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  • 1. Writing Types A TEAM PROJECT By Hermon Mike Ian WilliamsTerence Haynes Chan Nichols
  • 2. Academic Journal Peer-Review Journal White Paper Newspaper Empirical Study Literature Review Book Review Annotated Bibliography Writing Types
  • 3. What is it?An Academic journal is a journal that publishes scholarlypeer–review article written by experts.Its main purpose is to inform, report and make availableoriginal research and new findings.Often devoted to a single discipline or sub discipline.Mainly held in libraries or on subscription baseddatabase—few are freely available on www. Writing Types
  • 4. What is it?Peer-Review Journal contains articles that have beenreviewed by a body of peers who are in the same fieldwith the writer.• They are call scholarly or academic journal.• Peer review is a well accepted indicator of quality scholarship.• This means that articles are accepted for publication through a peer review process implicitly meet the discipline standard of expertise.
  • 5. What is it?According to Sakamuro and Stolley (2010): ―A whitepaper is a certain type of report that is distinctive in termsof purpose, audience, and organization.‖Purpose: Mathias et al. (2001) says it serves one of thefollowing:• To state an organizations policy, position, or philosophy about a subject;• To present a not-too-detailed technical explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology; or• To pose a technology-oriented problem or question and then answer that question with information or a proposed solution. Writing Types
  • 6. What is it?A newspaper is a regularly scheduled publication thatcommunicates a variety of information that includeslocal and international news, editorial opinions,announcements, advertisements, among others.Purpose: To consistently inform its reading audience in afactual and non-bias manner about current events,issues, services, activities, and opportunities directly orindirectly impacting the local and/or global society.The news include ―general news, political news, businessnews, regional news, entrainment news, niche-orientednews (health, science, technology), crime reporting, andsensationalism.‖ (Answers.com 2012)
  • 7. What is it?Empirical research is research done using observed andmeasured data to prove or disprove a workinghypothesis (Hani 2009). This may be quantitative orqualitative in nature using two or more variables (NorfolkState University 2010).Accurate analysis of data using standard statisticalmethods remains critical in order to determine legitimacyof empirical research. Also statistical formulas don‘tproduce proof of the validity of the hypothesis and canonly support a hypothesis, reject it, or do neither. (Hani2009) Writing Types
  • 8. What makes it Unique?In empirical research the structure of the writing typeconsists of the following: literature reviewed, researchdesign, methodology; procedure executed; results(statistically reviewed); discussion of the results and finallyrecommendations (Woken n. d.)Use:It may clarify or deepen (expand) the currentunderstanding of the topic under investigation orprovides recommendations for further research. Writing Types
  • 9. What is it?A literature review is a summary of professional literatureread that focuses on a specific topic of interest to theresearcher and includes a critical analysis of therelationship among different works, and relating thisresearch to the researcher‘s work. (Mongan-Rallis 2006)‗Literature‘ covers everything relevant that is written on atopic: books, journal articles, newspaper articles,historical records, government reports, theses anddissertations, etc. The important word is relevant (UC n.d.)
  • 10. What makes it unique? In a literature review, the literatureitself is the subject of discussion and not supportingmaterial. (UC n. d.)Strength: When done by an expert in the field, insightful,valid syntheses of the research literature can bedeveloped and sometimes unique insight is generated.Weakness: Authors bias can influence the selection,interpretation and organization of content. (Neill n. d.)Use: It may be written as a stand-alone paper or providea theoretical framework and rationale for a researchstudy (such as a thesis or dissertation). (MR 2006)
  • 11. What is it?• A book review is a descriptive, critical analysis and an evaluation on the quality, meaning and significance of a book.• It focuses on the book‘s purpose, content, and authority. Los Angeles Valley College Library (2011)• It makes an argument. It is a commentary that allows you to enter into dialogue and discussion with the work‘s creator and with other audiences. The Writing Center (2011) Writing Types
  • 12. What makes it unique:• A review gives the reader a concise summary of the content. A relevant description of the topic...its gives overall perspective, argument, or purpose.• It offers a critical assessment of the content and gives a reaction to the work.Use:• It suggests whether or not the audience would appreciate it. The Writing Center (2011)• It assist researcher in quickly assessing published books during their literature review. Writing Types
  • 13. What is it:An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books,articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by abrief (usually about 150 words) descriptive andevaluative paragraph.(Cornell university library n. d.)Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes asummary and/or evaluation of each of the sources citedin one‘s work. (Bisignani, & Brizee,2011)Use:The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader ofthe relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sourcescited.
