OUTCOME </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Order Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Order Accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>PT Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>ST Behaviors </li></ul>Can Now Complete The BM Triangle... 50% More Sales Increase # Dialings STE Increase # Cold Calls CCE
  53. 53. Project Overview: 2 Phases <ul><ul><li>Acquisition & Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquisition : 11 1/2 m </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention Sequence Directed At Improving Efficiency Of Both Secondary &, Later, Primary Activities - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance : 12 m </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Portion = Maintenance Of Changes Achieved In Phase 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Portion = Full Intervention Withdrawal </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Phase-1 Design <ul><li>Baseline , then </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 1 ( ST Behaviors: Intro To Checklist + Self Tally) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 2 ( ST Measures : Intro To “Fair Standards” + Scoring) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 3 (STE Posting) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 4 (CCE Posting) </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention # 5 (Unplanned) </li></ul><ul><li>Two Social Interventions (Performance Development; Sales Review) ON ... </li></ul><ul><li>Region X Region Basis </li></ul>Bsln Int#1 Int#2 Int#3 etc... { TC “Components” Int#4 Multiple Baseline & Components Analysis
  55. 55. Region Variable = NS Average Secondary Task Efficiency (% STE )
  56. 56. Baseline Information <ul><li>ST List Similar To One Already In Use … Thus, No Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fresh” ST Lists Handed Out Daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TMRs Given Only Enough Information To Make Tally Marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scored By PD & RSMs During Baseline Period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baseline Period = 50 d </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modest Changes To ST List = Statistically Inconsequential Changes In Daily Scores </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  58. 58. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  59. 59. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  60. 60. Intervention # 1 : ST-Behavior ( 30d) What/Why/Requirements? <ul><li>‘ Component’ Of BTC : Communicating, Defining, Discussing Behavioral Requirements Of Tasks, Missions, Purposes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typed List </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Item Defined </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement Of How Measured </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement(s) Of Purposes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statement Of What Required Of Employee </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Discussion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  62. 62. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  63. 63. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  64. 64. Intervention # 2: ST-Measures (14 d) - 2 nd Component Of BTC <ul><li>New Checklist With Times Inscribed Next To Each Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculation Procedure Introduced & Trained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effort Made To Help TMR “Connect” Relationship Between Numbers Of New Prospects & Magnitude Of Daily STE Score </li></ul>
  65. 65. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  66. 66. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  67. 67. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  68. 68. Intervention # 3: STE Performance Posting (53 d) <ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located At End Of Aisle Behind Plexiglas Bulletin Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily, </li></ul><ul><li>Individual, </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently Updated, </li></ul><ul><li>Discussed, </li></ul><ul><li>Stated Non-Competitive, </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed Non-Aversive , </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>DAILY STE SCORE
  69. 69. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  70. 70. ??
  71. 71. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  72. 72. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  73. 73. Intervention # 4: CCE Posting (27 d) <ul><li>Separate Graph, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used As Prompt ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For TMRs To Use Free Time To Make More Cold Calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not Expected To Affect STE Scores, BUT Expected To Affect CCE , Dialings & Cold-Calls Scores </li></ul>
  74. 74. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  75. 75. 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  76. 76. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  77. 77. --- Task Clarification --- 1 st & Last 5 Data Points
  78. 78. Intervention # 5: Unplanned Intervention (17 d) <ul><li>New Market </li></ul><ul><li>New Script </li></ul><ul><li>New Catalog </li></ul>
  79. 79. --- Task Clarification ---
  80. 81. --- Task Clarification ---
  81. 82. --- Task Clarification ---
  82. 83. Intervention # 6: Performance Development – 2 Stages (39 + 57d) : <ul><ul><li>Introduced To Counter Downward Trend In STE Scores Following The ‘Unplanned’ Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 : RSMs Trained In Coaching & Social-Skill Rudiments </li></ul><ul><li>Video Tapes Developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-scored Using ST Checklist, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used To Teach RSMs How To Make In Vivo Observations Of Relevant TMR Behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  83. 84. RSMs Scored Tapes Until ... <ul><li>Protocols Identical To Those Developed By PIs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Achieved 90% Scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role-Playing Used To Teach Prompting , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cueing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Job Training, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragement, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingent Praise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSMs Encouraged To Practice These Skills On TMRs During Stage 1 </li></ul>
