Leadership Academy Final Project:




     “Senior Crime College”




           Vancie Floyd
           Julie O’Brien



...
Script For Final Presentation

Slide 1- Introduction

Slide 2 – Sound the Alarm
In doing previous research looking for new...
Robbery Penal Code statutes. Currently, Texas has no such provision for
fraud thefts.
Slide 7 – Areas of Interest Summary
...
not recognize the signs of fraud when they were exposed to them. [Read
second entry] The persons who have had previous exp...
each of them valued praise and success. 2. Provide valued rewards. We
had already demonstrated in the past that we would o...
needs individual. Since coming to the DR Unit, he showed that he was
anxious to take on responsibility and challenge. He a...
[Read each bullet] This was an obvious source of conflict because it would
make communication more difficult. [Read second...
showed a great deal of enthusiasm for the program and other appeared to
simply participate because they were ordered. The ...
reputation to a successful program. This not only benefits the seniors he
instructs but also helps establish himself as a ...
Slide 37 – Social Capital
In creating social capital, we looked at what type of group the “Senior
Crime College” would be....
publicly acknowledge his assistance during the Crime College. He,
however, chose not to attend the Crime College.

Slide 4...
focusing on the type of frauds that most affect their unique community.
The lesson plan, videos, and handouts used in our ...
Slide 45 – APD 1St Senior Crime College
[Read slide]

Slide 46 – Photo showing the Magic Pig
As you can see in this pictur...
the offense report if the victim is a senior age 65 or older who is victimized
by fraud.

Under our proposal, when a copy ...
Question 2. “Do you feel more confident that you can hang up the phone,
tear up the mail, or not respond to a ‘scam’ artis...
Closing
This concludes our presentation. Does anyone have any questions?




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  1. 1. Leadership Academy Final Project: “Senior Crime College” Vancie Floyd Julie O’Brien 1
  2. 2. Script For Final Presentation Slide 1- Introduction Slide 2 – Sound the Alarm In doing previous research looking for new programs to bring to the Southwest District Representative (SWDR) Unit, I came across some alarming statistics on the number of senior citizens victimized by fraud. [Read slide] Slide 3 – Identify Areas of Interest When Vancie and I were deciding what project to work on for the Leadership Academy, we decided to focus on what the Austin Police Department is doing, or could be doing, to specifically address the problem of seniors who are victimized by fraud crimes. The first area of interest was [Read slide]. Vancie and I see this area of interest as an opportunity. The statistics indicate a need for something new or different. Slide 4 – Second Area of Interest [Read slide] The second area of interest was created when Vancie and I discovered that despite the alarming statistics and the number of different types of fraud scams, APD has no mechanism to gather information from all areas of the city and elsewhere to disseminate to senior citizens in a format that is easily accessible. Slide 5 – Third Area of Interest Research into responses from other areas of the country revealed that educating seniors in fraud recognition and protection was an important component in an overall strategy to reduce the amount of fraud victimization. [Read slide] Slide 6 – Fourth Area of Interest [Read slide] During the research, Vancie and I found that the federal government enhances penalties against persons convicted of telemarketing fraud in Federal Court. Although Texas outlaws much of what is considered fraud, it is prosecuted under the dollar amount. We believe that it is possible to deter criminals from specifically targeting seniors if the penalties were enhanced, similar to the current Sexual Assault and 2
  3. 3. Robbery Penal Code statutes. Currently, Texas has no such provision for fraud thefts. Slide 7 – Areas of Interest Summary In short, our areas of interest can be summarized as [Read slide] Slide 8 – Analyze [Read slide] After determining the areas of interest, Vancie and I looked at the West Point Leadership Theories to see which applied. We had an advantage when preparing our final project because we had planned as part of the final project to have already held a 2-hour block of instruction designed to educate seniors about fraud crimes. We called it the “Senior Crime College.” Having already worked through all of the processes and problems, we were able to reflect on what leadership theories and strategies we used. Slide 9 – Theories These are the major sections that we reviewed to determine which leadership theories applied. [Read slide] Slide 10 – Targets of Influence These are the two primary groups that we considered when deciding who we could influence and how. [Read slide] “Senior Citizens” refers to the students of the “Senior Crime College.” “Those needed to accomplish goals” include persons both internal and external to the organization. Slide 11 – Individual In the section on individual leadership theories, Vancie and I found the following theories applied. [Read slide] Slide 12 – Adult Development In the cycle of transition and stability, we believe senior citizens would be in a stage of stability. This causes concern that the sense of stability gives rise to complacency when seniors consider themselves targets of potential fraud. In the area of Adult Development, Vancie and I focused on the senior citizens in determining the best way to instruct them. [Read first entry] When speaking with agencies or organizations that presented similar instruction, we found out that two commonalties emerged in seniors victimized by crime. These opinions were expressed by several of the presenters. First, most seniors don’t think that they could ever be fooled by a fraud thief. Second, many seniors who were victimized by fraud could 3