  • 14. Why Peer-Review Journal/Article and Book Review (BR)are preferred:• More reliable quality of research and academic writing.• Limits the author‘s bias and pre set ideas.• Ensures high quality material form credible researchers.• The student gets the best and often current research and information available on the subject.• BR saves time for the student when doing a literature review.• BR comes with the reviewer‘s recommendations of the relevance of the book to other readers.• BR provides a critical assessment of the content. Writing Types
  • 15. Bisignani, D. Brizee, A. (2011) Retrieved March 7, 2011 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01Cain, J. (1999) Science and Engineering Ethics. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/rcr/rcr_authorship/foun dation/index.htmlCornell University Library (2011). Distinguishing Scholarly Journals from Other Periodicals. Retrieved September 04 2011 from http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill20.htmlCornell University Library. (n. d.) What is an annotated bibliography? Retrieved from: http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill28.htm Writing Types
  • 16. Hani (2009). Empirical Research. Retrieved 07 Mar. 2012 from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment- resources.com/empirical-research.htmlLarson, E. What Other Options Might There Be? Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://library.uvic.ca/instruction/research/peerreview.htmlLaw, M.C. and MacDermid, J. (2008). Evidence-based rehabilitation: A guide to practice. New Jersey, USA: SLACK IncorporatedMathias, B., Deitz, A., Crosby, J. & Borup, A. (2001). White paper guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.nwcg.gov/pmu/pmo- archive/products/documents/White_Paper_Guidelines.pdf. Writing Types
  • 17. Mongan-Rallis, H. 2006. Guidelines for writing a literature review. ―How To‖ Guideline Series. Education Department at the University of Minnesota Duluth. Last modified November 17, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.d.umn.edu/~hrallis/guides/researching/litreview.h tmlNeill, J. (n. d.). How to Write a Literature Review - Advice for graduate students: Last Modified Aug 08, 2003. Retrieved from http://wilderdom.com/OEcourses/PROFLIT/Class3LiteratureRe view.htmNorfolk State University (2010). Empirical research. Retrieved from http://www.nsu.edu/library/pdf/EmpiricalResearch.pdf Writing Types
  • 18. Sakamuro S. & Stolley K., (2010). White Paper: Purpose and Audience, Retrieved September 18, 2011, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/546/1/The Writing Center. (2011). Book reviews. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved from http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb , March 7, 2012University of Canberra. (n. d.) Writing a Literature Review: Academic Skills Centre: Retrieved from http://www.canberra.edu.au/studyskills/writing/literatureWilliam, K. (2007). Class 2. Michigan State University. Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/course/pls/201/class2spring07.pdf Writing Types
  • 19. Woken, M. D. (n. d.). Empirical vs. Library Studies: Planning Research Papers 2. University of Illinois State. Retrieved from http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/ctlths2.pdfWhat are the different types of newspaper? (2012). In The Q&A wiki. Retrieved March 11, 2012, from Answers Corporation website: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_different_types_of_ newspaper Writing Types
  • 20. Terence Haynes• Introduction, Empirical Study &Literature Review• Preferred Writing TypesHermon Mike• Book Review & Annotated Bibliography• Preferred Writing TypesChan Nichols• White Paper & Newspaper• Graphic Design, Formatting & CompilingIan Williams• Academic Journal & Peer-Review Journal/Article• Preferred Writing Types
  • 21. The EndMerged & Designed by PSCN Copyright 2012