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  1. 1. BAI 2006 The investigate of information systems Its impact on supply chains to B2B customer service operations Dr. Jenkins C. H. CHEN Director of Mobile Marketing Commerce Centre Assistant Professor of Department of Management Information System Far East College 49 Chung-Hua Rd, Hsin-Shih 74448, Tainan County, Taiwan Jenkins@cc.fec.edu.tw Ya-Ling Tsai Doctoral research Student of Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling Fk9 4LA Scotland Yt1@stir.ac.uk ABSTRACT The use of IT to share data between customers and suppliers has created an effective system. Though most supply chains is their incomplete visibility of real demand, shared information between supply chains partners can only be completely leveraged from side to side process integration. This process integration means a collaborative relationship between suppliers and customers, joint product development, common systems and shared information. In addition to this, the CRM have the advantage of providing improvements to the supply chain, as firms have moved to a new model that emphasises the matching of the degree of customer care with the particular customer and the customer’s real needs for a service. In a B2B situation, most of the customers will be large, fully developed accounts that are looking to automate or improve the way they transact their business with the suppliers. However, the supplier also has to select a regular and technical approach, as most of the companies can improve their competitive advantage through the wealth of a good supplier manager. Keyword: Information system, supply chain management, e-SCM, CRM Introduction 1
  2. 2. BAI 2006 The twentieth century saw new economic advancements in IT and new business practices, facilitated by the IT (Sweet, 2001). Although information and knowledge have always been critical components of economic growth, it was the beginnings of technology and the Internet that has brought about such transformational change in the economy. Castells (2000) argued that this new economy is different from what has gone before because it gains its advantage through the effective use of information, global concepts and networks among economic agents. ‘Technology’ refers to the package of technological resources, skills and experience, which gives firms their characteristic competitive edge in the new global economy (Bessant and Rush, 2000). The consequences of new technology for B2B operations Technology has traditional been viewed as the key to output in the manufacturing industries. However, in recent years it has greatly facilitated the exponential growth of the sector by offering firms an all-important competitive edge. Market competition has forced firms to incorporate modern technology into their key offerings, to satisfy those discerning customers who have little product loyalty (Chapman, et al., 2003). Technology now makes it possible for firms to assign their functional departments deliberately to international locations. This allows firms to draw on a global network of knowledge and services, thus augmenting the strength of their pre-existing superior service to their internal and external customers, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Nowadays, the Internet and the World Wide Web are widely accepted since they broaden business partners to gain benefits, or reduce costs that enhance customer satisfaction, as well as retaining competitive advantages. This is a challenge faced by many high tech companies due to the product life cycles growing shorter and shorter. The engineering changes involved in many operations require both new suppliers, new bills of materials, and new requirements for existing parts. Like Dell Computers for example, who started in 1984 in Austin, Texas; Dell Computers was ranked the number one PC maker in the US market in 1999. Dell’s PCs are made by electronic orders and are delivered directly to its customers. Dell’s direct-sales model is well known to the business community. Dell has eliminated the middleman within their supply chain and has also exemplified an innovative business model through their effective SCM. Dell computers continue to improve and widen their competitive advantage by integrating the Internet into its entire business process, including online sales, procurement, customer support and relationship management (Shah, 2001). The Internet business-to-business (B2B) gap is receiving great attention and the evaluation of widely trading B2B companies is escalating rapidly. On the other hand, 2
