Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Business Information Systems Building Blocks
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Business Information Systems Building Blocks

3,808

Published on

1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • A Business Information System generally refers to any type of computer system , typically offering high quality service. It is grappling with large volumes of data and is able to support any large organization , ie adapting to the needs of the company. http://information--systems.blogspot.com/
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,808
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
110
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Teaching Notes This is the capstone figure for the chapter —the complete information systems building blocks framework. Teaching Tips Emphasize that ALL building blocks are relevant to ALL information systems that the student will encounter or develop during the course of their career. Emphasize that the building blocks must be synchronized both horizontally and vertically when building information systems. Vertical synchronization ensures that each block represents fully the perspectives of the other blocks in the same column. For example, a database schema must implement the intended data requirements. Horizontal synchronization ensures that each block in a given row is consistent and complete with respect to the other blocks in that same row. For example, each table in a database schema requires application software and specifications to maintain the data stored in those tables.
  • No additional notes
  • Conversion Notes In previous editions, we tried to distinguish between “information systems” and “computer applications” (the latter being a subset of the former). This created more confusion with students than it was worth. Some books use the term “computer technology.” We prefer the more contemporary term, “information technology” as a superset of computer technology.
  • Conversion Notes This classification scheme comes from popular usage in the trade literature. Teaching Tips This terminology is not to be confused with office automation . In fact, office automation systems can be either front-office or back-office, just as with other types of information system applications.
  • Teaching Tips This slide visually illustrates front- and back-office applications and highlights the following: Many organizations purchase their back-office systems in the form of enterprise resource planning (ERP) products such as SAP, PeopleSoft, and Oracle. The ERP industry is trying to expand into the front-office applications. It might be noted that electronic commerce and business extensions are being added to both front- and back-office applications in order to streamline interfaces to both customers and suppliers. E-commerce is being driven by the Internet (and private extranets). E-business is being enabled by intranets.
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes
  • Conversion Notes In some previous editions and other textbooks, MIS is referred to as “management reporting.”
  • Conversion Notes Some books treat DSS and EIS as distinct; however, if definitions are closely examined, the differences are subtle – they only differ in audience. Both DSS and EIS tend to support the same decision-oriented activities and basically work the same. Data warehouse concepts are also taught in most database textbooks and courses. The design of a data warehouse differs significantly from traditional, operational databases.
  • No additional notes
  • Office automation systems and the changing role in the organization across the organization in terms of information and communication technology. Examples of – organizational restructuring – business processes re-engineering.
  • Teaching Tips It may be useful to walk through this diagram in class. The textbook coverage included numbered annotations that highlight portions of this diagram. Remind students that any given information system may include many instances of each of these IS application processes and databases.
  • No additional notes
  • Conversion Notes For this edition, we added systems analysts and IT vendors and consultants. Each of these classes of stakeholders is described in greater detail in Chapter 1. Note that we use a consistent color for these stakeholders (throughout the chapter and textbook). Teaching Tips It is very important for students to understand that these are “roles,” not “job titles.” Any given individual can play more than one role. Any role is shared by many individuals.
  • Conversion Notes We deleted the “geography” focus (column) from this edition. It still exists; however, the technology architecture and network for an organization is typically developed separate from the information system, and typically supports many information systems and communications needs. By eliminating this column in the fifth edition, we have simplified the framework for the students. The book still presumes that the network is a critical component for all contemporary information systems.
  • Teaching Notes This slide serves to establish the focus for the chapter. The highlighted cells are the information system building blocks that are described in detail as this chapter unfolds.
  • Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the DATA focus as seen by different stakeholders. Teaching Tips If your students have taken a database course, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the DATA column.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the DATA focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the PROCESS focus as seen by the different stakeholders. Teaching Tips Most students have some programming experience. Accordingly, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the PROCESS column. Consider summarizing that experience by working bottom-to-top in the column to reinforce their perspective of the “application programs” they wrote. The programming instructor typically played the roles of system owners, users, and analysts when they wrote the programming assignments. The student typically played the roles of designer (e.g., flowcharts) and builder (e.g, logic).