  84. 85. --39 d --
  85. 89. Stage 2 (57 d): <ul><li>Systematic Application On Daily Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To TMRs Whose Scores Unimproved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RSMs Used Checklists To </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track Key Aspects Of TMR Transactions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record Notes To Use In Follow-Up Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales GM Aperiodically Monitored Checklists </li></ul>
  86. 90. -- 57 d -- -- Task Clarification --
  87. 94. Intervention # 7: Weekly Sales Reviews (30 d) <ul><li>Individual RSM/TMR Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss Weekly STE & Monthly Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching/S R Continued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused On Employees Whose Scores Were </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly Variable </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drifting Downward </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 95. --- Task Clarification ---
  89. 97. --- Task Clarification ---
  90. 98. --- Task Clarification ---
  91. 100. Correlations, Correlations Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  92. 101. Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  93. 102. Correlations, Correlations <ul><li>Predictions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation Size & Controllable Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coefficients Should Be Highest Between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. & 2. STE Vs. Dialings & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dialings Vs. Cold Calls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. STE Vs. Calls, Then… </li></ul><ul><li>4. STE Vs. Sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Coefficients Averaged Via Quarterly Groupings Of Data </li></ul></ul>
  94. 103. Correlations, Correlations <ul><li>X r = .84 STE Vs. Dialings </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .84 Dialings Vs. Calls </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .73 STE Vs. Completed Calls </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .70 STE Vs. Sales </li></ul><ul><li>X r = .55 & .54 Dialings & Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vs. Sales </li></ul></ul>
  95. 104. Phase 2 : Maintenance Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  96. 105. Baseline ST Behaviors ST Measures ST Feedback Unplanned Intervention CC Feedback Performance Development Sales Review Maintenance ---Task Clarification---
  97. 106. Quotas Met During This Period Quotas NOT Met During Final Months Project Discontinued
  98. 107. OBM Net Paper “Promises” <ul><li>Feedback Gains Seemed To Vary Inversely With BTC Gains </li></ul><ul><li>BTC Effects Again Seemed Irreversible </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned About </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Things Don’t Go As Planned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Intervention Was V ERY Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Common Objections To Praise </li></ul>
  99. 108. Top-Down Ambivalence & Praise <ul><li>Praise Seemingly Critical For… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fullest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Enduring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Change, Yet… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Much Organizational Resistance In Spite Of Being ‘Legal-Proof’ </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance Revolves Around 6 Common Themes (Complaints/Objections) </li></ul>
  100. 109. 1. ‘Equivalence’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Compensation & Praise Rely On Same Mechanism – </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giving One Obviates Need For Giving The Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Gives Rise To The Statement: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Why Should I Praise When S(he) Is Already Paid To Perform” </li></ul>
  101. 110. 2. ‘Overstated-Worth’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Praise Will Be Taken By Recipient As Evidence Of An Elevation In Their Overall Worth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Praise Accordingly Will Lead To Increased Demands For More Wages, Promotions, Special Privileges, Etc…. </li></ul>
  102. 111. 3. ‘Complacency’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Recognition For Good Performance Calls Attention To Its Above-Average Nature , Thus Attenuating Motivation To Strive Harder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Praise Increases The Discriminative Value Of Fair-Day Standard, Thus Making Salient That Further Work Will Be Personally Superfluous </li></ul>
  103. 112. 4. ‘Overgeneralization’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Praise For Particular Performance Mistaken As Tacit Appreciation For Other Average Or Even Unworthy Performances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surfaces When Mgr. Asked To Give Praise To Generally Sub-Performing Employee Who Also May Be A Discipline Problem </li></ul>
  104. 113. 5. ‘Manipulation’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Planned Mgr. Praise Is Exploitative & Artificial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair To Employee Because Effects Exceedingly Likely At Rediculously Low Organizational Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tangible Value To Worker = Negligible </li></ul>
  105. 114. 6. ‘Reinforcement Insufficiency’ Theme <ul><ul><li>Dispensing Praise Impossible In Environments Where Personal Recognition = Generally Absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mgrs. Reluctant To Dispense Praise When They Do Not, Themselves, Receive Any </li></ul></ul></ul>

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