  3. 3. BAI 2006 the survival of supply channels has helped to make society more efficient in resource allocation. Most producers use intermediaries to bring their products to the market, they try to create a supply channel, that is, a set of interdependent organisations involved in the processes of making a product or service available for use or use by the consumer or business users (Janta, et al., 2003). Armstrong and Kotler (2000) argued that intermediaries play an important role in matching supply and demand. However, one of the frequently raised questions during the beginnings of e-commerce was whether the functions of the traditional supply channels with remain. Will suppliers retain their locations as the channel of promoting products to users (Janta, et al., 2003)? The contributions to the B2B area are in e-commerce; the most from improved efficiencies through reduced costs and prices and improved business practices that will lead to better international competitiveness (Mackay, et al., 2003). It is widely accepted that companies are increasingly facing the challenge of e- business. The evolution of information and communication technology has fostered the development of powerful tools that are expected to improve supply chain performance dramatically, through higher levels of process efficiency and integration. In fact, there is still poor evidence for the actual implementation and effectiveness of e-business practices (Cagliano, et al., 2003). Online exchanges which are being created in almost every supply chain bring buyers and sellers together in ways that were not possible before the arrival of the Internet. Since new technologies have created new markets and opportunities, new technologies will replace the older ones. There is no argument that the cycle rate of new technologies allows the suppliers to bring, less developed, and often more compound product lines into the mix, as the relationship with customers is still necessary even though the Internet may travel through another completion vehicle (Janta, et al., 2003). Wigand (1996) has defined disintermediation as the displacement of market mediators; that enable direct trade between sellers and buyers without agents. However Picot et al. (1997) argued that with the support of information and communication technology, and to enable them to complete the originally delegates tasks on their own. In line with this argument, Pitt et al.,(1999) suggested that many mediators will die out, while new channels and new mediators will take their place as a result of the appearance of the Internet. The expansion of the information system in B2B operations EDI is the electronic arrangement of structured documents between business partners. XML was created so the richly structured documents could be used over the web (Milutinovc and Particelli, 2002). EDI played an important role in the 3
  4. 4. BAI 2006 development of SCM, as SCM applications used networks aimed at controlling costs, reducing paperwork, lowering inventory levels, and shortening product cycles. EDI has been heavily used in industries, with a significant disadvantage being that it does not operate in real time (Graham, 2002). The growth in high-technology programs such as enterprise resource planning for ERP and CRM shows that SCM is an important factor for general enterprise applications. SCM serves as a back-end application by linking suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and resellers in a consistent production and distribution network, with the IT industry regulating the ability of a variety of services over time. During the long term relationships, the industry will define the standard capabilities of SCM, CRM, ERP, and other services (Chou, et al., 2004). Kumar and Van Hillegersberg (2000) described ERP system as an integrated set of application software modules, including accounting, distribution, sales and marketing, material management, human resources, logistics and more. Instead of focusing on detailed areas that weren’t connected, these modules work as an integrated unit by bringing the visibility of real time information to all departments and thereby focus on the business process. ERP systems are an effect of Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) systems that were developed in the 1970s largely out of manufacturing concerns. They were originally designed for the time phased word order and purchase order release system which, for many companies, eventually lead to inventory reduction, improved customer services and better production efficiency. As these systems evolved (e.g. MRPII in the early 1980s), they began to fit in with the new financial controls and measures, the master production scheduling and the capacity planning. The SCM software is becoming more prominent as companies widen their choices. SCM encompasses the supply chain planning, the forecasting of component and product availability, and the supply execution through manufacturing and distribution. Some of the applications are fairly basic in that they perform MRP, manufacturing scheduling, and order processing in the traditional, internal environment, but may provide for similar operations across organisational boundaries as well, as ERP software has no intention of being edged out by SCM. In addition, specialty companies, known as integrators, are filing key linkages in the chain, with software helping to line up the outputs from one link to the inputs for the next. One implication of an extended supply chain software capability is the ability to form collaborative relationships, known as intelligent supply chains. This means going beyond the immediate suppliers and customers to a real-time knowledge management of suppliers’ suppliers and customers’ customers (Green, 2001). 4