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the INTERFACE focus as seen by the different stakeholders. Teaching Tips Many students have written programs for graphical user interfaces using languages such as Access, Visual Basic and HTML . Accordingly, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the INTERFACE column. While it is conceptually and practically useful to separate INTERFACE and PROCESS, it should be noted that many of today’s contemporary application development environments (ADEs) such as Visual Basic effectively integrate the technology used to construct both the user interface and the application logic. Some students find this confusing. Interestingly, the emphasis on Web-based applications is truly separating the concerns. For example, the interface elements of a Web are written in HTML while the application logic is written in C++ or Java .
  • Teaching Notes This slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the INTERFACE focus into the context of stakeholders.
  • Teaching Notes This is the capstone figure for the chapter —the complete information systems building blocks framework. Teaching Tips Emphasize that ALL building blocks are relevant to ALL information systems that the student will encounter or develop during the course of their career. Emphasize that the building blocks must be synchronized both horizontally and vertically when building information systems. Vertical synchronization ensures that each block represents fully the perspectives of the other blocks in the same column. For example, a database schema must implement the intended data requirements. Horizontal synchronization ensures that each block in a given row is consistent and complete with respect to the other blocks in that same row. For example, each table in a database schema requires application software and specifications to maintain the data stored in those tables.
  • Conversion Notes This slide illustrates the classic model of separating and partitioning the layers of an information system application across a network. This is called a distributed computing architecture and it can be implemented using either client/server or Internet/intranet technology, or a combination of both.
  • Conversion Notes While we deleted the GEOGRAPHY column that was included in our framework in the fourth edition, we did not want to ignore it. Today’s information systems are built on top of constantly evolving networks. This slide was adapted from the margin art to illustrate that the framework works equally well for network analysis and design. We acknowledge that a more complicated and well-accepted framework exists in the form of the OSI model. That is yet another reason we chosen to deemphasize this column in our fifth edition.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Business Information Systems Building Blocks Dr Sherif Kamel The American University in Cairo
    • 2. Outline <ul><li>Role of information systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of information systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Data and information. </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of information systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems building blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Ps in systems development. </li></ul><ul><li>The life cycle. </li></ul>
    • 3. An integrated view of the role of IS in the organization
    • 4. Types of information systems
    • 5. MIS obtaining data from multiple TPS
    • 6. Interrelationships among systems
    • 7. Transaction processing systems <ul><li>A customer placing an order for products or services with a company. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a holiday booking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying an air line ticket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying a car </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing money from the ATM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a customer ringing a call centre to pay his/her bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment for goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing order with a supplier </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. A transaction is… <ul><li>An y business related exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>An event to which the business must respond. </li></ul>
    • 9. Input-processing-output cycle
    • 10. Transaction processing system functions <ul><li>Transaction processing systems consist of 4 main functions to accomplish their purposes </li></ul><ul><li>The functions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output function </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Example: TPS payroll system
    • 12. Types of TPS by function Major Functions of system Major Application systems
    • 13. Concepts of transaction processing systems On-Line Input Transaction files from other systems Data for other systems Keypunched cards Scanning devices and sensors Audio input Audio output A displayed message Transaction Processing Record Merge Perform Sort List Update Documents
    • 14. TPS characteristics <ul><li>Provide fast and efficient processing </li></ul><ul><li>Perform rigorous data editing </li></ul><ul><li>Audited </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a high potential for security-related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Support the work processes of a large number of people </li></ul>
    • 15. TPS cycle <ul><li>A cycle through which business data goes… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document production </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. Transaction processing activities <ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of capturing and gathering all data necessary to complete transactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with a transaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be captured at the source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With minimum manual effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data editing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checks data for validity and completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data correction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-entry of wrongly keyed or scanned data </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. Transaction processing activities (Cont’d) <ul><li>Data manipulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing data transformations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Updating databases with new transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating output records and reports </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Reports produced <ul><li>Detailed reports </li></ul><ul><li>Summary reports </li></ul><ul><li>Exception reports </li></ul>