  4. 4. not recognize the signs of fraud when they were exposed to them. [Read second entry] The persons who have had previous experience instructing seniors also had several bits of advice on how to capture a senior’s interest and hold their attention. For example, giveaways, set periods of instruction with a long break, and prize drawings. Slide 13 – Expectancy Theory Vancie and I broke down Expectancy theory into 2 areas: Influencing those needed to obtain short-term goals and those needed to obtain long-term goals. [Read first entry] We needed the DR’s to help set-up and run certain parts of the “Senior Crime College.” Additionally, we needed one DR to become the “Future” of the “Senior Crime College” because he or she would take over the program after Vancie and I bowed out. [Read second entry] Long-term includes entities and persons within the organization needed to accomplish the goals of a central database. Also, it included other area command DR programs because Vancie and I hope to export the idea of a “Senior Crime College” to all the area commands to significantly increase the number of seniors who learn how to recognize and protect themselves against fraud crimes. Slide 14 – Increasing Expectancy for Short Term [Read each numbered section on slide separately] 1. Clarify the path. Vancie and I planned the Senior Crime College breaking it down into parts so that it would not appear so overwhelming. 2. Build Confidence. This applied mainly to the primary DR that we chose to inherit the program. We met with this DR, Officer Mike Summers, often and made sure that he observed and understood the process that we were following. More importantly, we told the Primary DR that he had been chosen especially because we trusted in his abilities. 3. Restructure the work environment. This applied mainly to making sure that the DR’s had the time, equipment, and giveaways necessary to implement the “Senior Crime College” using all the best advice given by others who had presented similar information to seniors. [Read next entry] Clarify the requirements. Vancie and I were clear with the DR’s what we were trying to accomplish and what we needed to have happen. The only reward promised was a “thank you” and the satisfaction of knowing they’d been involved in a successful project. Slide 15 – Increase Valence [Read each numbered slide separately] 1. Determine which rewards are valued. Having worked with the DR’s for nearly a year, I already knew that 4
  5. 5. each of them valued praise and success. 2. Provide valued rewards. We had already demonstrated in the past that we would openly and officially recognize outstanding work. The desired success was contingent upon how well the “Senior Crime College” went. 3. Explain the Benefits. Vancie and I explained to each DR why we were doing the “Senior Crime College” and how it would benefit each senior. Many of the DR’s expressed feelings of protectiveness toward the seniors after relating them to their own parents and grandparents. Slide 16 – Increasing Expectancy Long-term With long-term influence over persons with whom Vancie and I do not work closely, it limited our abilities to have control over expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. [Read each numbered section] 1. Clarify the path. A selling point for the Senior Crime College is that it’s a package deal. We already have a power point presentation, script, research materials, and sources for pamphlets. A DR wanting to implement the “Senior Crime College” in their own area command need only make copies of the package, learn the material, and set up their own location. 2. Conduct training. This is related to clarifying the path. Vancie and I will provide the materials and advice necessary to complete your own “Senior Crime College.” [Read next section] Clarify the requirements. The formula for a successful crime college is already there, a DR need only follow it. Slide 17 – Long-term Valence [read slide] 1. Explain the benefits. The only strategy available to Vancie and I in working with persons outside our command is explaining why the crime college is important and the success that we experienced with it. Slide 18 – MTC [Read slide] Positive reinforcement consisting of praise and encouragement was used to motivate the Primary DR and the SWDR Unit. Observational learning is intended to motivate other area command DR Units in that they will want to experience the same success that we had with the “Senior Crime College.” Slide 19 – Job Redesign [Read first section] This is probably the single most important component to having a successful program; picking the right DR to spearhead it. A DR who will take the assignment and run with it. Vancie and I selected Mike Summers as our Primary DR because we identified him as a high growth 5