  5. 5. BAI 2006 The collaboration in B2B operations To ensure better supply chain integration, members of the supply chain need to continue gathering and analysing information from their partners and adjusting their operational strategy accordingly. The real challenge is that collaborative supply chain business practices involve deeper relationships than the traditional forms of business interaction (Green, 2001). In addition to improving collaboration and planning, by taking an e-business approach to supply chain integration, firms can also foster much- needed cooperation and develop innovative products for the marketplace (Tjader, 2004). Despite the fact that the traditional supply chain was for the development of long- term relationships, the active results of e-SCM may potentially lead to less focus on collaborative efforts. The objectives of e-SCM is gathering goals, not maintaining collaborative relationships, when compared to traditional SCM. Consequently, the relative value of partnerships and alliances has become fundamentally important (Williams, 2002). Collaboration in the middle of trading partnerships helps e-SCM participants to gain huge profits from providing end customers with high quality, low cost products, through flexible and efficient distribution. Web technologies boost the supply chain visibility by providing more real-time data from all links of the supply chain, resulting in greater collaborations among trading partners. Collaboration is very important because al the relevant information needs to be presented in the appropriate information system at the right time, to the right person (L. Hanebeck and Tracey, 2003). This great collaboration made e-commerce, like B2B, known to almost everybody in business circles. With the advancement of IT, the collaboration of business partners will continuously improve the effectiveness of e-SCM. In order to gain full collaboration, all trading partners have to reach a common vision about their SCM strategies. Moreover, corporations need to overcome natural confrontations by providing helpful business secrets to their partners (Chou, et al., 2004). Through the progress of web technologies, the revolutionary tendency of SCM mainly focuses on helping choice makers enhance and manage customer relationships, by professionally integrate applications and collaborating in real-time with trading partners. For this reason, we have to develop SCM. The change in corporate strategies has increases their reliance on suppliers. Under this situation, the collaborative relationship between trade partners in the supply chain becomes dangerous, so effective SCM must rise to this challenge. The Internet offers the supply chain huge 5
  6. 6. BAI 2006 possibilities and completely new methods for the reorganisation and coordination between business partners and customers. The Internet enhances SCM’s performance and it is a critical part of e-commerce. As SCM develops in the information age, the networks supporting the organisation between the business partners need to make all the information, transactions and decision flow through the network. Generally speaking, in an environment where the competition is increasingly based on supply chain efficiency, firms need to put SCM into the spirit of their business model to be successful (Chou, et al., 2004). A collaborative e-supply chain requires a significant change in the business processes, as well as changes in strategic and tactical thinking. This change in thinking requires a change in mindset, which does not come easily, and thus demands strong management endorsement. Management’s willingness to take the initiative and implement e-business that suits the supply chain needs is crucial for its success (Tjader et al., 2004). Opportunities for collaboration among business partners will vary depending upon the organisations prospective role in the supply chain. Collaboration enables partners to jointly gain a better understanding of future product demand and implement more reasonable to satisfy that demand. As Sahay (2003) pointed out, the supplier collaboration and customer collaborative types are as follow: 1. Supplier collaboration: Collaborating with suppliers, will derive benefits in the key activities like new product development, order fulfillment and capacity planning. It will help ensure that future material needs are satisfied. 2. Customer collaboration: To collaborate on business partners need to share and modify each other’s demand planes and forecasts electronically. This approach helps to ensure that consumer requirements are met efficiently. The aim of collaboration is to augment throughput and reduce stock and operating costs. As a requirement to ensure productivity, the chain members must be able to quickly identify and remove the constraints and ensure that they can continue to accurately meet changing customer requirements (Simatupang, et al., 2004). A collaborative system is necessary with members cooperating and promising that their communal self-interests are realised, improved and sustained. Therefore, this kind of relationship can be managed with a small number of suppliers. Additionally organisation can work with limited strategic suppliers in order to maintain its collaborative relationship and also to copy the global competition in its supply chain (Cebi, and Bayraktar, 2003). Anyway, the real value of collaboration is in addressing problems that check whether the participating members are responding effectively to customer needs. Otherwise collaboration will be good for the supply chains’ circumstances but will fail 6