    • 19. Methods of transaction processing <ul><li>Batch processing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Online transaction processing (OLTP). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive/ Real-time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online entry with delayed processing. </li></ul>
    • 20. Transaction processing objectives <ul><li>Process data generated by and about transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a high degree of accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure data and information integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Produce timely documents and reports </li></ul><ul><li>Increase labour efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Help provide increased and enhanced service </li></ul><ul><li>Help build and maintain customer loyalty </li></ul>
    • 21. Transaction processing applications <ul><li>Accounting and financial information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Sales and marketing information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Production information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Human resources information systems </li></ul>
    • 22. 1. Accounting and financial IS <ul><li>Systems that are first computerised by organisations. </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pay cheques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cheques to vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customer invoices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stock reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many other forms and reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts receivable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payroll systems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. 2. Sales and marketing IS <ul><li>System’s basic goal is to satisfy the needs of customers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the firm identify customers for the firm’s products or services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop products and services to meet customer needs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote products and services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell the products and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide ongoing customer support. </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. Sales and marketing IS types <ul><li>Sales order </li></ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul><ul><li>Sales commission </li></ul><ul><li>Point-of-sale systems </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic shopping and advertising systems </li></ul><ul><li>Telemarketing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct mail advertising systems. </li></ul>
    • 25. 3. Production IS <ul><li>These systems support the production of goods and services (to meet marketing system projections) </li></ul><ul><li>Support decision-making for the operation, allocation, and planning of production resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce reports about production data. </li></ul>
    • 26. Production IS types <ul><li>Purchasing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping systems </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Material handling systems </li></ul><ul><li>Computer aided design/manufacturing </li></ul>
    • 27. Example – order processing system <ul><li>Order entry, sales configuration, shipment planning and shipment execution. </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory control (finished product), invoicing, customer interaction and routing and scheduling. </li></ul>
    • 28. Example – purchasing systems <ul><li>Inventory control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spare parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase order processing </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts payable </li></ul>
    • 29. 4. Human Resource IS <ul><li>Support acquiring and managing human resources including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recruiting, assessment, selection, placement, training, performance appraisal, compensation and benefit management, promotion, termination, occupational health and safety, and other activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates with other systems like payroll. </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. &nbsp;
    • 31. Data and information <ul><li>Data are raw facts about the organization and its business transactions. Most data items have little meaning and use by themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that has been refined and organized by processing and purposeful intelligence. The latter, purposeful intelligence, is crucial to the definition—People provide the purpose and the intelligence that produces true information. </li></ul>
    • 32. Information systems and technology <ul><li>An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, communications, and information technology that interact to support and improve day-to-day operations in a business as well as support the problem-solving and decision making needs of management and users. </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks). </li></ul>
    • 33. Front and back office information systems <ul><li>Front-office information systems support business functions that reach out to customers (or constituents). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back-office information systems support internal business operations and interact with suppliers (of materials, equipment, supplies, and services). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory control </li></ul></ul>
    • 34. Federation of information systems
    • 35. Classes of information systems <ul><li>Transaction processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Management information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Expert systems </li></ul><ul><li>Office automation systems </li></ul>
    • 36. 1. Transaction processing <ul><li>Transaction processing systems are information system applications that capture and process data about business transactions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes data maintenance , which provides for custodial updates to stored data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business process redesign (BPR) is the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business (transaction) processes to reduce costs and/or improve value added to the business. </li></ul></ul>