  6. 6. needs individual. Since coming to the DR Unit, he showed that he was anxious to take on responsibility and challenge. He also has a very open and pleasant personality that seemed like it would be appealing to seniors. These are the leader strategies that we used with the Primary DR to take full advantage of his potential. [Read slide] Vertical loading. Assuming responsibility for the Senior Crime College will place the Primary DR in a quasi-supervisory position and he will need to use his creativity to keep the program interesting and successful. Establishing Client Relationships. We assigned the Primary DR to act as the liaison with the senior activity center where the crime college would be held. This exposed the DR to the very seniors who were in need of this program. He formed a close relationship with many of the seniors. Opening Feedback Channels. Vancie and I made sure that we were always approachable and accessible to the Primary DR. Slide 20 – The Group Systems These are the applicable areas and theories under this section. [Read slide] Slide 21 – Group Structural Dimensions* [Read first section] In thinking of our crime college students as a group, Vancie and I saw two key dimensions: [Read slide] Composition. The similarities between group members were rooted in their age and somewhat similar life experiences based on their age. Cohesion at the outset of the college would be minimal, but Vancie and I hoped that the college would increase the cohesion in that each of them would think of themselves as a graduate of the “Senior Crime College.” This would, in turn, raise their confidence that they could recognize a fraud if they saw it and protect themselves from it. This could also be thought of as an output, or an effect on the individual. Slide 22 – Managing Conflict [Read first section] After learning that other organizations had presenters that had been traveling on a statewide and local level, Vancie and I saw the potential for conflict with [Read second section]. We were concerned that there would be a feeling of competitiveness and a need to protect territory on the part of other presenters. In particular, these 3 groups: [Read slide] Slide 23 – Sources of Conflict 6
  7. 7. [Read each bullet] This was an obvious source of conflict because it would make communication more difficult. [Read second bullet] This is related to physical separation but it also includes confusion and misinformation as possible results. [Read third bullet] Here we saw recognition as a possible conflict as other organizations wanted to be associated with being the primary expert on seniors and fraud crime. Fortunately, Vancie and I only encountered one person who felt as if they were being left out. He obviously connected his identity and status to his role as senior fraud crime expert. We smoothed things over with him by using the leader strategy of [Read second section] Our superordinate goal was that we were all working toward the same noble end and that with the amount of seniors in the area, there was room for more than one source of information about senior fraud crime. The primary goal was protecting innocent victims. Slide 24 – The Leadership System ** These are the theories that Vancie and I applied. [Read slide] Slide 25 – Bases of Power [Read slide as you go] Legitimate. Vancie and I are both supervisors, so we have the authority given to our ranks by departmental policy. We can tell people what to do. Reward. We are both in positions where we can recognize and praise good work. In addition, I’m the Lieutenant over the SWDR Unit, so I have the ability to make preferential assignments for the DR’s who work for me. Coercive. Vancie and I never had to use this base of power, but the fact that we could use it was understood by all. Expert. Vancie and I established our credibility because we demonstrated that we understood exactly what needed to be done and we had done extensive research into fraud crimes. Referent. We would like to think that at least with the Primary DR referent power played a factor in how well he assumed ownership of the program, even before we actually turned it over to him. Slide 26 – Outcomes We experienced 3 types of outcomes using our bases of power. Because we anticipated and managed the potential conflict with the presenter from the other organization, we did not encounter any resistance. [Read first section] Compliance. The three entities that we believe complied but have not yet demonstrated anything higher were: [Read slide]. PIO will be instrumental in the creation of a central database for public use. [Read slide] Identification. There were two entities that we believe identified with us. [Read slide] The DR’s are listed again because some of the unit DR’s 7