  7. 7. BAI 2006 to address the real problems within the supply chain. Collaboration requires common question and actions to locate any potential areas where they may be gaps. The question is a way of providing different perspectives to explore improvement ideas and create better practices for supply chain’s circumstances. As well as collaboration not only identifying gaps relative to their competitors, it also encourages the chain members to find and solve core problems. This cycle helps the members to concentrate on ways to improve on their rapid responses to customer needs and wants. Therefore, collaboration concentrates on not only the questions of how to compare themselves to their other’s competitor but also focuses on those areas that need to be improved. The argument is that the supply chain should focus on interring company level activities that integrate collaboration and enhance the allocation of the chains’ members to achieve an overall better supply chain performance (Simatupang and Sridharan, 2004). The B2B community in e-SCM The cultural process concern that which is intended for collaboration amongst the trading partners in the supply chain and is based on the integration of trust and commitment (Min, 2001). Also, a successful supply chain performance is based on a high level of trust and a strong commitment amongst the supply chain partners (G Kwon and Suh, 2004). This commitment is a key success factor in achieving supply chain integration, with trust being the root in fostering such a commitment. In general, the Internet offers the business community a selection of opportunities and challenges. SCM has been enabled by convergence, which refers to the integration of computer and communication technology (Short, 2002). The communication process was followed on each company’s website to find out whether it was used for web chat, web call back or for e-mails. In addition to this, a Business also can sends offers to their customers as text messages through mobile telephones, as well as allowing them to be connected to the call centre to complete the transaction. The communication within B2B can also use the Windows Messenger service (MSN) and Skype to contact each other throughout the world. It is very convenient and affectively and immediately links suppliers to their customers. However, the advantages in terms of customer convenience and subsequent loyalty can make this effort worthwhile (Bradshaw and Brash, 2001). The change in supply chain thinking and also in marketing communications thinking is the move from push models of selling, or combined push and pull approaches(Chaffey, 2002,pp216-254). The push model is illustrated by a manufacturer who perhaps develops an innovative product and then identifies a suitable target market. The distribution channel is then 7
  8. 8. BAI 2006 created to push the product to the market. The alternative approach which is consistent with ECR focuses on the customer’s needs and starts with an analysis of their requirements which is accumulated through market research and close cooperation with customers and suppliers for new product development. The supply chain is constructed to deliver value to the customer by reducing costs and increasing service quality. The Push supply chain is a supply chain that emphasises the distribution of products to passive customers. Another is the Pull supply chain which places an emphasis on using the supply chain to deliver value to customers who are actively involved in product and service specifications (Chaffey, 2002,pp216-254). Commitment is an operational factor where an industrial customer continues to purchase from a particular supplier because the customer values the relations it has with the supplier (Abdul-Muhmin, 2002). As Barratt (2004) said, the inter- organisational relationships trust has been calculated at length, not only as a challenge for the supply chain but also because trust can add considerably to the long-term constancy of an organisation. Also, this argument suggests that effective co-ordination of the supply chain is built on a foundation of trust and commitment. Nevertheless, the implementation of such a holistic view of the supply chain requires a degree of trust between all players, that's why it is linked with partnership initiatives. The value of B2B in e-SCM Effectual supply chain planning is based on the sharing of information and trusts between partners and is an essential requirement for successful SCM (G Kwon and Suh, 2004). Most companies developing supply chain technology are only getting a small separation of those benefits that are promised. It is not that a company doesn’t trust the technology (Sherer, 2005). In contrast, a partnership with high trust would enjoy open communication and a willingness to take risks. In addition to this, a company in a high-trust relationship are not afraid to share all their information and believe in the content of the information received. A limitation should be noted here, in that information sharing and plus point specificity could be used as tools to enhance the level of trust (Abdul-Muhmin, 2002). When supply chain members have a relatively balanced dependency and a high degree of trust, the information flow in the supply chain will be effective. This in turn increases the speed and volume of the information transfers, and enhances the accuracy and transparency of the supply chain operation (Tjader, 2004). In addition to mastering technological challenges, companies will need to determine the degree to which common databases will be shared with enterprise partners. Referred to as the ‘trust factor’, shared information is the key to assuring 8