    • 37. 2. Management information systems <ul><li>A management information system (MIS) is an information system application that provides for management-oriented reporting. These reports are usually generated on a predetermined schedule and appear in a prearranged format. </li></ul>
    • 38. 3. Decision support systems <ul><li>A decision support system (DSS) is an information system application that provides its users with decision-oriented information whenever a decision-making situation arises. When applied to executive managers, these systems are sometimes called executive information systems (EIS) . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A data warehouse is a read-only, informational database that is populated with detailed, summary, and exception data and information generated by other transaction and management information systems. The data warehouse can then be accessed by end-users and managers with DSS tools that generate a virtually limitless variety of information in support of unstructured decisions. </li></ul></ul>
    • 39. 4. Expert systems <ul><li>An expert system is a programmed decision-making information system that captures and reproduces the knowledge and expertise of an expert problem solver or decision maker and then simulates the “thinking” or “actions” of that expert. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert systems are implemented with artificial intelligence technology that captures, stores, and provides access to the reasoning of the experts. </li></ul></ul>
    • 40. 5. Office automation systems <ul><li>Office automation (OA) systems support the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow and communications between workers, regardless of whether or not those workers are located in the same office. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal information systems are those designed to meet the needs of a single user. They are designed to boost an individual’s productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work group information systems are those designed to meet the needs of a work group. They are designed to boost the group’s productivity. </li></ul></ul>
    • 41. Information systems applications
    • 42. Information systems architecture <ul><li>Information systems architecture provides a unifying framework into which various people with different perspectives can organize and view the fundamental building blocks of information systems. </li></ul>
    • 43. Perspectives or stakeholders <ul><li>System owners pay for the system to be built and maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>System users use the system to perform or support the work to be completed. </li></ul><ul><li>System designers design the system to meet the users’ requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>System builders construct, test, and deliver the system into operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems analysts facilitate the development of information systems and computer applications by bridging the communications gap that exists between non-technical system owners and users and technical system designers and builders. </li></ul><ul><li>IT vendors and consultants sell hardware, software, and services to businesses for incorporation into their information systems. </li></ul>
    • 44. Focuses for information systems <ul><li>Data —the raw material used to create useful information. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes —the activities (including management) that carry out the mission of the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces —how the system interfaces with its users and other information systems. </li></ul>
    • 45. Information system building blocks
    • 46. Data focus
    • 47. Data focus <ul><li>System owners’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business knowledge is the insight that is gained from timely, accurate, and relevant information. (Recall that information is a product of raw data.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System users’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data requirements are a representation of users’ data in terms of entities, attributes, relationships, and rules. Data requirements should be expressed in a format that is independent of the technology that can or will be used to store the data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System designers’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database schema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System builders’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database management system </li></ul></ul>
    • 48. Process focus
    • 49. Process focus <ul><li>System owners’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business functions are ongoing activities that support the business. Functions can be decomposed into other subfunctions and eventually into processes that do specific tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cross-functional information system supports relevant business processes from several business functions without regard to traditional organizational boundaries such as divisions, departments, centers, and offices. </li></ul></ul>
    • 50. Process focus (Cont’d) <ul><li>System users’ perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business processes are activities that respond to business events. Business processes are the “work” performed by the system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process requirements are a representation of the users’ business processes in terms of activities, data flows, or work flow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A policy is a set of rules that govern a business process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A procedure is a step-by-step set of instructions and logic for accomplishing a business process. </li></ul></ul>
    • 51. Process focus (Cont’d <ul><li>System designers’ perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An application schema is a model that communicates how selected business processes are, or will be, implemented using the software and hardware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software specifications represent the technical design of business processes to be automated or supported by computer programs to be written by system builders. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System builders’ perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application programs are language-based, machine-readable representations of what a software process is supposed to do, or how a software process is supposed to accomplish its task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping is a technique for quickly building a functioning, but incomplete model of the information system using rapid application development tools. </li></ul></ul>