  8. 8. showed a great deal of enthusiasm for the program and other appeared to simply participate because they were ordered. The activity director was a huge help. She started out wanting to cooperate but ended up buying into the concept and actually bringing new ideas to the table. [Read slide] Internalization. The Primary DR accepted the need for a crime college and why they needed to be successful. We have no doubt that the future Southwest crime colleges will be planned as well, or better, now that he has full control of it. Slide 27 – Situational Leadership We applied this theory to the SWDR Unit. As a whole, we identified their development level as [Read slide]. They possessed a high degree of competence but variable commitment. The corresponding leader behavior that we used was [Read slide]. Vancie and I allowed individual DR’s to plan the Senior Information Fair that was held in conjunction with the crime college. This allowed them to make their own decisions and solve their own problems. Slide 28 – Primary DR [Progress slide as you speak] The primary DR started out as a D1 having a high commitment but lacking the knowledge of how to accomplish his assignment. He quickly rose through the development levels to become a D4; Peak Performer. Slide 29 – Leader Behaviors [Progress slide as you speak] Correspondingly, Vancie and I started with S1 leader behavior telling him what to do and ended with S4 giving the Primary DR significant autonomy and control over the program. Slide 30 – Senior Citizens [Progress slide as you speak] Considering the seniors as a group to be influenced, we identified their development level as D1. They had high commitment to learning but did not yet have the knowledge. Our leader behavior, therefore, was S1; Directing. This was done through the crime college where we told them what we wanted them to know. Slide 31 – Transformational Leadership [Progress slide as you speak] Vancie and I helped the Primary DR see the crime college as a future opportunity. He could attach his name and 8
  9. 9. reputation to a successful program. This not only benefits the seniors he instructs but also helps establish himself as a top-notch employee. Slide 32 – Leader Strategies [Read slide] Slide 33 – The Organization and Community Leadership The following are the areas and theories that apply to our situation. [Read slide] Slide 34 – Organizational Open System The components of the organizational system directly affected by the senior crime college are: [Read slide]. Indirectly affected are the components [Read slide]. This is especially true if all or most of the area command DR units adopted the “Senior Crime College.” Slide 35 – Stakeholder Management We identified the following stakeholders as low threat, high cooperation therefore we wanted to involve them in the response: [Read slide] The following stakeholder was identified as high threat, high cooperation, therefore, we wanted to collaborate with him. [Read slide] He has a great deal of influence in both the community and the legislature. Slide 36 – Managing the Environment The APD budget had been frozen by the time we had the “Senior Crime College.” It is unlikely that funds will be available again until August or September. This will be a problem faced by any area command wanting to adopt a “Senior Crime College.” As a result, we have to manage [Read slide]. The leader strategies that we employed were [Read each bullet]. Maintaining alternate resources. Instead of relying on the department for giveaways or prizes, we built a stash of giveaways and solicited area command businesses for donated prizes. Acquiring prestige. To ensure that the crime college becomes and remains a sought-after commodity, we have publicized the crime college both inside and outside the department. This will hopefully help it receive funding because the popular programs usually are the last to receive the budget axe. Co-opting. We are trying to eliminate competition from other DR units and their programs by convincing them to adopt the crime college. 9
  10. 10. Slide 37 – Social Capital In creating social capital, we looked at what type of group the “Senior Crime College” would be. [Read first section] It is Gesellschaft because the seniors are not bound together by personal ties but because of age or circumstance. [Read second section] This also makes the senior crime college a relational community because they share the same characteristic. [Read their section] The “Senior Crime College” builds two types of capital: [Read slide] In human capital, we are educating and training the seniors to better be able to defend themselves against fraud. In social capital, we are hopefully helping to connect the seniors with each other and the other types of resources available to seniors in the community. Slide 38 – Leader Strategy In examining the leader strategies laid out in the course guide, we found that the Senior Crime College moved beyond the mechanisms described by Robert Putnam. The strategy can be titled, Community Policing because it involves orchestrated acts of the police department that either purposely or incidentally create greater social capital as a byproduct of the police working with the community. Slide 39 – Ethics [Read slide] This wasn’t a leadership theory that we intentionally applied, but Vancie and I realized that we cannot lead or influence anyone unless we have credibility. Therefore, maintaining an ethical example is a mandatory condition for any leadership theory. Slide 40 – Overcoming Resistance to Change This occurred at an individual level with the presenter from the other organization who felt threatened by what Vancie and I were doing. [Read slide] The two primary sources of resistance were this individual’s inability to understand why we were making changes to a system with which he felt comfortable. Also, he felt that he would lose something of value to him and that was his self-identification with his role as senior fraud crime expert. Slide 41 – Leader Strategies The two leader strategies that Vancie and I employed were [Read slide] We explained how increasing the number of sources of information for seniors could only benefit the seniors. And, we agreed that benefiting the seniors was our primary concern. To involve this presenter, we sought his advice, invited him to the Senior Crime College, and had intended to 10