  9. 9. BAI 2006 that decisions can be made as soon as the demand is realised, so knowledge management is a strong benefit for the value chain in B2B. Knowledge management in e-SCM Knowledge management can also consider the supply chains performance, customer value, and for the members of the supply chain. Professional networks, such as a B2B “vertical-net” network, allow the members of an industry to share information with each other and keep industry practices. Industry networks also succeed in contexts that are industry specific, such as trade shows and skill-based groupings that promote particular skills. When B2B members sharing increases in practice, as a result it benefits from improved knowledge management. For example improvements in quality and cost reductions become possible. Business suppliers must have an exact technological capability to qualify. A firm’s strategy for knowledge management should reflect its competitive strategy (Hansen, et al., 1999). Concerning those functions that are more likely to be replaced, suppliers should collaborate with producers and customers to integrate their operational activities in order to achieve a higher efficiency level, which will eventually benefit all the parties in the supply chain. For those functions that are less likely to be replaced, suppliers may continue to strengthen their competitive edge and further add value to customers. Suppliers may need to ensure that large volumes of supply and demand data are well- managed and offers near-perfect information to buyers and sellers, as well as making sure they are easily available. The ability of suppliers to provide market intelligence to producers is considered as added value because it is difficult for producers to monitor each and every one of their customers. Furthermore, with the findings, suppliers may make some strategic decisions (Janta, et al., 2003). In actuality, the value of the supplier-to-business relationship, are that it is reliable on delivery, service, support, and flexibility, which are all more significant than the character of the product in influencing purchasing decisions. With these affected changes, relationships carry on their values in formative customer performance, as in other traditional forms of competitive differentiation, relationships are growing in importance in determining whether businesses succeed or fail (Greenberg, 2002). The relationship between SCM and CRM in B2B What then is CRM? It is a complete set of processes and technologies for managing the relationships with potential and current customers and business partners across marketing, sales, and services, regardless of the communication channel. The 9
  10. 10. BAI 2006 goal of CRM is to optimise customer and partner satisfaction, revenue, and business efficiency, by building the strongest possible relationships at an organisational level. Successful CRM requires a holistic approach to every relationship, with the entire organisation sharing and contributing to that view (Greenberg, 2002). CRM technology links the front office, such as sales, marketing and customer service, to the back office, such as the financial, operations, logistics and human resources functions with the company’s customers (Chen and Popovich, 2003). The communication with customers can be through the Internet, e-mail, sales, direct mail, telemarketing operations, call centres, advertising, fax, pagers, stores, and kiosks. A CRM business strategy leverages the marketing, operations, sales, customer service, human resources, R&D and finance, as well as IT and the Internet, to maximise productivity for customer communications. For customers, CRM offers customisation, simplicity, and convenience for completing their communications, regardless of the channel used for contact. IT has long been recognised as re- designing the business process, by facilitating changes to work practices and establishing innovative methods that link a company with its customers and suppliers. CRM takes full advantage of technological innovations with their ability to collect and analyse data on customer patterns, interpreting customer behaviour, developing predictive models, responding with timely and effective customised communications, and delivering products and service value to individual customers. CRM is a broad approach that promises to maximise relationships with all customers, including Internet or ‘e-customers’, distribution channel members, and suppliers’, by getting to ‘know’ each customer through data mining techniques and a customer-centre business strategy that helps the organisation to proactively and consistently offer more products and services that improve customer maintenance and loyalty over longer periods of time. Organisations today must focus on delivering the highest value of service to customers through better communications, faster delivery, and personalised products and