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  1. 1. Editing workshop <ul><li>Roland Nord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Punctuation <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Punctuation is an essential element of good writing because it makes the author’s meaning clear to the reader.” (“Punctuation Guide” from Oxford American College Dictionary ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Punctuation should be governed by its function, whish is to promote ease of reading.” ( CMS 6.1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close vs. Open punctuation </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Punctuation <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Punctuation is used to clarify the meaning of written or printed language. Well-planned word order requires a minimum of punctuation. The trend toward less punctuation calls for skillful phrasing to avoid ambiguity and to ensure exact interpretation.” ( GPO Manual of Style 8.1) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Punctuation <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The general principles governing the use of punctuation are: If it does not clarify the text it should be omitted; and, in the choice and placing of punctuation marks, the sole aim should be to bring out more clearly the author’s thought. Punctuation should aid reading and prevent misreading. ( GPO Manual of Style 8.2) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Comma rules <ul><ul><li>The comma “denotes a slight pause. Effective use of the comma involves good judgment, with ease of reading the end in view.” ( CMS 6.18) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before a coordinating conjunction joining two sentences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet (fan boys) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Comma rules <ul><li>Between coordinate adjectives or between items in a series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The little, old man reads dictionaries for fun. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff brought the bread, cheese, and wine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy cleaned the kitchen, Biff finished the laundry, and I vacuumed the living room. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Comma rules <ul><li>After introductory phrases or ( subordinate ) clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After watching the movie, Biff was afraid to go to bed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because she had spent all of her money of fashion items, Buffy couldn’t afford to buy supper. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Comma rules <ul><li>Around parenthetical or nonessential information ( relative clauses , appositives , absolutes & participial phrases ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy, who studies at MSU, manages a number of telemarketing companies from her home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy manages a number of telemarketing companies from her home, which is a block away from mine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff, an aging baby boomer, hopes to marry Buffy, a woman half his age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He wrote her a valentine, signing the card in red ink. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy opened the valentine, her heart skipping a beat as she recognized the handwriting. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Comma rules <ul><li>To set off interjections— not or not only ( correlatives ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reporters heard the press secretary, not the CEO, make the announcement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy immediately drove to Biff’s house, not only determined to shove the valentine down his throat, but also hoping to stomp on his aching heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy not only rang the bell but also kicked the door. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff decided not to open the door but to watch from the window. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Comma rules <ul><li>To set off clauses of the type the more…the more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The more the reporters heard the press secretary say, the more they doubted him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The faster he walked, the safer he felt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sooner the better. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Comma rules <ul><li>To set off direct quotations or direct questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After a minute or so, Buffy yelled, “Open the door!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff replied, “Are you talking to me?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy asked herself, what kind of an idiot is he? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The question, how will the story end? was on everyone’s mind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff wondered whether opening the door was worth the risk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the story might end was the question on everyone’s mind. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Quotation marks <ul><li>To set off direct quotations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Quotation marks <ul><li>To set off words or phrases that have a specific technical use or that are being used in a special manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When I said “plain,” I meant “flat land,” not “ordinary.” ( OACD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oh yah, Buffy thought Biff was a real ‘genius.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The instructor defined Googlewhack , quoting extensively from the Wikipedia . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston has six letters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There’s no I in teamwork . </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Parallelism <ul><li>“… requires that expressions similar in content and function be outwardly similar. The likeness of form enables the reader to recognize more readily the likeness of content and function.” (Strunk & White, The Elements of Style, sec. 19) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Parallelism <ul><ul><li>Biff strides through the mall, moseys through the bookstore, and crawls through the buffet line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help readers to learn and to expand their minds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help readers to learn and expand their minds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help readers (to) learn to expand their minds. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Comparisons <ul><li>Comparative degree (with noun, phrase, or a clause) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff is older than Buffy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy is the smarter of the two. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff is younger than I thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superlative degree (to single out one of more than two nouns) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffy is the smartest person in the room. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of the four children in her family, Buffy is the smartest. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Capitalization <ul><li>When a character name involves an animal as part of the name, should both the given and animal name be capitalized? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samantha the Snake vs. Samantha the snake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White Rabbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheshire Cat/Puss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baloo the Bear </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Usage <ul><li>What vs. which questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is used to when asking a question for which many (or an unknown number of) answers are possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is used if you are choosing between two (or a limited number of) answers. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Usage <ul><li>What vs. which questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your favorite color? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is your favorite color (red or blue)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which wrist did your break? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you like for lunch? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What highway should I take to St. Peter? You can take either 169 or 22. Which is the better road? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Usage <ul><li>Lie/lay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie – intr.v. lay, lain, lying, lies. 1. To be in or place oneself in a prostrate or recumbent position; rest; recline. ( American Heritage Dictionary ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will lie down when I’m tired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yesterday, I lay in bed for most of the morning. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Usage <ul><li>Lie/lay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay – tr.v. laid, laying, lays. 1. To cause to lie; put in a recumbent position: lay a child in its crib. 2. To place or rest in a particular state or position. 3. To put or set down; deposit. ( American Heritage Dictionary ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will lay the book on the table—the same place I laid it yesterday. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Usage <ul><li>Omitting prepositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biff saw Buffy (on) the day before yesterday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I saw her (on) last Thursday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We lived there (for) six years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was in meetings (for) all week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All (of) the Maverick players were suspended for studying grammar during practice. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Questions?
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