  11. 11. publicly acknowledge his assistance during the Crime College. He, however, chose not to attend the Crime College. Slide 42 – Response – This is where we take Action – Our First response to the Area of Interest – Education - is the “Senior Crime College.” Slide 43 – Senior Crime College [Read first 3 entries] The Senior Crime College was a 2-hour block of instruction presented to the Seniors covering areas of fraud recognition and protection. This program was modeled after the “Senior Crime College” done by the Kentucky Attorney General’s Office. The major difference between the two programs is that in Kentucky, only a representative from the Attorney General’s office gives the presentations. Local law enforcement is not involved. The Austin Police Department’s “Senior Crime College” will be taught by the District Representatives from the respective area commands. In our “Senior Crime College,” we had seniors sign-up for the class by having a sign-up sheet at the senior center 30 days before the class was held. We tried to limit the class to 50 students because of the classroom size at the senior center. There was such an interest in the program some seniors were placed on a waiting list. The seniors who did not get to attend the initial class will be scheduled for the next available class. Some of the topics we discussed with the seniors were: how to protect yourself, things to beware of, signs of a thief, and what to do if you have been victimized by fraud. The seniors were given actual examples of fraud cases that have happened in the Southwest area of the city over the past year. Some of the topics we discussed were: [Read slide] The common theme for Telemarketing, Mail Fraud, and Identity Theft was “Hang it up or tear it up.” The common theme for Home Improvement Fraud, and Face-to-Face scams was, “If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is.” A copy of our power point presentation from the “Senior Crime College” will be passed out for you to see. (Pass out power point presentation from “Senior Crime College”) Each area command will be able to personalize their “Senior Crime College” by using examples of fraud reports from their own commands and 11
  12. 12. focusing on the type of frauds that most affect their unique community. The lesson plan, videos, and handouts used in our “Senior Crime College” presentation will be made available to other area commands if they choose to implement the program. Slide 44 – Successful Teaching Techniques Julie and I used a variety of successful teaching techniques with the seniors. We used: [Read bullet] Varied Instructional Materials. The seniors were given handouts, pamphlets, and they were shown a power point presentation, in addition to the lecture and videotape. Copies of the power point presentation were passed out in handout form in case one of the students could not see the presentation on-screen. Numerous pamphlets covering the various topics discussed in class were also given to the seniors. [Read next bullet] Red Flags. Red Flags were passed out to the seniors in an attempt to make their instruction interactive. If one of the seniors heard something during the lecture that would “raise the red flag” in their mind, they were encouraged to wave the red flag for all to see. [Read next bullet] Giveaways. During our research on the “Senior Crime College,” it was learned from other presenters that seniors enjoyed giveaways. The Southwest Area Command DR Unit provided a “Senior Crime College” pin, coffee cup, pen, pencil, eraser, and a coozie that was placed in a gift bag and distributed to each senior attending the class. (Show Example) [Read next bullet] Prize Drawings. The Primary DR contacted local organizations in the Southwest area to see if they would provide a donation for the “Senior Crime College.” Several area businesses donated gift cards and other merchandise. A drawing was held at the end of the first course of instruction and at the end of the “Senior Crime College.” Each senior was given a ticket that was attached to the bag of pamphlets. At the end of the first course of instruction, a number was pulled from the “Magic Pig” and the lucky senior received the prize. [Read slide] 45-minute blocks of instruction. 45-minute blocks of instruction were used to alleviate student intellectual fatigue and so that the seniors could get up and stretch and move around if they need to. 12