services. Since a large percentage of customer connections will occur on the Internet, rather than with employees, technology must adapt to the changing and changeable market (Chen and Popovich, 2003). The computerisation of the customer and supplier management process helps the enterprise to fully implement the CRM strategy in each department, to achieve a close relationship with suppliers and their partners by combining their strategy, and accordingly increasing the manufacturer's revenue, competitiveness, and reputation in the market. It is intended to build long-term and profitable relationships with chosen customers, as well as to maximise the value of a manufacturers' supply base by increasing flexibility and responsiveness to customer requirements and substantially faster cycle times (Choy et al., 2003). 10
  11. 11. BAI 2006 CRM has been paid more attention over recent years. It has long been recognised that marketing requires a deep understanding of customers’ business processes and indeed of their value creation processes. The achievement of this change must begin with the identification of the interlinking roles of CRM and SCM processes. This thesis will shortly examine CRM processes in more detail; however, it is firstly appropriate to explain why the supply chain is so important in the context of CRM. The purpose of managing CRM and SCM in an integrated manner is to enable the organisation to become more agile in its response to demand (J.Baker, 2003). From SCM to CRM in B2B The CRM have the advantage of providing improvements to the supply chain, as firms have moved to a new model that emphasises the matching of the degree of customer care with the particular customer and the customer’s real needs for a service. In a B2B situation, most of the customers will be large, fully developed accounts that are looking to automate or improve the way they transact their business with the suppliers (Poirier and Baure, 2000). Indeed, it has been suggested that in a world of converging consumer taste, rapidly spreading technology, an escalation in fixed costs, and growing protectionism, more collaborative relationships with suppliers are critical instruments for serving customers in a global environment. (Mchugh, etal., 2003). B2B services cover an enormous range of activities, including: accounting, advertising, book-keeping, consultancy, design, and so on. Suppliers have to decide what services they want to offer their customers. Customisation has been the norm in B2B markets for many years. Suppliers regularly make adaptations to suit the needs of their customers, with it also being true that customers make adaptations to suit their suppliers (Buttle, 2004). However, is all about communication and activities; as it involves co- production and co-consumption in which time, location, and identity boundaries between the supplier and the customers. At the same time, each member in the value chain is a separate and independent organisation with its own resources and management, as it is an integrated network of organisations and not a traditional integrated organisation. The point is a unique aspect of CRM, in that it is a value- added activity through mutual interdependence and collaboration between suppliers and customer. Finally, with electronic ordering and Internet commerce, it is also becoming prevalent for traditional product offerings, especially in business-to- business marketing (Parvatiyar and Sheth, 2002). The application of IT is not only useful for transactions with the end users but 11
  12. 12. BAI 2006 also has some fundamental advantages for transactions between businesses. The latter, widely known as business-to-business (B2B), has superior advantages to offer over the traditional market space. The link between SCM and CRM The concentrated global competition between manufacturers to co-ordinate the industry value chain from suppliers to customers and produce quick response has made customer-supplier relationship management important in the new business era, with the power of the customer being the crucial point because of the increasing power of the customer community, as customers can share their opinions with each other. Therefore, the focus of a corporate management approach should be to switch to methods of dealing with customer-managed relationships (Law et al., 2003). The business process integration of CRM and SCM further helps companies manage and service a customer profitably, ensuring that the insights gained from customers in the front end of the business planning process are transformed into profits through planning efficiencies in the supply chain(Z.Zeng A., and K.Pathak B., 2003). For example, a tightly integrated CRM and SCM solution allows companies to bring the service management business process to life, promoting the management of everything from call centre operations and field services, through to service delivery and inventory management. True CRM and SCM integration allows companies to translate fluctuations in the demand chain and changes in market conditions captured in the CRM system into real-time optimisation in the supply chain. This is achieved by integrating the campaign and demand planning and the demand and supply planning capabilities of the SCM system. The solution further enables organisations to