    • 52. Interface focus
    • 53. Interface focus <ul><li>System owners’ perspective </li></ul><ul><li>System users’ perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface requirements are a representation of the users’ inputs and outputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System designers’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User dialogues describe how the user moves from window-to-window, interacting with the application programs to perform useful work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System builders’ perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middleware is a layer of utility software that sits in between application software and systems software to transparently integrate differing technologies so that they can interoperate. </li></ul></ul>
    • 54. Information system building blocks
    • 55. The role of the network in IS Data Building Blocks Process Building Blocks Interface Building Blocks The network
    • 56. Communications focus in IS
    • 57. 5 Ps of information systems development <ul><li>Process - how we do it </li></ul><ul><li>Project - the structures we use to manage it </li></ul><ul><li>Product - the things we produce </li></ul><ul><li>People - lots of them in various roles </li></ul><ul><li>Problem - why we started in the first place </li></ul>
    • 58. Process <ul><li>a set of activities inter linked and interdependent in time </li></ul><ul><li>choice as to what we accentuate, what we ignore </li></ul><ul><li>choice as to sequence and degree of linearity </li></ul>
    • 59. It is important to note.... <ul><li>Committing resources to activities; Committing to some change </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing organisational problems, work processes, user needs and business opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the future activities of information use and restructuring work processes (the future information system) </li></ul><ul><li>Designing and producing software </li></ul><ul><li>Acquiring and configuring hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing the system to the organisation and to the people within it </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining the new ways of working through time, and making further adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Managing and controlling all the above activities </li></ul>
    • 60. The life cycle <ul><li>problem identification </li></ul><ul><li>feasibility study </li></ul><ul><li>project set up and planning </li></ul><ul><li>requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>systems analysis </li></ul><ul><li>design </li></ul><ul><li>programming </li></ul>
    • 61. Project <ul><li>To initiate the process </li></ul><ul><li>The unit the organisation recognises </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for management </li></ul>
    • 62. Project activities <ul><li>Organising </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An activity view (how) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A resource view (who and with what) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A product view (what) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An outcomes view (with consequences) </li></ul></ul>
    • 63. Project manager <ul><li>Achieve and sustain commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Plan activities and achieve a work breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate effort and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources to tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor milestones and deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Manage risk, sustain quality, respond </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate and evaluate progress, problems and results </li></ul>
    • 64. Product (deliverables) <ul><li>Concrete products, things to be made and delivered along the way </li></ul><ul><li>Things left behind when the project is over </li></ul><ul><li>Programs, a data base, a new order form </li></ul><ul><li>A training course </li></ul><ul><li>New jobs and new tasks </li></ul><ul><li>A viable and feasible information system </li></ul>
    • 65. Product in IS terms <ul><li>hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>documentation and training materials </li></ul><ul><li>data resources </li></ul><ul><li>formalised &apos;knowledge&apos; </li></ul><ul><li>informational transformations and outputs </li></ul><ul><li>new jobs and new roles for people </li></ul>
    • 66. Qualities looked for in product <ul><li>address the real problem </li></ul><ul><li>be cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>be user friendly…? </li></ul><ul><li>be reliable and secure </li></ul><ul><li>be sustainable </li></ul>
    • 67. Away from computing <ul><li>cost </li></ul><ul><li>convenience </li></ul><ul><li>security </li></ul><ul><li>maintainability </li></ul><ul><li>politics </li></ul>
    • 68. People <ul><li>Need people for an information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Information systems perspective only makes sense if people are there </li></ul><ul><li>Various ways of naming them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users or participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers and clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actors and members </li></ul></ul>
    • 69. What do people want? <ul><li>Knowledge contract </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological contract </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency contract </li></ul><ul><li>Task structure contract </li></ul><ul><li>Value contract </li></ul>
    • 70. Problem <ul><li>Why did we start to talk about information systems? </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve something new, better, different, but what? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ A situation upon which someone may wish to act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different problems, different people, different process etc.… </li></ul><ul><li>For the same problem we can choose to address it in different terms, different process, different project, different people, different product </li></ul>

    ×