  13. 13. Slide 45 – APD 1St Senior Crime College [Read slide] Slide 46 – Photo showing the Magic Pig As you can see in this picture, Julie has her hand on the “Magic Pig” and we were preparing to do a drawing. The man sitting to the right of me has the bag of pamphlets in his hand waiting to hear the lucky number. Slide 47 – Flag waving Session Here everyone is demonstrating that they can recognize a sign of fraud when they see it. The seniors were asked questions similar to: What happens to the red flag in your mind if someone approaches you wanting to share money they found? Slide 48 – Senior Information Fair The SWDR Unit held a Senior Information Fair on the same date as the “Senior Crime College.” This was not part of the “Senior Crime College” but was held in conjunction with it. We anticipated a large crowd at the senior center and the DR’s planned an information fair to reach the greatest number of seniors. In attendance were the Travis County Health & Human Services, AFD, EMS, 911/311, and other organizations who service the senior community. The DR’s also had a VIN etching station set up outside. Slide 49 – These are pictures from the Senior Information Fair. In the lower right picture, you will see the Primary DR for the “Senior Crime College” with some new recruits. He will be the primary contact person for other area commands should they wish to implement this program. If any other area command is interested in implementing the program, check with us after this presentation. Slide 50 – Our 2nd response to the Area of Interest – Collection and dissemination of information to the public is: Information - Keeping the Seniors “Plugged In” [Read first entry] Julie and I pitched the idea to PIO about a link on the official APD web-site that would be called “Senior Scambusters”. This site would contain the latest information on the types of scams being reported in the Austin area. The information would originate from the area commands and the White Collar Crime Unit. Under state law, the department is required within 1 week of the offense to send DPS a copy of 13
  14. 14. the offense report if the victim is a senior age 65 or older who is victimized by fraud. Under our proposal, when a copy of the offense report is sent to DPS, another copy would be routed to PIO. PIO would select what information is contained in the web site. Although not all seniors have Internet access, we learned that the senior centers have computers with Internet access for the seniors to use. [Read next bullet] Many of these “Senior Crime Colleges” will likely be held at senior centers, churches or retirement communities who already have in place some type of publication. We would use their publication for a monthly or bi-monthly update and reminders about fraud. [Read next bullet] We hope to export the “Senior Crime College” to all area commands. This would keep a larger group of seniors informed about fraud. Slide 51 – Our 3rd response is Legislation [Read first bullet] The proposal is to enhance the penalty for crimes of theft involving fraud against victims age 65 or older. Julie and I are going to write a rough draft of the proposal and submit it to the police Administration for approval. If approved, we will send it to a specific legislator so that he can sponsor it. Julie and I asked State Representative Terry Keel if he would sponsor the Legislation if approved by the department. He agreed to begin work on it immediately after receiving the rough draft. Representative Keel is a member of the House Jurisprudence Committee. Slide 52 – Assess For our assessment we chose a: [Read first bullet] Student Evaluation. An evaluation was handed out to the seniors as a survey at the end of the Senior Crime College. 57 Surveys were handed out. 51 were returned. The survey asked the following questions with the possible response being Yes, Maybe, or No. Question 1. “After having attended the ‘Senior Crime College,’ do you think you are now better able to recognize a ‘scam when presented with one’ ?” 92% said Yes. 8% said Maybe. 14
  15. 15. Question 2. “Do you feel more confident that you can hang up the phone, tear up the mail, or not respond to a ‘scam’ artist?” 100% said Yes. Question 3. “Did you learn anything new about fraud crimes?” 85% said Yes. 12% said Maybe. 3% said No. Question 4. “Would you recommend the Senior Crime College to other seniors?” 99% said Yes. 1% said Maybe. An example of the survey will be handed out to each side of the room. (Pass out survey) [Read next bullet] In approximately 6 months, Julie and I will contact PIO to determine if the web site is up and running and the number of hits it has received up to that point. [Read next slide] In 6 months, Julie and I will check with the other area command DR’s to see if they have implemented the program and how it is working out for them. [Read next bullet] In 6 months, Julie and I will review “1199” (Fraud/other) reports in areas that have “Senior Crime Colleges” to determine if it appears that there are more seniors reporting potential fraud rather than reporting that they have victimized by fraud. The information gained from this review will be used to determine changes in the curriculum for future crime colleges. Slide 53 – Assess (cont.) [Read next bullet] After the rough draft has been submitted to Representative Keel, Julie and I plan to check on the status of the legislation every 90 days. [Read next bullet] In December 2002, Julie and I plan to survey the Southwest “Senior Crime College” graduates again to see if they are implementing what they were taught. Slide 54 – The end This is the official pin of the Austin Police Senior Crime College. [Advance slide] This program is another path to Success and Recognition [Advance slide], and Julie and I have proof….. [Advance slide] 15
  16. 16. Closing This concludes our presentation. Does anyone have any questions? 16

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