effectively manage customer expectations, based upon the capabilities of an organisation's supply network. These capabilities allow companies to maximise revenue opportunities, and more importantly, to provide higher levels of customer satisfaction. CRM is a new initiative that focuses on aligning the whole organisation to build profitable, lasting relationships with customers, and thus presenting the trend for supply chain development. SCM, as discussed before, coordinates within and between various supply-chain members and aligns interdependent decision-making processes. These technologies with their existing features and functions can collectively provide the ultimate end-to-end integration. The concept of integration is achieved based upon the functionality of the existing CRM, ERP, and SCM (Z.Zeng A., and K.Pathak B., 2003). ERP and CRM are both a past and a future. ERP, enterprise resource planning, 12
  13. 13. BAI 2006 got on everyone's as a way of providing companies with an integrated suite of applications together with a wide range of disparate back-office functions and information(Z.Zeng A., and K.Pathak B., 2003).It was the corporate ‘killer application’ of the early to mid-1990s. CRM, which evolved over many years from less capable and more narrowly focused sales automation and customer service applications, emerged more recently as a killer application in its own right and is by some accounts the fastest growing software category. In fact, the reach being granted CRM is one factor that is impelling to connect and integrate CRM functions with all the power latent in the information living within the established ERP? Conclusion It is apparent form the development of the supply chain management process history. The business processes, integration, challenges, and organisation structures are common throughout successful CRM implementations. CRM builds long-term corporate survival and customer retention and is now a practical and cost-effective practice to implement due to the emerging technology. The e-CRM strategy brings affect brick and mortar companies. How though does the high-technology help form a positive bridge from SCM to CRM? The benefits from a positive CRM exceed the information from SCM and display a very good linkage with the business model. It also will be relative research in the future. 13
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  17. 17. BAI 2006 2,p15-25 Milutinovic, V., Particelli F.,(2002),E-Business and E-challenges, IOS Press,The Netherland,pp9-10 Min,S.,(2001),Inter-corporate cooperation, Mentzer,J.T., Supply Chain Management, Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA. Parvatiyar,A.& Sheth,J.N.,(2002),“Customer Relationship Management: Emerging Practice, Process, and Discipline”, Journal of Economic and Social Research Preliminary Issue 1-34 pp.14 Picot,A., Bortenlanger C., Hohrl H., (1997), “Organization of electronic markets: contributions from the new institutional economics”, The information Society, Vol.13,pp107-123 Pitt,L., Berthon P., Berthon J., (1999),“Changing channels: the impact of the Internet on distribution strategy”, Business Horizons, Vol,42, No2, pp19 Poirier, C.C., and Bauer M.J.,(2000),E-supply chain using the internet to revolutionize your business--- how market leaders focus their entire organization on Driving value to customers, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Sahay,B.S.,(2003),“Supply chain collaboration: the key to value creation”, work study,Vol52,No.2 , pp76-83 Shah, J.B.,(2001),Special report companies to watch: Dell writes the book on efficiency,EBN,17 December,32. Sherer, S.A., (2005), “From supply-chain management to value network advocacy: implications for e-supply chains”, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol.10 No. pp77-83 Short, D edit Chou D.C., Tan X., Yen D.C.,(2004),“Web technology and supply chain management” ,”Information Management &Computer Security”,Vol12,No.4., pp338-349 Simatupang, T.M., Wright A.G. and Sridharan R., (2004), “Applying the theory of 17
  18. 18. BAI 2006 constraints to supply chain collaboration”, Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, Vol.9, No.1, pp57-70 Simatupand,T.M.,and Sridharan R.,(2004), “A benchmarking scheme for supply chain collaboration”, Benchmarking: an International Journal ,Vol.11. No 1, pp 9-30 Sweet, P.,(2001),“Strategic value configuration logics and the new economy: a service economy revolution”, International Journal of service Industry Management, Vo.12 no1 pp70-83 Tjader, Y.C., Shang J.S.,Duh F.Y., and Chow T. H., (2004),“Supply chain Efficiency: E-Business Adaptation and SC Member Relationship”, Asia Pacific Management Review,Vol,9, No.5 , pp 969-998 Wigand,R.T.,(1996), “Electronic commerce: definition, theory and context”, The Information Society, Vol13, No1, pp1-16 Williams, LR.,Esper T.L., and Ozment J.,(2002), “The electronic supply chain---Its impact on the current and future structure of strategic alliances, partnerships and logistics and leadership”, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management,Vol.32, No.8,pp703-719 Z.Zeng, A., and K.Parthak B.,(2003),“Achieving information integration in supply chain management through B2B e-hubs: concepts and analyses”, Industrial Management & Data Systems,Vol.103,No.9 , pp 657-665 18